Byron Bay, New South Wales

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Byron Bay
New South Wales
Bryon Bay NSW.jpg
Byron Bay from Cape Byron State Conservation Area
Byron Bay is located in New South Wales
Byron Bay
Byron Bay
Coordinates 28°38′35″S 153°36′54″E / 28.64306°S 153.61500°E / -28.64306; 153.61500Coordinates: 28°38′35″S 153°36′54″E / 28.64306°S 153.61500°E / -28.64306; 153.61500
Population 5,609 (2006)[1]
Postcode(s) 2481
Elevation 3 m (10 ft)
LGA(s) Byron Shire
State electorate(s) Ballina
Federal Division(s) Richmond
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
23.7 °C
75 °F
16.5 °C
62 °F
1,729.7 mm
68.1 in
Bryon Bay Lighthouse
Tallow Beach looking south from the lighthouse
Overlooking Wategos with Julian Rocks in the background
Byron Bay with sugar cane burning in the distance

Byron Bay is a beachside town located in the far-northeastern corner of the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 772 kilometres (480 mi) north of Sydney and 165 kilometres (103 mi) south of Brisbane. Cape Byron, a headland adjacent to the town, is the easternmost point of mainland Australia. At the 2006 Census, the town had a permanent population of 4,981.[1] The town is in turn the nucleus of Byron Shire, which has in excess of 28,000 residents.[2]

The local Arakwal Aboriginal people's name for the area is Cavvanbah, meaning "meeting place".[3] Captain James Cook named Cape Byron after John Byron, circumnavigator of the world and grandfather of the poet, Lord Byron.[4]

History[edit]

The history of Europeans in Byron Bay began in 1770, when Captain James Cook found a safe anchorage and named Cape Byron after John Byron. In the 1880s, when Europeans settled more permanently, streets were named for other English writers and philosophers.[5]

The first industry in Byron was cedar logging from the Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata). The timber industry is the origin of the word "shoot" in many local names – Possum Shoot, Coopers Shoot and Skinners Shoot – where the timber-cutters would "shoot" the logs down the hills to be dragged to waiting ships.[citation needed]

Gold mining of the beaches was the next industry to occur.Up to 20 mining leases set up on Tallow Beach to extract gold from the black sands around the 1870s. The poet Brunton Stephens spoke of cattle grazing on the "mossy plains" of Cape Byron in a poem he penned in 1876.

Byron Bay has a history of primary industrial production (dairy factory,[6] abattoirs, fishing, and whaling until 1963) and was a significant, but hazardous, sea port.

The first jetty was built in 1886, and the railway was connected in 1894, and Cavvanbah became Byron Bay in 1894.[7] Dairy farmers cleared more land and settled the area. In 1895, the Norco Co-operative was formed to provide cold storage and manage the dairy industry.[7][8] The introduction of paspalum improved production, and Byron Bay exported butter to the world. The Norco factory was the biggest in the southern hemisphere,[citation needed] expanding from dairy to bacon and other processed meat.

The lighthouse was built in 1901 at the most easterly point on the Australian mainland.[7] In 1930, the first meatworks opened.[7] The smell from the meat and dairy works was, by all accounts, appalling,[citation needed] and the annual slaughter of whales in the 1950s and 1960s made matters worse. Sand mining between the World Wars damaged the environment further, and one by one, all these industries declined.[citation needed]

Longboard surfers arrived in the 1960s and used natural breaks at The Pass, Wategos, and Cosy Corner. This was the beginning of Byron Bay as a tourist destination, and by 1973, when the Aquarius Festival was held in Nimbin, its reputation as a hippy, happy, alternative town was established.[citation needed]

Shipwrecks litter the bay and surrounding areas.

Geography[edit]

Byron Bay is part of the erosion caldera of an ancient shield volcano, the Tweed Volcano, which erupted 23 million years ago. The volcano formed as a result of the Indo-Australian Plate moving over the East Australia hotspot.[9]

Education[edit]

Byron Bay is home to several schools and educational institutions. Schools include Byron Bay Public School, Byron Bay High School, St Finbarr's Primary School, Byron Bay Community School, and Cape Byron Rudolf Steiner School. Among these are a number of early childhood facilities including Byron Bay Preschool and Periwinkle Preschool. In the fields of adult education there are Lexis English Centres (previously Global Village English Centres) and Byron Bay English Language School (BBELS) (both organisations providing English language tuition to international students), the Byron Region Community College, which is a registered training organisation and the SAE Institute Byron Bay which is a government-accredited, degree granting institution in the fields of audio engineering, digital film making, multimedia and animation.

Tourism[edit]

The main beach in 2006

The town has several beaches which are popular for surfing. It is a resort popular with both domestic and international tourists, including backpackers, who travel along the Australian coast; the scenery also attracts skydivers. The area is also noted for its wildlife, with the whale watching industry a significant contributor to the local economy.[10]

An oceanway runs from the centre of town to the Cape Byron lighthouse. This allows visitors to walk and cycle to the lighthouse.

Temperate and tropical waters merge at Byron Bay, making it a popular area for scuba diving and snorkelling. Most diving is done at Julian Rocks which is part of the recently established Cape Byron Marine Park and only a few minutes boat ride from Main Beach.[citation needed]

Byron Bay also lies close to subtropical rainforests, and areas such as the Nightcap National Park with the Minyon Falls are all within easy reach of the town.

Byron Bay is now also a popular destination for Schoolies week during late November and early December.[11]

Heritage[edit]

The following places are listed on the Register of the National Estate:[12]

Events[edit]

Events held at Byron Bay include yoga retreats, pagan gatherings,[citation needed] music festivals such as the East Coast Blues & Roots Music Festival at Easter and Splendour in the Grass, the Byron Bay Writers Festival,[13] the Byron Bay Film Festival and the Byron Underwater Festival.[14] The vibrant musical community has produced internationally renowned bands such as Blue King Brown, Parkway Drive and 50 Lions.

Byron Bay also has a number of regular markets including a weekly farmers' market[15] at the Butler Street Reserve every Thursday with over 70 local farmers selling fresh produce. There is also a craft market held on the same site on the first Sunday of each month and an artisan market held on Saturday evenings at Railway Park.

The Byron Bay Triathlon is held on the second Saturday in May every year. 1,300 competitors from many different countries enter this Olympic Distance event.

Media[edit]

The Byron Bay area has a number of newspapers:

  • The Byron Shire Echo (Independent weekly A3)
  • The Byron Shire News (APN weekly A3)
  • The Northern Star (APN daily)
  • The Saturday Star (Independent A5 monthly)
  • The Bagg (Independent weekly A3 gig guide)

Radio stations in Byron area:

All major television channels are available in Byron Bay and the wider Northern Rivers region. The networks and the channels they broadcast are listed as follows:

East of Everything is an ABC television drama series filmed in Byron Bay and released on 30 March 2008. The program is broadcast from Melbourne and Sydney.

Sport and recreation[edit]

A number of well-known sporting teams represent the local area. One of them is the well known rugby league club named the Byron Bay Red Devils and the Australian rules football team Byron Magpies. Byron Bay FC has won the Football Far North Coast Premier league 3 times the latest being 2013. Other clubs include Byron Bay Golf Club, Byron Bay Cricket Club, Byron Bay Rugby Union Club, Byron Bay Gliding Club, Byron Bay Bowling Club and Byron Bay Surf Club.

Notable residents[edit]

In fiction[edit]

John Macgregor's 1986 novel Propinquity is partly set in Byron Bay and nearby Mullumbimby.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Byron Bay (Urban Centre/Locality)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  2. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Byron (A) (Local Government Area)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  3. ^ "Aboriginal elders gather at historic meeting place". Newcastle Herald. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  4. ^ "Byron Bay". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 28 June 2009. 
  5. ^ Watson, Penny (November 2009). "New South Wales". In Vaisutis, Justine. Lonely Planet: Australia (15 ed.). Lonely Planet Publications. p. 195. "The Grandfather of the [...] poet Lord Byron was a renowned navigator in the 1760s, and Captain Cook named this spot after [...] him. (A star-struck clerk in Sydney thought the grandson was the one being honoured, and named the streets - and the town - after poets: Keats, Jonson, Shelly.)" 
  6. ^ Creamery Tramway at Byron Bay Longworth, Jim Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, October, 1996 pp295-298
  7. ^ a b c d "Beauty and the beast". The Sydney Morning Herald. 20 March 2005. 
  8. ^ http://www.norco.com.au/publish/history/index.php
  9. ^ "The Lost World". Big Volcano Visitor Guide. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  10. ^ "Byron Bay". Visit NSW. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  11. ^ "Byron Bay Schoolies 'put Gold Coast to shame'". Brisbane Times. 30 November 2009. 
  12. ^ The Heritage of Australia, Macmillan Company, 1981, p.2/214
  13. ^ "Byron Bay Writers' Festival". Northern Rivers Writers' Centre. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  14. ^ "Welcome to the Underwater Festival 2012". Underwater Australasia. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  15. ^ "Byron Farmers' Market". Retrieved 19 January 2013. 

External links[edit]