|Died||197 (aged 20)|
|Courtesy name||Zixiu (Chinese: 子脩; pinyin: Zǐxīu; Wade–Giles: Tzu-hsiu)|
|Posthumous name||Prince Min (Chinese: 愍王; pinyin: Mǐn Wáng; Wade–Giles: Min Wang)|
Cao Ang (c. 177–197), courtesy name Zixiu, was the eldest son of Cao Cao, a warlord who rose to power towards the end of the Han Dynasty and laid the foundation of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period. He was killed in action at the Battle of Wancheng in 197.
Cao Ang was the first son of Cao Cao and his concubine Lady Liu (劉夫人). Lady Liu also bore Cao Cao another son (Cao Shuo) and a daughter (Princess Qinghe (清河公主)). However, as Lady Liu died early, Cao Ang was raised by Cao Cao's first official spouse, Lady Ding (丁夫人), who treated Cao Ang as though he was her real son.
Little was recorded in history about Cao Ang's early life, except that he was nominated as a xiaolian (civil service candidate) upon reaching the age of adulthood (around 19 years old). In the first lunar month of 197, Cao Ang followed his father on a campaign against the warlord Zhang Xiu in Wan (宛; or Wancheng, in present-day Wancheng District, Nanyang, Henan). Zhang Xiu surrendered initially, but later launched a surprise attack on Cao Cao, catching the latter completely off guard. Cao Cao was injured in the right arm by a stray arrow during the battle while his horse, Jueying (絕影), had been hit in the neck and leg. Cao Ang could not ride, so he offered his own steed to his father, who managed to escape from Wancheng. Cao Ang was killed by Zhang Xiu's men.
Post-mortem events and succession
In 221, after Cao Pi (another of Cao Cao's sons) ended the Han Dynasty and established the state of Cao Wei (which marked the start of the Three Kingdoms period), he granted Cao Ang the posthumous title of "Duke Dao of Feng" (豐悼公). Three years later, Cao Ang was posthumously elevated to the status of a prince, so his posthumous title became "Prince Dao of Feng" (豐悼王). In 229, during the reign of Cao Pi's son Cao Rui, Cao Ang's posthumous title was changed to "Prince Min of Feng" (豐愍王).
Cao Ang had no son to succeed him when he died. However, in 222, Cao Wan (曹琬), a son of Cao Ang's half-brother Cao Jun (曹均), was designated as Cao Ang's heir and was enfeoffed as a "Zhongdu Duke" (中都公). Later that year, Cao Wan was reassigned as a "Zhangzi Duke" (長子公). In 254, during the reign of Cao Fang, Cao Wan was promoted to "Prince of Feng" (豐王) and given the princedom "Feng", per Cao Ang's posthumous title. The number of taxable households in his princedom increased through the reigns of Cao Mao and Cao Huan until it reached 2,700. After Cao Wan died, he was posthumously honoured as "Prince Gong of Feng" (豐恭王) and was succeeded by his son Cao Lian (曹廉).
- de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 33. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
- (武皇帝二十五男： ... 劉夫人生豐愍王昂、相殤王鑠， ...) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
- (魏略曰：太祖始有丁夫人，又劉夫人生子脩及清河長公主。劉早終，丁養子脩。子脩亡於穰，丁常言：「將我兒殺之，都不復念！」遂哭泣無節。) Weilue annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 5.
- (豐愍王昂字子脩。弱冠舉孝廉。) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
- (魏書曰：公所乘馬名絕影，為流矢所中，傷頰及足，并中公右臂。) Wei Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 5.
- (世語曰：昂不能騎，進馬於公，公故免，而昂遇害。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 5.
- (二年春正月，公到宛。張繡降，旣而悔之，復反。公與戰，軍敗，為流矢所中，長子昂、弟子安民遇害。) Sanguozhi vol. 1.
- (隨太祖南征，為張繡所害。無子。) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
- (黃初二年追封，謚曰豐悼公。 ... 五年，追加昂號曰豐悼王。太和三年改昂謚曰愍王。) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
- (三年，以樊安公均子琬奉昂後，封中都公。其年徙封長子公。 ... 嘉平六年，以琬襲昂爵為豐王。正元、景元中，累增邑，并前二千七百戶。琬薨，謚曰恭王。子廉嗣。) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
- Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi), volumes 1, 20.
- Pei Songzhi. Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).