Chicago Race Riot of 1919
|Date||July 27 - August 3, 1919|
|Location||Chicago, Illinois, United States|
The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 was a major racial conflict that began in Chicago, Illinois on July 27, 1919 and ended on August 3. During the riot, dozens died and hundreds were injured. It is considered the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer, so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation. The combination of prolonged arson, looting and murder was the worst race rioting in the history of Illinois.
The sociopolitical atmosphere of Chicago was one of ethnic tension caused by competition among many new groups. With the Great Migration, thousands of African Americans from the South had settled next to neighborhoods of European immigrants on Chicago's South Side, near jobs in the stockyards and meatpacking plants. The ethnic Irish had been established first, and fiercely defended their territory and political power against all newcomers. Post World War I tensions caused frictions between the races, especially in the competitive labor and housing markets. Overcrowding and increased African American militancy by veterans contributed to the visible racial frictions. Also, a combination of ethnic gangs and police neglect strained the racial relationships. According to official reports, the turmoil came to a boil after a young African American was struck by a rock and died at an informally segregated beach. Tensions between groups arose in a melee that blew up into days of unrest.
William Hale Thompson was the Mayor of Chicago during the riot and a game of brinksmanship with Illinois Governor Frank Lowden may have exacerbated the riot since Thompson refused to ask Lowden to send in the militia for four days, despite Lowden ensuring the militia was in Chicago and ready to intervene. Although future mayor Richard J. Daley never officially acknowledged being part of the violence, at age 17 he was an active member of the ethnic Irish Hamburg Athletic Club, which a post-riot investigation named instigators in attacks on blacks. In the following decades, Daley continued to rise in politics to become mayor for twenty years.
United States President Woodrow Wilson and the United States Congress attempted to promote legislation and organizations to decrease racial discord in America. Illinois Governor Frank Lowden took several actions at Thompson's request to quell the riot and promote greater harmony in its aftermath. Sections of the Chicago economy were shut down for several days during and after the riots, as plants were closed to avoid interaction among bickering groups. Mayor Thompson drew on his association with this riot to influence later political elections.
Unlike southern cities through the 1960s, Chicago did not segregate most public accommodations. According to Walter Francis White of the NAACP, pre-1915 Chicago had a reputation for equitable treatment of African Americans in general. However, early 20th-century Chicago beaches were segregated. African Americans had a long history in Chicago, with the city sending its first African-American representative to the state legislature in 1876, but the population expanded dramatically in the early 20th century. Late 19th-century tensions occurred between ethnic Irish and African Americans, as most members of both competed for jobs among the lower classes.
Beginning in 1910, thousands of African Americans started moving from the South to Chicago as one destination in the Great Migration to northern and midwestern cities, fleeing lynchings, segregation and disfranchisement in the Deep South. The Ku Klux Klan committed 64 lynchings in 1918 and 83 in 1919 in southern states. With the pull of industrial jobs in the stockyards and meatpacking industry beckoning as European immigration was cut off by World War I, from 1916 to 1919 the African-American population in Chicago increased from 44,000 to 109,000, for a total of 148 percent during the decade.
African Americans settled in the South Side, where, as their population grew, they pressed against a neighborhood of ethnic Irish immigrant descendants established since the mid-19th century, and had to compete with them for jobs and housing. African-American migrants had arrived after waves of immigrants from eastern and southern Europe, who also added to the competition and tensions. Ethnic groups established territory in their areas of the city, which their young men often patrolled against outsiders. Because of agricultural problems, Southern whites also migrated to the city, about 20,000 by this period. The rapid influx of migrants caused overcrowding as a result of a lack of adequate low-cost housing.
The postwar period found tensions rising in numerous cities where populations were increasing rapidly. People from different cultures jostled against each other and competed for space. In 1917, the Chicago Real Estate Board established a policy of block by block segregation. New arrivals in the Great Migration generally joined old neighbors on the South Side. By 1920, the area held 85% of Chicago's African Americans--middle and upper class and poor. In the postwar period, veterans of all groups were looking to re-enter the work force. Some whites resented African-American veterans. At the same time, African-American veterans exhibited greater militancy and pride as a result of having served to protect their country. They wanted to be treated as full citizens after fighting for the nation. Meanwhile the younger black men rejected the passivity traditional in the South and promoted armed self-defense and control of their neighborhoods.
In Chicago, ethnic Irish dominated social and athletic clubs that were closely tied to the political structure of the city. Some had acted as enforcers for politicians. As the first major group of 19th-century European immigrants to settle in the city, the Irish had established formal and informal political strength. In Chicago, ethnic white gangs had been attacking people in African-American neighborhoods, and the police, overwhelmingly white and increasingly ethnic Irish, seemed little inclined to try to stop them. Meanwhile, newspapers carried sensational accounts of any African American allegedly involved in crime.
An example of territory was the Bridgeport community area, an ethnic Irish neighborhood just west of the Black Belt. Ethnic Irish had long patrolled their neighborhood boundaries against all other ethnic groups, especially African Americans. A group known as the Hamburg Athletic Club, whose members included a 17-year-old Richard J. Daley, future mayor of Chicago, contributed to gang violence in the area.
Racial tensions between whites and blacks that had been going on for so long exploded in five days of violence that started on July 27, 1919. On that hot summer day on a segregated Chicago Beach, a white man was throwing rocks at blacks in the water at a beach on the South Side which resulted in Eugene William's death. Tensions escalated when a white police officer did not arrest the white man responsible for William's death but arrested a black man instead. Objections by blacks were met with violence by whites. Attacks between whites and blacks erupted swiftly. At one point, a mob of white men threatened Provident Hospital, many of whose patients were African American. The police held them off. The riot lasted for nearly a week, ending only after the government deployed nearly 6,000 National Guard troops. They stationed them around the Black Belt to prevent further white attacks. By the night of July 30, most violence had ended. Most of the rioting, murder, and arson was the result of ethnic whites attacking the African-American population in the city's Black Belt on the South Side. Most of the casualties and property damage were suffered by blacks. Newspaper accounts noted numerous attempts at arson; for instance, on July 31, more than 30 fires were started in the Black Belt before noon and were believed to be due to arson. Steel cables had been put across the streets to prevent fire trucks from entering the areas. The Mayor's office was told of a plan to burn down the black area and run its residents out of town. There were also sporadic violent attacks in other areas of the city, including the Chicago Loop. In the rioting, 38 people died (23 African Americans and 15 whites), and 537 were injured (two-thirds were African Americans). Patrolman John W. Simpson was the only policeman who was killed in the riot. Approximately 1000 residents, mostly African Americans, were left homeless after fires destroyed their homes. Numerous African-American families left the city by train before the rioting had ended, returning to families in the South.
Chief of Police John J. Garrity closed "all places where men congregate for other than religious purposes" to help restore order. Governor Frank Lowden authorized the deployment of the 11th Illinois Infantry and its machine gun company, as well as the 1st, 2nd and 3rd reserve militia. These four units totaled 3,500 men. The Cook County Sheriff deputized between 1000 and 2000 former soldiers to help keep the peace. With the reserves and militia guarding the Black Belt, the city arranged for emergency provisions to supply its residents with fresh food. Whites delivered food and supplies to the line established by the military; from there, deliveries were distributed within the Black Belt by African Americans. In addition, while industry was closed, the packing plants arranged to deliver pay to certain areas so African-American men could pick up their money.
After order was restored, Illinois Governor Frank Lowden was urged to create a state committee to study the cause of the riots. He proposed forming a committee to write a racial code of ethics and to draw up racial boundaries for activities within the city.
The Cook County Coroner's Office took 70 day sessions, 20 night sessions and 450 witnesses examinations to collect evidence about the riots. Their report stated the finding that on July 27, 1919, Eugene Williams, an African American youth, drowned after tiring of holding onto a railroad tie. He had been hit by a stone as whites threw rocks at African Americans to drive them away from their part of the water at the 29th Street beach in the city's Douglas community on the South Side. A witness recalled seeing a single white male standing on a breakwater 75 feet (22.9 m) from the raft of the African Americans and throwing rocks at them. Williams was struck in the forehead; he panicked and drowned. The assailant ran toward 29th Street, where a different fight had already started when African Americans tried to use the beach there, in defiance of its tacit segregation.
The rioting escalated when a white police officer refused to arrest the white man who threw the stone at Williams. He instead arrested an African American on a white’s complaint of some minor offense. Anger over the arrest, coupled with Williams' death, as well as rumors among both communities, escalated into five days of rioting. Most of the casualties were African American and most of the property damage was inflicted in African American neighborhoods. Learning it from the East St. Louis Riot that occurred two years earlier, the city quickly closed down the street cars to try to contain the violence. Inflammatory newspaper coverage worked to the opposite effect. Historians have noted: "South Side youth gangs, including the Hamburg Athletic Club, were later found to have been among the primary instigators of the racial violence. For weeks, in the spring and summer of 1919, they had been anticipating, even eagerly awaiting, a race riot", one study found. "On several occasions, they themselves had endeavored to precipitate one, and now that racial violence threatened to become generalized and unrestrained throughout Chicago, they were set to exploit the chaos."
Early reports detailed injuries to Chicago Police officers and a Chicago fireman. One African American policeman was killed by persons unknown The conduct of the white police force was criticized during and after the riot. State's Attorney Maclay Hoyne openly charged the police with arresting African American rioters but refusing to arrest white rioters. Roaming gangs of Bridgeport whites, who were mostly ethnic Irish, perpetrated much of the violence. While local newspapers carried accounts of African Americans setting fires, "later the office of State Fire Marshal Gamber proved conclusively that the fires were not caused by blacks, but by whites." The New York Times coverage during the riot, however, clearly conveyed that whites were responsible for planned large-scale arson against black areas and for numerous mob attacks. Because of early police failures to arrest whites, no white Chicagoans were convicted of any of the murders, and most of the deaths were not prosecuted. One man was prosecuted for Williams' death, but he was acquitted.
There were broad ramifications for the Chicago economy, as certain sectors on the industrial South Side were closed during rioting. Businesses in the Loop were also affected by closure of the street cars. Many workers stayed away from affected areas. The Union Stock Yard, one of Chicago's largest employers, was an example. Initially, all 15,000 African-American workers were expected to return to work on Monday August 4, 1919. But after arson in areas of ethnic white workers homes near the Stock Yards on August 3, the management banned African-American employees from the stockyards in fear of further rioting. Governor Lowden noted his opinion that the troubles were related to labor issues rather than race. Nearly one-third of the African-American employees were non-union, and were resented by union employees for that reason. African-American workers were kept out of the stockyards for ten days after the end of the riot because of continued unrest. On August 8, 1919, about 3,000 non-union African Americans showed up for work under protection of special police, deputy sheriffs, and militia. The white union employees threatened to strike unless such security forces were discontinued. Their major grievance against African Americans was that they were non-union, and had been used by management as strikebreakers in earlier years against the union. Many African Americans fled the city as a result of the riots and damage.
Illinois Attorney General Edward Brundage and State's Attorney Hoyne gathered evidence to prepare for a Grand Jury investigation. The stated intention was to pursue all perpetrators and to seek the death penalty as necessary. On August 4, 1919, seventeen indictments against African Americans were handed down. Despite the coroner's report of white responsibility, extensive rioting by whites, and their causing damage to black areas, no whites were indicted.
Richard J. Daley was president of the Hamburg Athletic Club in Bridgeport. Daley served as the Chicago's mayor from 1955 to 1976. In his long political career, he never confirmed or denied whether he was involved in the violence of the riots.
In 1922, six whites and six African-Americans were commissioned to discover the true roots of the riots. It was discovered that in fact returning soldiers from World War I not receiving their original jobs and homes instigated the riots.
In 1930, the flamboyant Republican mayor William Hale Thompson invoked the riot in a misleading pamphlet when urging African Americans against voting for the Republican nominee Rep Ruth Hanna McCormick in the United States Senate race for her late husband's seat. She was the widow of Sen. Joseph Medill McCormick as well as the sister-in-law of Chicago Tribune publisher Robert Rutherford McCormick. The McCormicks were a powerful Chicago family whom Thompson opposed.
United States President Woodrow Wilson pronounced white participants the instigators of the prolonged riots in Chicago and Washington, D.C.. As a result, he attempted to promote greater racial harmony through the promotion of voluntary organizations and through the enactment of legislative improvements by the United States Congress. He did not change the segregation of Federal departments which he had imposed early during his first administration, however. The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 shocked the nation and raised awareness of racial problems that African-Americans faced everyday from the white population in the United States.
- Essig, Steven (2005). "Race Riots". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society.
- Sandburg, Carl (2005). "The Chicago Race Riots, July 1919". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society.
- "Chicago Race Riot of 1919". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- "Street Battles at -Night" (PDF). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 1919-08-03. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- Adam Cohen and Elizabeth Taylor (2000). "Richard J. Daley: A Separate World (page 7), excerpt from American Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley - His Battle for Chicago and the Nation". Chicago History Information. chicagohistory.info. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
- "Homicide in Chicago 1919: The Race Riot". Northwestern University School of Law. 2004. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
- ""Chicago and Its Eight Reasons": Walter White Considers the Causes of the 1919 Chicago Race Riot". Crisis. History Matters. October 1919. Retrieved 2007-08-27.
- Krist, Gary (2012). City of Scoundrels: The Twelve Days of Disaster That Gave Birth to Modern Chicago. New York: Crown. p. 178. ISBN 978--0-307-45429-4.
- "Troopers Restore Order in Chicago" (PDF). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 1919-08-02. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
- "Street Battles At Night" (PDF). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 1919-07-29. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- "Rioters in Chicago Knife Militia Captain" (PDF). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 1919-08-03. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- "Thompson v. McCormicks". Time. Time, Inc. 1930-11-03. Retrieved 2008-05-02.
- "Race Divisions on Public Beaches (page 1)". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. 2005.
- Adam Cohen and Elizabeth Taylor, "Richard J. Daley: A Separate World" (page 7), excerpt from American Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley - His Battle for Chicago and the Nation, Chicago History Information, accessed 26 Aug 2007
- Jonathan S. Coit, “‘Our Changed Attitude’: Armed Defense and the New Negro in the 1919 Chicago Race Riot,” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 11 (April 2012), 225–56.
- ""A Crowd of Howling Negroes": The Chicago Daily Tribune Reports the Chicago Race Riot, 1919". Chicago Daily Tribune. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- "Soldiers Rescue Negroes in Clash With Chicago Mob" (PDF). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 1919-08-01. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- "28 Dead, 500 Hurt In Three-Day Race Riots In Chicago" (PDF). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 1919-07-30. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- "ODMP memorial". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 2009-04-24.
- "Order Prevails in Chicago" (PDF). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 1919-08-03. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- O'Brien, Ellen and Lyle Benedict (February 2006). "1919: Race Riots". Chicago Public Library. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- ""A Crowd of Howling Negroes": The Chicago Daily Tribune Reports the Chicago Race Riot, 1919". Chicago Daily Tribune. History Matters. 1919-07-28. Retrieved 2007-08-27.
- ODMP John Simpson
- "White Union Protests Stock Yard Guards" (PDF). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 1919-08-08. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
- "Indict 17 Negro Rioters" (PDF). The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 1919-08-05. Retrieved 2008-05-09.
- The Chicago Commission on Race Relations. The Negro in Chicago. (Chicago, IL; University of Chicago Press, 1922).
- Coit, Jonathan S., “‘Our Changed Attitude’: Armed Defense and the New Negro in the 1919 Chicago Race Riot,” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 11 (April 2012), 225–56.
- Krist, Gary. City of Scoundrels: The Twelve Days of Disaster That Gave Birth to Modern Chicago. New York, NY: Crown Publisher, 2012. ISBN 978-0-307-45429-4.
- Sandburg, Carl. The Chicago Race Riots July 1919. (New York; Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969).
- Spear, Allan. Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto 1890-1920. (Chicago, IL; University of Chicago Press, 1967).
- Tuttle, William. Race Riot Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919. (Urbana, IL; University of Illinois Press, 1970).