A system is composed of interrelated parts or components (structures) that cooperate in processes (behavior). Natural systems include biological entities, ocean currents, the climate, the solar system and ecosystems. Designed systems include airplanes, software systems, technologies and machines of all kinds, government agencies and business systems.
Systems Thinking has at least some roots in the General System Theory that was advanced by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the 1940s and furthered by Ross Ashby in the 1950s. The term Systems Thinking is sometimes used as a broad catch-all heading for the process of understanding how systems behave, interact with their environment and influence each other. The term is also used more narrowly as a heading for thinking about social organisations, be they natural or designed, healthy or unhealthy. Often the focus is on a government or business organisation that is viewed as containing people, processes and technologies.
Systems thinking has been defined as an approach to problem solving, [this is not a definition of systems thinking, it is an application of systems thinking] by viewing "problems" as parts of an overall system, rather than reacting to specific parts, outcomes or events and potentially contributing to further development of unintended consequences. Systems thinking is not one thing but a set of habits or practices within a framework that is based on the belief that the component parts of a system can best be understood in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems, rather than in isolation. Systems thinking focuses on cyclical rather than linear cause and effect.
In systems science, it is argued that the only way to fully understand why a problem or element occurs and persists is to understand the parts in relation to the whole. Standing in contrast to Descartes's scientific reductionism and philosophical analysis, it proposes to view systems in a holistic manner. Consistent with systems philosophy, systems thinking concerns an understanding of a system by examining the linkages and interactions between the elements that compose the entirety of the system.
Systems science thinking attempts to illustrate how small catalytic events that are separated by distance and time can be the cause of significant changes in complex systems. Acknowledging that an improvement in one area of a system can adversely affect another area of the system, it promotes organizational communication at all levels in order to avoid the silo effect. Systems thinking techniques may be used to study any kind of system — physical, biological, social, scientific, engineered, human, or conceptual.
The concept of a system
The several ways to think of and define a system include:
- A system is composed of parts.
- All the parts of a system must be related (directly or indirectly), else there are really two or more distinct systems
- A system is encapsulated, has a boundary.
- The boundary of a system is a decision made by an observer, or a group of observers.
- A system can be nested inside another system.
- A system can overlap with another system.
- A system is bounded in time.
- A system is bounded in space, though the parts are not necessarily co-located.
- A system receives input from, and sends output into, the wider environment.
- A system consists of processes that transform inputs into outputs.
- A system is autonomous in fulfilling its purpose. (Car is not a system. Car with a driver is a system.)
Systems science thinkers consider that:
- a system is a dynamic and complex whole, interacting as a structured functional unit;
- energy, material and information flow among the different elements that compose the system;
- a system is a community situated within an environment;
- energy, material and information flow from and to the surrounding environment via semi-permeable membranes or boundaries;
- systems are often composed of entities seeking equilibrium but can exhibit oscillating, chaotic, or exponential behavior.
A holistic system is any set (group) of interdependent or temporally interacting parts. Parts are generally systems themselves and are composed of other parts, just as systems are generally parts or holons of other systems.
Systems science and the application of systems science thinking has been grouped into three categories based on the techniques used to tackle a system:
- Hard systems — involving simulations, often using computers and the techniques of operations research/management science. Useful for problems that can justifiably be quantified. However it cannot easily take into account unquantifiable variables (opinions, culture, politics, etc.), and may treat people as being passive, rather than having complex motivations.
- Soft systems — For systems that cannot easily be quantified, especially those involving people holding multiple and conflicting frames of reference. Useful for understanding motivations, viewpoints, and interactions and addressing qualitative as well as quantitative dimensions of problem situations. Soft systems are a field that utilizes foundation methodological work developed by Peter Checkland, Brian Wilson and their colleagues at Lancaster University. Morphological analysis is a complementary method for structuring and analysing non-quantifiable problem complexes.
- Evolutionary systems — Béla H. Bánáthy developed a methodology that is applicable to the design of complex social systems. This technique integrates critical systems inquiry with soft systems methodologies. Evolutionary systems, similar to dynamic systems are understood as open, complex systems, but with the capacity to evolve over time. Bánáthy uniquely integrated the interdisciplinary perspectives of systems research (including chaos, complexity, cybernetics), cultural anthropology, evolutionary theory, and others.
The systems approach
||This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (February 2012)|
The systems thinking approach incorporates several tenets:
- Interdependence of objects and their attributes - independent elements can never constitute a system
- Holism - emergent properties not possible to detect by analysis should be possible to define by a holistic approach
- Goal seeking - systemic interaction must result in some goal or final state
- Inputs and Outputs - in a closed system inputs are determined once and constant; in an open system additional inputs are admitted from the environment
- Transformation of inputs into outputs - this is the process by which the goals are obtained
- Entropy - the amount of disorder or randomness present in any system
- Regulation - a method of feedback is necessary for the system to operate predictably
- Hierarchy - complex wholes are made up of smaller subsystems
- Differentiation - specialized units perform specialized functions
- Equifinality - alternative ways of attaining the same objectives (convergence)
- Multifinality - attaining alternative objectives from the same inputs (divergence)
A treatise on systems thinking ought to address many issues including:
- Encapsulation of a system in space and/or in time
- Active and passive systems (or structures)
- Transformation by an activity system of inputs into outputs
- Persistent and transient systems
- Evolution, the effects of time passing, the life histories of systems and their parts.
- Design and designers.
- Rather than trying to improve the braking system on a car by looking in great detail at the material composition of the brake pads (reductionist), the boundary of the braking system may be extended to include the interactions between the:
- brake disks or drums
- brake pedal sensors
- driver reaction time
- road conditions
- weather conditions
- time of day
- Using the tenet of "Multifinality", a supermarket could be considered to be:
- a "profit making system" from the perspective of management and owners
- a "distribution system" from the perspective of the suppliers
- an "employment system" from the perspective of employees
- a "materials supply system" from the perspective of customers
- an "entertainment system" from the perspective of loiterers
- a "social system" from the perspective of local residents
- a "dating system" from the perspective of single customers
As a result of such thinking, new insights may be gained into how the supermarket works, why it has problems, how it can be improved or how changes made to one component of the system may impact the other components.
||This section may contain excessive, poor, or irrelevant examples. (March 2013)|
Systems science thinking is increasingly being used to tackle a wide variety of subjects in fields such as computing, engineering, epidemiology, information science, health, manufacture, management, sustainable development, and the environment. Professor Rajagopal, EGADE Business School, building on the work of Ferdinand Tönnies has suggested the application of systems thinking in developing marketing strategy from the perspectives of corporate business restructuring in the post-economic recession situations.
- Urban planning
- Organizational architecture
- Job design
- Team Population and Work Unit Design
- Linear and Complex Process Design
- The Limits to Growth
- System design
- Business continuity planning with FMEA protocol
- Critical Infrastructure Protection via FBI Infragard
- Delphi method — developed by RAND for USAF
- Futures studies — Thought leadership mentoring
- The public sector including examples at The Systems Thinking Review
- Leadership development
- Oceanography — forecasting complex systems behavior
- Quality function deployment (QFD)
- Quality management
- Quality storyboard — StoryTech framework (LeapfrogU-EE)
- Software quality
- Program management
- Project management
- The Vanguard Method
- Linear thinking
- Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
||This "see also" section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant suggestions are given and that they are not red links, and consider integrating suggestions into the article itself. (March 2013)|
||This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. (March 2013)|
- Russell L. Ackoff (1999) Ackoff's Best: His Classic Writings on Management. (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-31634-2
- Russell L. Ackoff (2010) Systems Thinking for Curious Managers. (Triarchy Press). ISBN 978-0-9562631-5-5
- Béla H. Bánáthy (1996) Designing Social Systems in a Changing World (Contemporary Systems Thinking). (Springer) ISBN 0-306-45251-0
- Béla H. Bánáthy (2000) Guided Evolution of Society: A Systems View (Contemporary Systems Thinking). (Springer) ISBN 0-306-46382-2
- Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1976 - revised) General System theory: Foundations, Development, Applications. (George Braziller) ISBN 0-8076-0453-4
- Fritjof Capra (1997) The Web of Life (HarperCollins) ISBN 0-00-654751-6
- Peter Checkland (1981) Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-27911-0
- Peter Checkland, Jim Scholes (1990) Soft Systems Methodology in Action. (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-92768-6
- Peter Checkland, Jim Sue Holwell (1998) Information, Systems and Information Systems. (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-95820-4
- Peter Checkland, John Poulter (2006) Learning for Action. (Wiley) ISBN 0-470-02554-9
- C. West Churchman (1984 - revised) The Systems Approach. (Delacorte Press) ISBN 0-440-38407-9.
- John Gall (2003) The Systems Bible: The Beginner's Guide to Systems Large and Small. (General Systemantics Pr/Liberty) ISBN 0-9618251-7-0
- Jamshid Gharajedaghi (2005) Systems Thinking: Managing Chaos and Complexity - A Platform for Designing Business Architecture. (Butterworth-Heinemann) ISBN 0-7506-7973-5
- Charles François (ed) (1997), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics, München: K. G. Saur.
- Charles L. Hutchins (1996) Systemic Thinking: Solving Complex Problems CO:PDS ISBN 1-888017-51-1
- Bradford Keeney (2002 - revised) Aesthetics of Change. (Guilford Press) ISBN 1-57230-830-3
- Donella Meadows (2008) Thinking in Systems - A primer (Earthscan) ISBN 978-1-84407-726-7
- Pouvreau David (2013). "Une histoire de la 'systémologie générale' de Ludwig von Bertalanffy - Généalogie, genèse, actualisation et postérité d'un projet herméneutique", Doctoral Thesis (1138 pages), Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), Paris : http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00804157
- John Seddon (2008) Systems Thinking in the Public Sector. (Triarchy Press). ISBN 978-0-9550081-8-4
- Peter M. Senge (1990) The Fifth Discipline - The Art & Practice of The Learning Organization. (Currency Doubleday) ISBN 0-385-26095-4
- Lars Skyttner (2006) General Systems Theory: Problems, Perspective, Practice (World Scientific Publishing Company) ISBN 981-256-467-5
- Graeme Snooks (2008) 'A general theory of complex living systems: Exploring the demand side of dynamics'. Complexity, 13(6), July/August: 12-20.
- Frederic Vester (2007) The Art of interconnected Thinking. Ideas and Tools for tackling with Complexity (MCB) ISBN 3-939314-05-6
- Gerald M. Weinberg (2001 - revised) An Introduction to General Systems Thinking. (Dorset House) ISBN 0-932633-49-8
- Brian Wilson (1990) Systems: Concepts, Methodologies and Applications, 2nd ed. (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-92716-3
- Brian Wilson (2001) Soft Systems Methodology: Conceptual Model Building and its Contribution. (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-89489-3
- Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1969) General System Theory. (George Braziller) ISBN 0-8076-0453-4
- Dietrich Dorner (1996) The Logic of Failure. Trans. Rita Kimber and Robert Kimber. (Metropolitan Books) ISBN 978-0-201-47948-5
- Barry Richmond (2001) Introduction to Systems Thinking: STELLA. (High Performance Systems) ISBN 978-0-9704921-1-1
- Illustration is made by Marcel Douwe Dekker (2007) based on an own standard and Pierre Malotaux (1985), "Constructieleer van de mensenlijke samenwerking", in BB5 Collegedictaat TU Delft, pp. 120-147.
- Capra, F. (1996) The web of life: a new scientific understanding of living systems (1st Anchor Books ed). New York: Anchor Books. p. 30
- Skyttner, Lars (2006). General Systems Theory: Problems, Perspective, Practice. World Scientific Publishing Company. ISBN 981-256-467-5.
- Hoshin planning methods
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Systems thinking|