Cognac, France

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Cognac
Cognac stjac.JPG
Coat of arms of Cognac
Coat of arms
Cognac is located in France
Cognac
Cognac
Coordinates: 45°42′N 0°20′W / 45.70°N 0.33°W / 45.70; -0.33Coordinates: 45°42′N 0°20′W / 45.70°N 0.33°W / 45.70; -0.33
Country France
Region Poitou-Charentes
Department Charente
Arrondissement Cognac
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014) Michel Gourinchas
Area1 15.5 km2 (6.0 sq mi)
Population (2008)2 19,066
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 16102 / 16100
Elevation 5–53 m (16–174 ft)
(avg. 27 m or 89 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Cognac (French: [kɔ.ɲak]) is a commune in the Charente department in southwestern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department.

Geography[edit]

Cognac is situated on the river Charente between the towns of Angoulême and Saintes. The majority of the town has been built on the river's left bank, with the smaller right bank area known as the Saint Jacques district. The town is situated on one of the pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostella and home to the French Air Force training base 709. Cognac is 400 kilometres (250 mi) southwest of Paris.

History[edit]

Unknown prior to the 9th century, the town was subsequently fortified. During the Hundred Years' War, the town changed sides on several occasions as the result of fighting and treaties in the region.

Francis I granted the town the right to trade salt along the river, guaranteeing strong commercial success, which in turn led to the town's development as a centre of wine and later brandy.

Population[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1793 2,846 —    
1800 2,827 −0.7%
1806 3,134 +10.9%
1821 2,947 −6.0%
1831 3,409 +15.7%
1841 4,118 +20.8%
1846 4,947 +20.1%
1851 5,835 +18.0%
1856 7,085 +21.4%
1861 8,167 +15.3%
1866 9,412 +15.2%
1872 13,677 +45.3%
1876 14,900 +8.9%
1881 14,087 −5.5%
1886 15,200 +7.9%
1891 17,392 +14.4%
1896 20,228 +16.3%
1901 19,483 −3.7%
1906 19,469 −0.1%
1911 19,188 −1.4%
1921 18,876 −1.6%
1926 17,452 −7.5%
1931 17,404 −0.3%
1936 16,305 −6.3%
1946 17,479 +7.2%
1954 19,026 +8.9%
1962 20,798 +9.3%
1968 22,062 +6.1%
1975 22,237 +0.8%
1982 20,660 −7.1%
1990 19,528 −5.5%
1999 19,525 −0.0%
2008 19,066 −2.4%

The inhabitants of the town are known as Cognaçais.

Sights[edit]

  • The Old Town. The town's medieval quarter "Vieux Cognac" runs from the Tours Saint-Jacques, alongside the river, up to the Saint-Léger church. The area contains many unusual buildings, built between the 15th and 18th centuries, situated on narrow cobbled streets. Many contain sculptures of the salamander, the symbol of King François I, as well as gargoyles and richly decorated façades.
  • The Château des Valois, an important medieval trading post.
  • The Saint-Léger church. [Church Exterior:,[1][2]
  • The musée d'Art et d'Histoire (art and history museum)
  • The musée des arts du Cognac (art museum)
  • The Saint-Gobain glassworks and barrelworks
  • Cognac Public Garden

The area also contains many Romanesque churches as well as several châteaux.

Cognac brandy[edit]

Main article: Cognac

The town gives its name to one of the world's best-known types of brandy or eau de vie. Drinks must be made in certain areas around the town of Cognac and must be made according to strictly-defined regulations to be granted the name Cognac.

Cognac is a unique spirit in that it is double-distilled. This process can be viewed in one of the many "Grande Marque" Cognac houses which all have visitor centres. Most central in the town are Hennessy, Martell, Otard, Camus and Remy Martin. About 15 km (9.32 mi) East of Cognac is Jarnac, home to Courvoisier.

There are six vineyard areas around the Cognac area, all of which are within the Appellation Controlee for Cognac, but which are considered to vary in quality from the best growth area of "Grande Champagne" (nothing to do with the Champagne wine region in NE France), through "Petite Champagne" then "Borderies", "Fins Bois", "Bon Bois" and finally "Bois Ordinaire". The best Cognacs are generally only made using Grande and Petite Champagne grapes, but all Cognac is produced by blending a variety of "Eau de Vie" which can be made from grapes from different locations, and from different vintages. It is the Cellar master's skill that ensures that a brand's Cognac is recognisable regardless of when it is produced since he can blend multiple eaux de vie to achieve the right taste for his house.

Different qualities of Cognac are produced by all brands, and include VS ("Very Special"); VSOP ("Very Superior [or, more commonly, "Special", though the Bureau National Interprofessionnel du Cognac specifies "Superior"] Old Pale") and XO ("eXtra Old"). (English terms are still used, since in the early days of Cognac production it was the British and Irish who were the main consumers and also became some of the main producers of Cognac, using techniques acquired from the distillation of whisky, etc.) These are controlled by the length of time the Cognac is allowed to mature in oak barrels, a minimum time being required at each grade level. The longer the Cognac matures in the barrel the smoother it will generally become. Once it is bottled no further development takes place. Most houses still have barrels of Cognac dating back to the 19th century sitting in their cellars waiting for fine blending by the Cellar Master.

Personalities[edit]

  • Francis I (king of France between 1515 and 1547) was born in the town's castle in 1494. The town's main square is named after him and a statue of the king on horseback towering over his enemies stands at the centre.
  • The French poet Octavien de Saint-Gelais was born in Cognac in 1468.
  • Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, born in Cognac in 1838 discovered the elements Gallium in 1875 and Samarium in 1878.
  • Jean Monnet, one of the founding fathers of the European Union was born in Cognac in 1888.
  • The car manufacturer Louis Delâge was born in Cognac in 1874.
  • The glassmaker Claude Boucher, inventor of the glass-blowing machine in around 1880, lived and worked in Cognac.
  • The French adult film star and model François Sagat was born in Cognac.
  • The British singer Alison Moyet's father is from Cognac. Michel Moyet played for US Cognac.
  • Francois Sagat and Alison Moyet are cousins.

Sport[edit]

Twin towns—sister cities[edit]

Cognac is twinned with:

Gallery[edit]

The musée des arts du Cognac 
The Château des Valois 
The Château des Valois 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]