|Source plant(s)||Vitis vinifera, V. labrusca, V. aestivalis, V. ruprestris, V. rotundifolia and V. riparia'|
|Part(s) of plant||fruit|
|Geographic origin||Caucasus and Middle East|
|Main producers||France, Italy, Spain, United States, Argentina, Australia, China, Germany, South Africa, Portugal, Chile, Romania, Greece, Russia, Hungary|
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. The well-known variations result from the very complex interactions between the biochemical development of the fruit, reactions involved in fermentation, terroir and subsequent appellation, along with human intervention in the overall process.
Wine has been produced for thousands of years, with the earliest wines being drunk c. 6000 BC in Georgia. It had reached the Balkans by c. 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome. It has been consumed for its intoxicating effects throughout history and the psychoactive effects are evident at normal serving sizes.
Wine has played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; Judaism also incorporates it in the Kiddush and Christianity in the Eucharist.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Grape varieties
- 4 Classification
- 5 Vintages
- 6 Tasting
- 7 Collecting
- 8 Production
- 9 Consumption
- 10 Uses
- 11 Religious significance
- 12 Health effects
- 13 Forgery and manipulation of wines
- 14 Packaging
- 15 Storage
- 16 Professions
- 17 See also
- 18 References
- 19 Further reading
- 20 External links
The English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or "(grape) vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o- (cf. Hittite: wiyana; Lycian: oino; Ancient Greek: οἶνος oinos; Aeolic Greek: ϝοῖνος woinos, Armenian: gini).
The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek 𐀕𐀶𐀺𐄀𐀚𐀺 me-tu-wo ne-wo (*μέθυϝος νέϝῳ), meaning "in (the month)" or "(festival) of the new wine", and 𐀺𐀜𐀷𐀴𐀯 wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B also includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine, i.e. 𐂖.
Some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in Kartvelian (e.g. Georgian ღვინო [ɣvinɔ]), Indo-European languages (e.g. Armenian gini, Latin vinum, Ancient Greek οἶνος, Russian вино [vʲɪˈno]), and Semitic (*wayn; Hebrew יין [jaiin]), pointing to the possibility of a common origin of the word denoting "wine" in these language families. The Georgian word goes back to Proto-Kartvelian *ɣwino-, which is probably borrowed from Proto-Armenian *ɣʷeinyo-, whence Armenian gini. On the other hand, Fähnrich considers *ɣwino- a native Kartvelian word derived from the verbal root *ɣun- ('to bend'). See *ɣwino- for more.
Wines from other fruits, such as apples and berries, are usually named after the fruit from which they are produced combined with the word "wine" (for example, apple wine and elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). Besides the grape varieties traditionally used for winemaking, most fruits naturally lack either a high amount of fermentable sugars, relatively low acidity, yeast nutrients needed to promote or maintain fermentation or a combination of these three characteristics. This is probably one of the main reasons why wine derived from grapes has historically been more prevalent by far than other types and why specific types of fruit wine have generally been confined to regions in which the fruits were native or introduced for other reasons.
Other wines, such as barley wine and rice wine (e.g. sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these latter cases, the term "wine" refers to the similarity in alcohol content rather than to the production process. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.
Archaeological evidence has established the earliest-known production of wine from fermenting grapes during the late Neolithic or early Chalcolithic in the Caucasus and the northern edge of the Middle East. The earliest chemically attested grape wine in the world was discovered at Hajji Firuz in the northwestern Zagros Mountains of Iran, ca. 5400 BC. However, both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine may slightly predate this, and the earliest wine making likely have taken place through a region between Eastern Turkey, Trans-Caucasia (including Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia), and North West Iran.
A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, Henan, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these beverages, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, which was introduced there some 6,000 years later.
The spread of wine culture westwards was most probably due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Lebanese and Israeli coast. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and then throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact. As the first great traders in wine (cherem), the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, again similar to retsina.
Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (8th century BC, but possibly relating earlier compositions), Alkman (7th century BC), and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC.
The first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world renowned for wine production. The Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels keeps them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years, aging it in caves. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine.
Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, such as Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as minimums of 75% to 85%), the result is a "varietal" as opposed to a "blended" wine. Blended wines are not considered inferior to varietal wines, rather they are a different style of winemaking; some of the world's most highly regarded wines, from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley, are blended from different grape varieties.
Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. V. labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar), V. aestivalis, V. ruprestris, V. rotundifolia and V. riparia are native North American grapes usually grown to eat fresh or for grape juice, jam, or jelly, and only occasionally made into wine.
Hybridization is different from grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species' rootstock, a common practice due to their resistance to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards (excluding some of the driest in the south) were devastated by the infestation, leading to widespread vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing region in the world except in Argentina, the Canary Islands and Chile—the only places not yet exposed to the insect.
In the context of wine production, terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and the local yeast cultures. The range of possible combinations of these factors can result in great differences among wines, influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. However, flavor differences are less desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency takes precedence. Such producers try to minimize differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin-film evaporation, and spinning cones.
Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. European wines tend to be classified by region (e.g. Bordeaux, Rioja and Chianti), while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e.g. Pinot noir and Merlot). Market recognition of particular regions has recently been leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. Examples of recognized non-European locales include Napa Valley, Santa Clara Valley and Sonoma Valley in California; Willamette Valley in Oregon; Columbia Valley in Washington; Barossa Valley in South Australia and Hunter Valley in New South Wales; Luján de Cuyo in Argentina; Central Valley in Chile; Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil; Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand; and Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada.
Some blended wine names are marketing terms whose use is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. For example, Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, but may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Commercial use of the term Meritage is allowed only via licensing agreements with the Meritage Association.
France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir, with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom, through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS), up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar, depending on the region. Portugal has developed a system resembling that of France and, in fact, pioneered this concept in 1756 with a royal charter creating the Demarcated Douro Region and regulating the production and trade of wine. Germany created a similar scheme in 2002, although it has not yet achieved the authority of the other countries' classification systems. Spain, Greece and Italy have classifications based on a dual system of region of origin and product quality.
New World wines—those made outside the traditional wine regions of Europe—are usually classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin, although there have been unofficial attempts to classify them by quality.
In the United States, for a wine to be vintage-dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (e.g. Sonoma Valley), 95% of its volume must be from grapes harvested in that year. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%.
Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate's impact on the character of a wine can be significant enough to cause different vintages from the same vineyard to vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the particular vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Superior vintages from reputable producers and regions will often command much higher prices than their average ones. Some vintage wines (e.g. Brunello), are only made in better-than-average years.
For consistency, non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage, which helps winemakers sustain a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. One recent study suggests that for the average wine drinker, the vintage year may not be as significant for perceived quality as had been thought, although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it.
Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines contain many chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar.
Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanting (the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing) is a controversial subject among wine enthusiasts. In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows the removal of bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles, but aeration may benefit younger wines.
During aeration, a younger wine's exposure to air often "relaxes" the drink, making it smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Older wines generally "fade" (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration. Despite these general rules, breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. Wine may be tasted as soon as the bottle is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all.
When tasting wine, individual flavors may also be detected, due to the complex mix of organic molecules (e.g. esters and terpenes) that grape juice and wine can contain. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in winemaking. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine—chocolate, vanilla, or coffee—are those imparted by aging in oak casks rather than the grape itself.
Vertical and horizontal tasting involves a range of vintages within the same grape and vineyard, or the latter in which there is one vintage from multiple vineyards.
Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism, as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty, barnyard, band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol), and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). Some varieties can also exhibit a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts as a result of limestone's presence in the vineyard's soil.
Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds released into the air. Vaporization of these compounds can be accelerated by twirling the wine glass or serving at room temperature. Many drinkers prefer to chill red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais.
The ideal temperature for serving a particular wine is a matter of debate, but some broad guidelines have emerged that will generally enhance the experience of tasting certain common wines. A white wine should foster a sense of coolness, achieved by serving at "cellar temperature" (13 °C [55 °F]). Light red wines drunk young should also be brought to the table at this temperature, where they will quickly rise a few degrees. Red wines are generally perceived best when served chambré ("at room temperature"). However, this does not mean the temperature of the dining room—often around (21 °C [70 °F])—but rather the coolest room in the house and, therefore, always slightly cooler than the dining room itself. Pinot noir should be brought to the table for serving at (16 °C [61 °F]) and will reach its full bouquet at (18 °C [64 °F]). Cabernet Sauvignon, zinfandel, and Rhone varieties should be served at (18 °C [64 °F]) and allowed to warm on the table to 21 °C (70 °F) for best aroma.
Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle, though the broader term "fine wine" covers those typically retailing in excess of US$30–50. "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods: those for which demand increases rather than decreases as their prices rise. Particular selections have higher value, such as "Verticals", in which a range of vintages of a specific grape and vineyard, are offered. The most notable was a Chateau d'Yquem 135 year vertical containing every vintage from 1860 to 2003 sold for $1.5 million. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux and Burgundy; cult wines from Europe and elsewhere; and vintage port. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include:
- A proven track record of holding well over time
- A drinking-window plateau (i.e., the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long
- A consensus among experts as to the quality of the wines
- Rigorous production methods at every stage, including grape selection and appropriate barrel aging
Investment in fine wine has attracted those who take advantage of their victims' relative ignorance of this wine market sector. Such wine fraudsters often profit by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from well-known wine regions, while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. As with any investment, thorough research is essential to making an informed decision.
In 2012, Italy was the top producer of wine in the world, followed by France, Spain, the United States and Argentina.
(with link to wine article)
|7||China (People's Republic)*||1,400,000|
* FAO estimate.
** May include official, semi-official or estimated data.
(with link to wine article)
|6||China (People's Republic)*||1,450,000|
* FAO estimate.
** May include official, semi-official or estimated data.
*** FAO data based on imputation methodology.
Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between 30 and 50 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south, and the northernmost are in Flen, Sweden, just north of the 59th parallel north.
* Unofficial figure.
The UK was the world's largest importer of wine in 2007.
Wine production in the European Union in 2005 and 2006
2005 Estimate (thousands of hectoliters)
2006 Estimate (thousands of hectoliters)
- Italy: 52,036
- France: 51,700
- Spain: 39,301
- Germany: 8,995
- Portugal: 7,390
- Greece: 3,908
World production in 2003
In 2003, world wine production had reached 269 millions of hectoliters. The world's main 15 wine producers were:
|Country||millions of hectoliters|
The world's 10 main wine exporting countries in 2005
|Country||thousands of hectoliters|
The top 5 countries for wine production in 2008
Country Wine Production 2009 Percentage of World Total
1 Italy 4,994,940 metric tonnes 18.42%
2 France 4,552,077 metric tonnes 16.79%
3 Spain 3,250,610 metric tonnes 11.99%
4 United States 2,250,000 metric tonnes 8.30%
5 China 1,580,000 metric tonnes 5.82%
Sources: FAOSTAT data 2008 (last accessed by Top 5 of Anything: Nov, 2010)
The Wine Institute, a nonprofit group, tracked that the U.S. has been the largest wine consuming nation in the world since 2010, with residents individually consuming a total of 2.82 gallons a year in 2013, up from under 2 gallons in 1979. Wine shipments within the U.S. from California alone were 215 million cases in 2013, up 3% from the previous year, with an estimated retail value of $23.1 billion, up 5%. All American regions produce wine however, 95% comes from four regions with California as the most prolific producer, followed by Washington, Oregon and New York.
Wine-consumption data from a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in liters of pure ethyl alcohol consumed per capita in a given year, according to the most recent data from the World Health Organization. The methodology includes persons 15 years of age or older.
Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stocks and braising, since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. Wine sauce is an example of a culinary sauce that uses wine as a primary ingredient. Natural wines may exhibit a broad range of alcohol content, from below 9% to above 16% ABV, with most wines being in the 12.5%–14.5% range. Fortified wines (usually with brandy) may contain 20% alcohol or more.
The use of wine in ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Egyptian religious ceremonies was common. Libations often included wine, and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state.
|“||Baruch atah Hashem (Ado-nai) Eloheinu melech ha-olam, boray p’ree hagafen – Praised be the Lord, our God, King of the universe, Creator of the fruit of the vine.||”|
—The blessing over wine said before consuming the drink.
Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder, it is a Rabbinic obligation of adults to drink four cups of wine. In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem, the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood, a common misconception that contributes to the Christian myth of the blood libel. "It has been one of history's cruel ironies that the blood libel—accusations against Jews using the blood of murdered gentile children for the making of wine and matzot—became the false pretext for numerous pogroms. And due to the danger, those who live in a place where blood libels occur are halachically exempted from using red wine, lest it be seized as "evidence" against them."
||This section includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (November 2012)|
In Christianity, wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist, which originates in the Gospel account of the Last Supper (Gospel of Luke 22:19) describing Jesus sharing bread and wine with his disciples and commanding them to "do this in remembrance of me." Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted).
While some Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for the validity of the sacrament, many Protestants also allow (or require) pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice, and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States, as well as to other countries to a lesser degree. There remains an ongoing debate between some American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage, with Catholics and some mainline Protestants allowing wine drinking in moderation, and some conservative Protestant groups opposing consumption of alcohol altogether.
Alcoholic beverages, including wine, are forbidden under most interpretations of Islamic law. Iran had previously had a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979. In Greater Persia, mey (Persian wine) was a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years, long before the advent of Islam. Some Alevi sects use wine in their religious services.
Certain exceptions to the ban on alcohol apply. Alcohol derived from a source other than the grape (or its byproducts) and the date is allowed in "very small quantities" (loosely defined as a quantity that does not cause intoxication) under the Sunni Hanafi madhab, for specific purposes (such as medicines), where the goal is not intoxication. However, modern Hanafi scholars regard alcohol consumption as totally forbidden.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||355 kJ (85 kcal)|
10.6 g alcohol is 13%vol.
100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3.4 fl oz.)
Sugar and alcohol content can vary.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Studies of the health effects of wine have focused on cardiovascular health, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, alcoholism, cirrhosis of the liver, and oral bacteria. Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects, epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in cardiovascular illness such as heart failure. Additional news reports on the French paradox also back the relationship. This paradox concerns the comparatively low incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite relatively high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. Some epidemiologists suspect that this is due to higher wine consumption by the French, but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited. Because the average moderate wine drinker is likely to exercise more often, to be more health conscious, and to be from a higher educational and socioeconomic background, the association between moderate wine drinking and better health may be related to confounding factors or represent a correlation rather than cause and effect.
Population studies have observed a J-curve correlation between wine consumption and the prevalence of heart disease: heavy drinkers have an elevated prevalence, while moderate drinkers (up to 20g of alcohol per day, approximately 200 ml (7 imp fl oz; 7 US fl oz) of 12.7% ABV wine) have a lower prevalence than non-drinkers. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages is correlated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular causes, although the association is stronger for wine. Additionally, some studies have found a greater correlation of health benefits with red than white wine, though other studies have found no difference. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine, and these could be protective against cardiovascular disease.
A chemical in grapes, red wine, peanuts and blueberries called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies. Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic factors related to aging and may confer special protection on the heart. Specifically, low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of caloric restriction—diets with 20–30% fewer calories than a typical diet. Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection, including exposure to yeast during fermentation. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process, it generally contains lower levels of the chemical. Beneficial compounds in wine also include other polyphenols, antioxidants, and flavonoids.
Sipping slowly when drinking may result in optimal absorption of the resveratrol in wine. Due to inactivation in the gut and liver, most of the resveratrol consumed while drinking red wine does not reach the blood circulation. However, when sipping slowly, absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol, according to Stephen Taylor, Ph.D.
Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have the highest levels of procyanidins, compounds in grape seeds which could be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. Red wines from these areas contain between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines tested. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels.
A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective antibacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. In addition, a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men.
While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect, no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic beverages on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism; the American Heart Association states that "the American Heart Association cautions people NOT to start drinking ... if they do not already drink alcohol. Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation."
Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. Another study found that among alcoholics, wine damages the hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processes, to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages.
Sulfites in wine can cause some people, particularly those with asthma, to have adverse reactions. Sulfites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process; many winemakers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice. The level of added sulfites varies; some wines have been marketed with low sulfite content.
A study of women in the United Kingdom, called The Million Women Study, concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers, including breast, pharynx and liver cancer. Lead author of the study, Professor Valerie Beral, asserted that there is scant evidence that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer. She said, "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you." Professor Roger Corder, author of the bestselling bookThe Red Wine Diet, countered that two small glasses of a very tannic, procyanidin-rich wine would confer a benefit, although "most supermarket wines are low-procyanidin and high-alcohol." No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine.
Forgery and manipulation of wines
Incidents of fraud, such as mislabeling the origin or quality of wines, have resulted in regulations on labeling. "Wine scandals" that have received media attention include:
- The 1985 Diethylene Glycol Wine Scandal, in which diethylene glycol was used as a sweetener in some Austrian wines.
- In 1986, methanol (a toxic type of alcohol) was used to alter certain wines manufactured in Italy.
- In 2008, some Italian wines were found to include sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.
- In 2010, some Chinese red wines were found to be adulterated, and as a consequence China's Hebei province has shut down nearly 30 wineries.
Most wines are sold in glass bottles and sealed with corks (50% of which come from Portugal). An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps and synthetic plastic "corks". Although alternative closures are less expensive and prevent cork taint, they have been blamed for such problems as excessive reduction.
Some wines are packaged in thick plastic bags within corrugated fiberboard boxes, and are called "box wines", or "cask wine". Tucked inside the package is a tap affixed to the bag in box, or bladder, that is later extended by the consumer for serving the contents. Box wine can stay acceptably fresh for up to a month after opening because the bladder collapses as wine is dispensed, limiting contact with air and, thus, slowing the rate of oxidation. In contrast, bottled wine oxidizes more rapidly after opening because of the increasing ratio of air to wine as the contents are dispensed; it can degrade considerably in a few days.
Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. The glass used to make bottles is a nontoxic, naturally occurring substance that is completely recyclable, whereas the plastics used for box-wine containers are typically much less environmentally friendly. However, wine-bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine, being lighter in package weight, has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution; however, box-wine plastics, even though possibly recyclable, can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. In addition, while a wine box is recyclable, its plastic bladder most likely is not.
Wine cellars, or wine rooms, if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. In an "active" wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate-control system. "Passive" wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and so must be carefully located. Because wine is a natural, perishable food product, all types—including red, white, sparkling, and fortified—can spoil when exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. When properly stored, wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they age. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 13 °C (55 °F), others 15 °C (59 °F). Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars and are available in capacities ranging from small, 16-bottle units to furniture-quality pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging, but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. These refrigerators keep the humidity low (usually under 50%), below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. Lower humidity levels can dry out corks over time, allowing oxygen to enter the bottle, which reduces the wine's quality through oxidation.
|Cooper||A craftsperson of wooden barrels and casks. A cooperage is a facility that produces such casks|
|Négociant||A wine merchant that purchases the product of smaller growers and/or winemakers to sell them under its own name|
|Oenologist||A wine scientist or wine chemist; a student of oenology. A winemaker may be trained as an oenologist, but often hires one as a consultant|
|Sommelier||A specialist in charge of developing a restaurant's wine list, educating the staff about wine, and assisting customers with their selections|
|Vintner, Winemaker||A wine producer; a person who makes wine|
|Viticulturist||A specialist in the science of grapevines; a manager of vineyard pruning, irrigation, and pest control|
- Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. pp. 11–6. ISBN 0-671-79182-6.
- Keys, David (28 December 2003). "Now that's what you call a real vintage: professor unearths 8,000-year-old wine". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2011-10-05. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
- Berkowitz, Mark (1996). "World's Earliest Wine". Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 49 (5). Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- Spilling, Michael; Wong, Winnie (2008). Cultures of The World Georgia. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7614-3033-9.
- "BAC per Drink tables".
- "Effects At Specific B.A.C. Levels".
- "Isis & Osiris". University of Chicago.
- Harper, Douglas. "wine". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Whiter, Walter (1800). "Wine". Etymologicon Magnum, Or Universal Etymological Dictionary, on a New Plan. Francis Hodson. p. 145. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- οἶνος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
- Found on the PY Fr 1202 tablet.
- Cf. μέθυ in Liddell and Scott.
- Found on the PY Vn 48 and PY Xa 1419 tablets.
- "Mycenaean and Late Cycladic Religion and Religious Architecture". Dartmouth College.
- T.G. Palaima, The Last days of Pylos Polity, Université de Liège
- James C. Wright, The Mycenaean feast, American School of Classical Studies, 2004, on Google books
- Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages
- Benjamin W. Fortson IV Indo-European Language and Culture, an introduction, Blackwell Publishing 2010, p. 42, on Google books
- Klimov, Georgij (1998). Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages. New York, Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. p. 227.
- Martirosyan, Hrach (2010). Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon. Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 214.
- Beekes, Robert (2010). Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 1059.
- Adjarian, Hrachia. Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian) I. Yerevan: Yerevan State University. p. 559.
- Starostin, Sergei. "Kartvelian Etymology database". Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- Fähnrich, Heinz (2007). Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German). Leiden, Boston: Brill. p. 486.
- Allen, Fal. "Barley Wine". Anderson Valley Brewing Company. Archived from the original on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- George, Rosemary (1991). The Simon & Schuster Pocket Wine Label Decoder. Fireside. ISBN 978-0-671-72897-7.
- Patrick E. McGovern, et al. (30 September 2003). "Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (The National Academy of Sciences).
- "Penn Museum Archaeochemist And International Scholars Confirm 9,000-Year History Of Chinese Fermented Beverages". ScienceDaily (ScienceDaily LLC). 24 December 2004.
- McGovern, Patrick E. 2003. Ancient wine: the search for the origins of viniculture. Princeton University Press
- MIT technology helps map ancient Phoenician shipwrecks MIT press release.
- Johnson, Hugh (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon and Schuster. p. 32. ISBN 0-671-68702-6.
- Rong, Xu Gan; Bao Tong Fa. "Wine Production in China". Grandiose Survey of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks and Beverages. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- J. Robinson (ed) The Oxford Companion to Wine Third Edition, pp. 355–356 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0-19-860990-6
- H. Johnson Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 82–89 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0-671-68702-6
- "Practical Winery & Vineyard Journal Jan/Feb 2009". www.practicalwinery.com. 1 Feb 2009.
- Phillips, Rod (12 November 2002). A Short History of Wine. Harper Perennial. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-0-06-093737-9.
- "The Great Resource". 1. Episode 9. 3 November 2006.
- Robinson, Jancis (28 April 2006). Jancis Robinson's Wine Course: A Guide to the World of Wine. Abbeville Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7892-0883-5.
- Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cancela, Javier J.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A. et al. (24 September 2014). "Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions". PLoS ONE 9 (9): e108078. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108078.
- Johnson, Hugh; Jancis Robinson (13 September 2001). The World Atlas of Wine. Mitchell Beazley. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-1-84000-332-1.
- Citriglia, Matthew (14 May 2006). "High Alcohol is a Wine Fault... Not a Badge of Honor". GeekSpeak, LLC. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- "Wine classification". French Wine Guide. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
- Goode, Jamie. "Terroir revisited: towards a working definition". Retrieved 22 June 2007.
- "The Spirit of the Commemorations". Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- "About German Wine". German wine society. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
- "German Wine Guide: Wine Laws and Classifications". The Winedoctor. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
- "Land of wines". Wines from Spain. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- Chlebnikowski, Simon; Alex Chlebnikowski. "Towards an Australian Wine Classification". Nicks Wine Merchants. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- "Langton's Australian Wine Classification IV". 27 July 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Title 27 of the United States Code, Code of Federal Regulations §4.27
- Breton, Félicien. "Wine vintages, vintage charts". French Scout. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Platman, Clive (2 October 2002). "Wine: Lovely bubbly". Birmingham Post. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (May 2006). "Change to Vintage Date Requirements (2005R-212P)". Federal Register 71 (84): 25748. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Weil, Roman L. (25 May 2001). "Parker v. Prial: The Death of the Vintage Chart" (PDF). Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Johnson, Hugh; Jancis Robinson (13 September 2001). The World Atlas of Wine. Mitchell Beazley. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-84000-332-1.
- "Fruity character and breathing times". New Straits Times. 18 September 2005. Retrieved 24 October 2007.
- Breton, Félicien. "Types of wine". French Scout. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- ETS Laboratories (15 March 2001). "Brettanomyces Monitoring by Analysis of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol". Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- ETS Laboratories (15 May 2002). "Sulfides in Wine". Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Gómez-Míguez, M. José; Manuela Gómez-Mígueza, Isabel M. Vicarioa and Francisco J. Heredia (April 2007). "Assessment of colour and aroma in white wines vinifications: Effects of grape maturity and soil type". Journal of Food Engineering 79 (3): 758–764. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.02.038. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Johnson, Hugh; Jancis Robinson (13 September 2001). The World Atlas of Wine. Mitchell Beazley. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1-84000-332-1.
- Pellaprat, Henri-Paul (2003). The great book of French cuisine. New York: Vendome. ISBN 0-86565-231-7.
- For example, Berry Brothers & Rudd, one of the world's largest dealers, start "fine wine" prices at about £25—in March 2009 with a wine from Au Bon Climat website "Fine wine offers".
- economist.com Fine-wine fraud.
- "OIV report on the State of the vitiviniculture world market" (PowerPoint presentation). news.reseau-concept.net. Réseau-CONCEPT. 2010. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations production statistics
- Crops processed at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) website
- Courtney, Sue (16 April 2005). "New Zealand Wine Regions – Central Otago". Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- "Wine History". Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Crops and livestock products at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) website
- "UK tops world wine imports table". BBC. 14 January 2009.
- "Wine Consumption In The U.S. - The Wine Institute". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "California Wine Sales Grow 3% by Volume and 5% by Value in the U.S. in 2013 - The Wine Institute". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Parker, Robert M. (2008). Parker's Wine Buyer's Guide, 7th Edition. Simon and Schuster. p. 15. ISBN 1439139970.
- Jancis Robinson (2006). The Oxford Companion to Wine (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. See alcoholic strength at p. 10.
- Rich, Tracey R. "Pesach: Passover". Judaism 101.
- Neusner, Jacob (2000). The Halakhah: An Encyclopaedia of the Law of Judaism. Boston, Massachusetts: BRILL. p. 82. ISBN 90-04-11617-6.
- Rutman, Rabbi Yisrael. "Pesach: What We Eat and Why We Eat It". Project Genesis Inc. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Almost Like Wine". Time Magazine. 3 September 1956. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Harrison, Frances (11 April 2008). "Alcohol fatwa sparks controversy". BBC News. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- Tait, Robert (12 October 2005). "End of the vine". London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Sahih Muslim Book 043, Hadith Number 7186.
- "Alcohol based Perfumes, Deodrants and Creams, Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam, Darul Iftaa, Leicester". Central-mosque.com. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- Lindberg, Matthew L.; Ezra A. Amsterdam (2008). "Alcohol, wine, and cardiovascular health". Clinical Cardiology 31 (8): 347–51. doi:10.1002/clc.20263. PMID 18727003.
- Dodd, Tim H.; Steve Morse (1994). "The impact of media stories concerning health issues on food product sales: management planning and responses". Journal of Consumer Marketing 11 (2): 17–24. doi:10.1108/07363769410058894.
- Streppel, M. T.; Ocke, M. C.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Kok, F. J.; Kromhout, D. (2009). "Long-term wine consumption is related to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy independently of moderate alcohol intake: the Zutphen Study". Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 63 (7): 534–540. doi:10.1136/jech.2008.082198. PMID 19406740.
- Wang, R; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Jia, S. W.; Zhao, J; Cui, D; Wang, L (2014). "Resveratrol protects neurons and the myocardium by reducing oxidative stress and ameliorating mitochondria damage in a cerebral ischemia rat model". Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 34 (3): 854–64. doi:10.1159/000366304. PMID 25199673.
- Gu, X. S.; Wang, Z. B.; Ye, Z; Lei, J. P.; Li, L; Su, D. F.; Zheng, X (2014). "Resveratrol, an activator of SIRT1, upregulates AMPK and improves cardiac function in heart failure". Genetics and Molecular Research 13 (1): 323–35. doi:10.4238/2014.January.17.17. PMID 24535859.
- Naumenko, S. E.; Latysheva, T. V.; Gilinsky, M. A.; Rogachev, A. D.; Komarova, N. I.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.; Tolstikov, G. A. (2013). "Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol and resveratroloside". Cardiovascular & hematological agents in medicinal chemistry 11 (3): 207–10. PMID 23547903.
- Olas, Beata; Barbara Wachowicz, Joanna Saluk-Juszczak and Tomasz Zieliński (August 2002). "Effect of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on platelet activation induced by endotoxin or thrombin". Thrombosis Research 107 (3): 141–145. doi:10.1016/S0049-3848(02)00273-6. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Barger, Jamie L.; Tsuyoshi Kayo, James M. Vann, Edward B. Arias, Jelai Wang, Timothy A. Hacker, Ying Wang, Daniel Raederstorff, Jason D. Morrow, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, David B. Allison, Kurt W. Saupe, Gregory D. Cartee, Richard Weindruch, Tomas A. Prolla (2008). Tomé, Daniel, ed. "A Low Dose of Dietary Resveratrol Partially Mimics Caloric Restriction and Retards Aging Parameters in Mice". PLoS ONE 3 (6): e2264. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002264. PMC 2386967. PMID 18523577. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Frémont, Lucie (January 2000). "Biological effects of resveratrol". Life Sciences 66 (8): 663–673. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00410-5. PMID 10680575. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- de Lange, D.W. (2007). "From red wine to polyphenols and back: A journey through the history of the French Paradox". Thrombosis Research 119 (4): 403–406. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2006.06.001. PMID 16839597. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- "Health Secrets of Red Wine Uncovered", US News and World Report 2009
- Corder, R.; W. Mullen, N. Q. Khan, S. C. Marks, E. G. Wood, M. J. Carrier and A. Crozier. "Oenology: Red wine procyanidins and vascular health". Nature 444 (566): 566. doi:10.1038/444566a. PMID 17136085.
- Daglia, M.; A. Papetti; P. Grisoli; C. Aceti; C. Dacarro; G. Gazzani (2007). "Antibacterial Activity of Red and White Wine against Oral Streptococci". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (13): 5038–42. doi:10.1021/jf070352q. PMID 17547418.
- Red Wine May Lower Lung Cancer Risk Newswise. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "General Information on Alcohol Use and Health". Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- American Heart Association. "Alcohol, Wine and Cardiovascular Disease". Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- Wang, Jun; Lap Ho, Zhong Zhao, Ilana Seror, Nelson Humala, Dara L. Dickstein, Meenakshisundaram Thiyagarajan, Susan S. Percival, Stephen T. Talcott and Giulio Maria Pasinetti (2006). "Moderate Consumption of Cabernet Sauvignon Attenuates β-amyloid Neuropathology in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease". FASEB 20 (13): 2313–2320. doi:10.1096/fj.06-6281com. PMID 17077308. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- "Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine Reduces The Risk Of Alzheimer's Disease". ScienceDaily (ScienceDaily LLC). 21 September 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- Allen, Vanessa (17 March 2008). "Wine is worse for brain than beer, scientists reveal in blow for women drinkers". Daily Mail (London: Associated Newspapers Ltd). Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- Ageing and Storing Wines, Wines of Canada. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
- Allen NE, Beral V, Casabonne D, et al. (March 2009). "Moderate alcohol intake and cancer incidence in women". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 101 (5): 296–305. doi:10.1093/jnci/djn514. PMID 19244173.
- Nelson, Sue (8 June 2009). "Alcohol: Is it really good for you?". BBC News. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- timesofmalta.com - Italian wine under investigation for adulteration, 2008-04-04
- (GMT+8) (2010-12-24). "Chinese Government Shuts Down Fake Wine Producers". Wantchinatimes.com. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- "Adulterated Chinese wine seized". Drinkingny.wordpress.com. 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- J. L. CALHEIROS E MENESES, President, Junta Nacional da Cortiça, Portugal. "The cork industry in Portugal"
- Muzaurieta, Annie Bell, thedailygreen.com (2008-10-01). Holy Hangover! Wine Bottles Cause Air Pollution
- fineliving.com Storing Wine
- maridajesgourmet.com Storing Wine Temperature
- "Wine Fridges and Wine Cabinets".
- Colman, Tyler (2008). Wine Politics: How Governments, Environmentalists, Mobsters, and Critics Influence the Wines We Drink. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25521-0.
- Foulkes, Christopher (2001). Larousse Encyclopedia of Wine. Larousse. ISBN 2-03-585013-4.
- Johnson, Hugh (2003). Hugh Johnson's Wine Companion (5th ed.). Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1-84000-704-6.
- McCarthy, Ed; Mary Ewing-Mulligan; Piero Antinori (2006). Wine for Dummies. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-470-04579-5.
- MacNeil, Karen (2001). The Wine Bible. Workman. ISBN 1-56305-434-5.
- Oldman, Mark (2004). Oldman's Guide to Outsmarting Wine. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-200492-0.
- Parker, Robert (2008). Parker's Wine Buyer's Guide. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-7198-1.
- Pigott, Stuart (2004). Planet Wine: A Grape by Grape Visual Guide to the Contemporary Wine World. Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1-84000-776-3.
- Robinson, Jancis (2006). The Oxford Companion to Wine (3rd ed.). Oxford: OUP. ISBN 0-19-860990-6.
- Simpson, James (2011). Creating Wine: The Emergence of a World Industry, 1840-1914. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-3888-2. online review
- Zraly, Kevin (2006). Windows on the World Complete Wine Course. Sterling. ISBN 1-4027-3928-1.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|