Dark Magus

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Dark Magus
Live album by Miles Davis
Released 1977
Recorded March 30, 1974, at Carnegie Hall in New York City
Genre Jazz-rock[1]
Length 100:58
Label CBS-Sony
Producer Teo Macero
Miles Davis chronology
Water Babies
(1976)
Dark Magus
(1977)
Circle in the Round
(1979)

Dark Magus is a live double album by American jazz composer and trumpeter Miles Davis. It was recorded on March 30, 1974, at Carnegie Hall in New York City. Davis' group at the time included bassist Michael Henderson, drummer Al Foster, percussionist James Mtume, saxophonist Dave Liebman, and guitarists Pete Cosey and Reggie Lucas. He also used the show to audition saxophonist Azar Lawrence and guitarist Dominique Gaumont. Dark Magus was produced by Teo Macero and featured four two-part recordings titled after Swahili names for the numbers one through four.

Dark Magus was released after Davis' 1975 retirement, upon which his label, Columbia Records, issued several albums of various outtakes. After releasing the live recordings Agharta (1975) and Pangaea (1976), Columbia decided that they did not approve of the albums and released Dark Magus only in Japan. It was issued in 1977 by CBS-Sony. The label's A&R executive Tatsu Nosaki suggested the album's title, which referred to the Zoroastrian religious figure Magus.

Along with Davis' other albums during the 1970s, Dark Magus was received ambivalently by contemporary music critics, but it inspired noise rock acts during the late 1970s and the experimental funk artists of the 1980s. The album was not released in the United States until July 1997, when it was reissued by Sony Records and Legacy Records. In retrospective reviews, critics praised its jazz-rock aesthetic and the group members' performances, and felt that parts of the music foreshadowed jungle music. In 2001, Q magazine named Dark Magus one of the 50 Heaviest Albums of All Time.

Background[edit]

The main hall stage of Carnegie Hall

Davis was 47 years old when he was asked to play Carnegie Hall in 1974, which followed four years of relentless touring. He had played the venue numerous times before and recorded a live album there in 1961. By 1974, Davis had been dealing with depression, cocaine and sex addictions, and several health problems, including osteoarthritis, bursitis, and sickle-cell anemia. He had also lost respect with both critics and his contemporaries because of his musical explorations into more rock and funk-oriented sounds.[2] Influenced by Karlheinz Stockhausen, Davis wanted to avoid individual songs and instead record extended movements that developed into a different composition.[3] He played his trumpet sparsely and became less of the focal point for his band, whom he allowed more freedom to improvise and with whom he rarely rehearsed, so that the young musicians he enlisted would be tested to learn and play together onstage.[2]

The concert[edit]

Saxophonist Dave Liebman wrote the album's liner notes.

The March 30, 1974, concert featured an ethnically and age-diverse audience that included young hippies and old, wealthy attendees. According to Magnet magazine's Bryan Bierman, "the hip, 'with it' kids [sat] side-by-side with middle-aged tuxedoed couples, expecting to hear 'My Funny Valentine.'"[2] Although he lived 15 minutes away, Davis arrived at the venue more than an hour late. When the band walked out onstage, he followed with his back turned to the audience.[2] He casually strolled onstage while the band was setting up and began to play, to which they responded by playing a dense rhythm in unison.[4] Saxophonist Dave Liebman, who wrote the liner notes for Dark Magus,[5] later said of how the show began: "It is his whim .. That's the thing! ... Miles can do that and have three thousand musicians follow him. Right? So what I learned in that respect from Miles was to be able to watch him and be on his case".[4]

Davis also used the show to audition two new members—tenor saxophonist Azar Lawrence and guitarist Dominique Gaumont.[4] Lawrence was the most highly regarded young saxophonist at the time; Davis enlisted Gaumont in response to incumbent guitarist Reggie Lucas's demand for a pay raise.[6] Although it was unexpected, Liebman later characterized the move as typical of Davis:

Composition[edit]

[Davis] shifted gears at will in his early-'70s music, orchestrating moods and settings to subjugate the individual musical inspirations of his young close-enough-for-funk subgeniuses to the life of a single palpitating organism that would have perished without them—no arrangements, little composition, and not many solos either, although at any moment a player could find himself left to fly off on his own.

Robert Christgau, review of Dark Magus[7]

Dark Magus features four two-part compositions with an average length of 25 minutes each.[5] The album's music was unrehearsed and eschewed melody for improvisations around funk rhythms and grooves. According to AllMusic's Thom Jurek, rhythms, colors, and keys "would shift and change on a whim from Davis."[8] Davis eschewed his previous performances' keyboardists for a three-guitar line-up of Reggie Lucas, Dominique Gaumont, and Pete Cosey, who had a penchant for guitar wails and pedal effects.[9] Davis often stopped the band with hand signals and created empty spaces, which were longer than traditional jazz breaks and encouraged the soloists to fill them with exaggerated cadenzas.[10]

Davis only soloed intermittently or played his Yamaha organ.[9] He played trumpet on "Moja" and both trumpet and organ on the other pieces.[4] The second half of "Moja" is distinguished by a long ballad sequence introduced by Liebman and continued by Lucas and Davis.[6] "Moja" also included a theme from "Nne".[10] On "Tatu", Gaumont followed Lucas's solo with a long passage characterized by fuzzy wah-wah effects, and Lawrence played briefly with Liebman in a duet before his own disjointed solo.[6] "Tatu" ended with a rendition of "Calypso Frelimo".[4] During the first part of "Nne", they played the Davis-penned composition "Ife".[10] Near the end of "Nne", Davis played a short blues.[6]

Music journalist Robert Christgau described the aesthetic on Dark Magus as a culmination of Davis' previous albums and "bifurcated, like jazz-rock again".[11] He argued that Davis left the two elements—jazz and rock—"distinct and recognizable", whereas "pure funk" would have subsumed them both "in a new conception, albeit one that" favors rock. Christgau attributed the album's jazz input to Lawrence's "Coltranesque" saxophone, and the rock elements to guitarists Lucas and Gaumont, who "wah-riff[ed] the rhythm", and Pete Cosey, who produced "his own wah-wah-inflected noise into the arena-rock stratosphere."[7] Music journalist Erik Davis compared Davis' trumpet sound to "a mournful but pissed-off banshee", and Cosey, Lucas, and Gaumont to "somewhere between and beyond James Brown and Can", amid "quiet percussion passages [that] emerge like moonlit clearings".[12]

Release[edit]

Dark Magus was released after Davis' retirement, upon which his label, Columbia Records, issued several albums of various outtakes. They released his live albums Agharta (1975) and Pangaea (1976), but did ultimately did not approve of Davis' live recordings and chose to issue Dark Magus only in Japan.[2] It was released in 1977 by CBS-Sony,[13] who used several engineering fades in the album's production to shorten the original concert for the final release.[10] The album's four tracks were titled after Swahili names for the numbers one through four.[8] Its title was suggested by Tatsu Nosaki, an A&R executive from CBS-Sony, who were producing the album. According to Nosaki, "Magus ... is the founder of the ancient Persian religion, Zoroastrianism."[10]

The album was not released in the United States until July 1997, when it was reissued by Sony Records and Legacy Records. It was part of the labels' reissue of five two-disc live albums by Davis, including Black Beauty: Live at the Fillmore West (1970), Miles Davis at Fillmore (1970), Live-Evil (1971), and In Concert (1973). The reissued albums featured liner notes written by his sidemen.[5]

Reception and legacy[edit]

Professional ratings
Retrospective reviews
Review scores
Source Rating
AllMusic 4/5 stars[8]
Robert Christgau A[7]
Down Beat 4/5 stars[14]
Encyclopedia of Popular Music 4/5 stars[15]
Entertainment Weekly A[16]
Los Angeles Times 2/4 stars[17]
Pitchfork Media 9.5/10[18]
The Penguin Guide to Jazz 3.5/4 stars[19]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide 3.5/5 stars[20]

Along with Davis' other 1970s albums, Dark Magus was received ambivalently by music critics upon its release, but became an inspiration to late 1970s noise rock acts and the experimental funk artists of the 1980s.[21] Its 1997 reissue was ranked by Robert Christgau as the 10th best album of the year in his list for The Village Voice's annual Pazz & Jop critics' poll.[22] In 2001, Q magazine included it on their list of the 50 Heaviest Albums of All Time and called it "a maelstrom of uncut improvisational fury ... arguably the furthest out Miles ever got".[23] David Keenan placed it in his all-time 105 best albums list for the Sunday Herald and said that, by ornamenting his heavy grooves with tribal percussive instruments, wah-wah effects, and otherworldly trumpet bursts, Davis had instinctively fused the most advanced elements of contemporary African-American music.[24] According to CODA magazine's Greg Masters, Davis created among the most darkest and radical auras, feelings, and moods in 20th century music on Dark Magus.[25]

In a retrospective review for JazzTimes, Tom Terrell said that the album's kind of music would never be heard again and described it as "tomorrow's sound yesterday ... a terrifyingly exhilarating aural asylum of wails, howls, clanks, chanks, telltale heartbeats, wah wah quacks, white noise and loud silences."[26] According to Down Beat, the frantic burbles of congas on "Moja" and "Tatu" predated oldschool jungle by 20 years,[14] while Spin magazine's Erik Davis found its anguished, ferocious music extremely impressive, especially when listened to loud. He contended that the group improvisation on tracks such as "Wili" foreshadowed the drum 'n' bass genre: "Miles was invoking the primordial powers of the electronic urban jungle".[12] In The Penguin Guide to Jazz (1998), Richard Cook and Brian Morton wrote that each performance comprises only "shadings and sanations of sound, and as one gets to know these recordings better one becomes almost fixated on the tiniest inflexions."[19] Pitchfork Media's Jason Josephes viewed it as a highly valued Davis album that invokes a sense of coolness in listeners:

In The Rolling Stone Album Guide (2004), J. D. Considine wrote that Dark Magus expressed the band's surging rhythms better than In Concert and offered a balance between their affinity for improvisation amidst their desire to rock.[27] Jeff McCord of The Austin Chronicle found the performances impassioned, enduring, and highlighted by effectively competitive playing between each duo of saxophonists and guitarists.[28] According to John Szwed, it has moments when all three guitarists and two saxophonists are "in dense and exalted free improvisation together, and Pete Cosey's tunings, effects, excess, and sheer inventiveness took the guitar to the point where Hendrix, free jazz, and rhythm and blues proudly merged together."[10] By contrast, Don Heckman of the Los Angeles Times found the funk rhythms repetitive and Davis' playing both limited and unexceptional. He panned the presence of tablas, electric sitar, and multiple guitars, and the music's similarity to Hendrix, Sly Stone, and James Brown.[17] AllMusic's Thom Jurek called it an exaggerated and excessive showcase of Davis' disoriented psyche and felt that, although the rhythm section is historically captivating, the other musicians' playing is inconsistent, albeit enthralling.[8]

Track listing[edit]

Original double LP[edit]

All tracks were composed by Miles Davis.

Record one
  1. "Dark Magus – Moja" – 25:24
  2. "Dark Magus – Wili" – 25:08
Record two
  1. "Dark Magus – Tatu" – 25:20
  2. "Dark Magus – Nne" – 25:32

CD reissue[edit]

Disc one
  1. "Moja (Part 1)" – 12:28
  2. "Moja (Part 2)" – 12:40
  3. "Wili (Part 1)" – 14:20
  4. "Wili (Part 2)" – 10:44
Disc two
  1. "Tatu (Part 1)" – 18:47
  2. "Tatu (Part 2) ('Calypso Frelimo')" – 6:29
  3. "Nne (Part 1) ('Ife')" – 15:19
  4. "Nne (Part 2)" – 10:11

Personnel[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kaplan, Fred (November 15, 2009). "Miles of Miles". New York. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Bierman, Bryan. "Hidden Gems: Miles Davis' 'Dark Magus'". Magnet. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  3. ^ Pierce, Leonard (December 9, 2010). "Miles Davis : Primer". The A.V. Club (Chicago). Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Chambers 1998, p. 265.
  5. ^ a b c "A new jolt of Miles Davis". Austin American-Statesman. July 29, 1997. p. E2. Retrieved November 20, 2012.  (subscription required)
  6. ^ a b c d Chambers 1998, p. 266.
  7. ^ a b c Christgau 2000, p. 73.
  8. ^ a b c d Jurek, Thom (November 1, 2002). "Dark Magus – Miles Davis". AllMusic. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Sachs, Lloyd (July 27, 1997). "Early '70s albums show Miles Davis in free form". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Szwed 2004, p. 338.
  11. ^ Christgau, Robert (October 14, 1997). "Miles Davis's '70s: The Excitement! The Terror!". The Village Voice (New York). Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Davis, Erik (August 1997). "Freakin' the Funk – Revisiting Miles Davis's '70s Visions". Spin (New York): 117. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  13. ^ Chambers 1998, pp. 264–5.
  14. ^ a b "Review: Dark Magus". Down Beat (Chicago): 65. July 1997. 
  15. ^ Larkin 2006, p. 210.
  16. ^ Sinclair, Tom (August 1, 1997). "Review: Miles Davis live albums". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  17. ^ a b Heckman, Don (July 27, 1997). "Unleashing More of the Davis Legacy : MILES DAVIS". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  18. ^ a b Josephes, Jason (1997). "Review: Dark Magus". Pitchfork Media. Archived from the original on February 5, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  19. ^ a b Cook & Morton 1998, p. 393.
  20. ^ Considine et al. 2004, p. 215.
  21. ^ Pareles, Jon (September 29, 1991). "Miles Davis, Trumpeter, Dies; Jazz Genius, 65, Defined Cool". The New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  22. ^ Christgau, Robert. "Pazz & Jop 1997: Dean's List". The Village Voice (New York). Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  23. ^ "50 Heaviest Albums of All Time". Q (London): 87. July 2001. 
  24. ^ Keenan, David (September 9, 2001). "The Best Albums Ever... honest". Sunday Herald (Glasgow). Retrieved November 20, 2012. 
  25. ^ Masters, Greg (February 1998). "Electric Miles". CODA. 
  26. ^ Terrell, Tom (October 1997). Review: Dark Magus. JazzTimes. Retrieved on February 5, 2011.
  27. ^ Considine et al. 2004, p. 219.
  28. ^ McCord, Jeff (December 12, 1997). "Miles and Miles of Miles: The Columbia Legacy". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved November 20, 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]