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For psychoactive drugs that may induce dysphoria, see dysphoriant.
Not to be confused with Diaphoresis.

Dysphoria (from Greek: δύσφορος (dysphoros), from δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a state of feeling unwell or unhappy; a feeling of emotional and mental discomfort as a symptom of discontentment, restlessness, dissatisfaction, malaise, depression, anxiety or indifference.


Dysphoria (semantically opposite of euphoria) is a medically recognized mental and emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of depression, discontent, and in some cases indifference to the world around them.[1]

Mood disorders can induce dysphoria, often with a heightened risk of suicide, especially in persons with bipolar disorder who are in a depressive phase.[1] As the term refers only to a condition of mood, dysphoria may be experienced in response to ordinary life events, such as great illness or grief and commonly a romantic loss/breakup. Dysphoria can also be chemically induced by some commonly used psychoactive drugs, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics.[2]

Gender dysphoria[edit]

Main article: Gender dysphoria

The particular term "gender dysphoria" refers to a separate diagnosis made by psychologists and physicians to describe persons who experience significant discontent ("dysphoria") with the sex they were assigned at birth and/or the gender roles associated with that sex. The current edition (DSM-5) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders uses the term "gender dysphoria" in preference to "gender identity disorder". DSM-5 introduces the term "gender incongruence" as a better identifying and less stigmatising term.[3]

"Dysphoria" in popular culture[edit]

The condition is featured in many of the PBR&B Artist Lee Art's songs. Against Me! released the album Transgender Dysphoria Blues in 2014, with lyrical content that touches on lead singer Laura Jane Grace's transgender experience.[4] Another artist who speaks of it is Dellux.[original research?]

Related conditions[edit]

The following conditions may include dysphoria as a symptom:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Abbess, John F. "Glossary of terms in the field of psychiatry and neurology". Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  2. ^ Neuroleptic (antipsychotic) dysphoria | biopsychiatry.com
  3. ^ Fraser, L; Karasic, D; Meyer, W; Wylie, K (2010). "Recommendations for Revision of the DSM Diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder in Adults". International Journal of Transgenderism 12 (2): 80–85. doi:10.1080/15532739.2010.509202. 
  4. ^ Thompson, Stephen. "First Listen: Against Me!, 'Transgender Dysphoria Blues'" NPR. NPR, 12 Jan. 2014. Web. 27 May 2014. <http://www.npr.org/2014/01/12/261095666/first-listen-against-me-transgender-dysphoria-blues>.
  5. ^ Rosa RR, Bonnet MH (2000). "Reported chronic insomnia is independent of poor sleep as measured by electroencephalography". Psychosom Med 62 (4): 474–82. PMID 10949091. 
  6. ^ Chapman CR, Gavrin J (June 1999). "Suffering: the contributions of persistent pain". Lancet 353 (9171): 2233–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01308-2. PMID 10393002.