Elite Ice Hockey League

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Rapid Solicitors Elite Ice Hockey League
Current season, competition or edition:
2013–14 EIHL season
Sport Ice Hockey
Founded 2003
Inaugural season 2003–04
No. of teams 10
Countries United Kingdom
Headquarters 53 Chandos Place, Covent Garden, London, WC2N 4HS
Continent Europe
Most recent champion(s) Sheffield Steelers (3rd title)
Most titles Coventry Blaze (4 titles)
TV partner(s) Premier Sports
Official website eliteleague.co.uk

The Elite Ice Hockey League (EIHL) is a professional ice hockey league in the United Kingdom. Formed in 2003 following the demise of the Ice Hockey Superleague, it is the highest level of ice hockey competition in the United Kingdom. Initial sponsorship was from Rapid Solicitors.

The league currently consists of ten teams, with representation from all four Home Nations – the only league in any sport to do so. In eight completed seasons the league has been won by four different teams. From the 2012–13 Season onwards the league features a northern conference (Gardiner Conference, named after Scottish-born former NHL goalie Charlie Gardiner[1]) featuring Braehead (SCO), Dundee (SCO), Edinburgh (SCO), Fife (SCO) and Hull (ENG) and a Southern conference (Erhardt Conference, named after 1936 English Olympic Hockey Gold Medalist Carl Erhardt[1]) featuring Belfast (NIR), Cardiff (WAL), Coventry (ENG), Nottingham (ENG) and Sheffield (ENG).

Since 2012, the ten teams are split into two conferences, Gardiner and Erhardt – while previously all 10 teams competed in a single division, similar to most British sports. The top eight teams in the overall league standings qualify for the Elite League playoffs. The Elite League post-season is considerably shorter than playoff tournaments in North America; in the first round teams play a two-leg game (one home, one away) and the semi-finals and final take place over the course of a single weekend at the National Ice Centre in Nottingham.

Overview[edit]

Locations of the EIHL 2013–14 teams

Several competitions fall under the jurisdiction of the Elite League. In 2006–07, the EIHL ran a total of four competitions: the league, playoffs, Challenge Cup and Knockout Cup. The league consists of a single division, each team playing three home games and three away games against the other teams in the league. Teams play each team in their conference 4 times at home and 4 times away from home, and each team in the other conference twice at home and twice away. Two points are awarded for a win and one for an overtime or penalty shootout defeat. Overtime consists of five minutes of four-on-four hockey and ends immediately if a goal is scored. The team that has most points after all fixtures are completed is declared champion.

After the regular season is complete, the teams with the best regular season records enter the playoffs, the winner of which receives the British Championship. The number of teams competing in the playoffs has varied, the first two seasons saw six teams qualify, while the demise of the London Racers in November 2005 saw all eight teams qualify. Prior to the 2006–07 season, the teams were divided into two groups, with the members of each group playing on a round-robin basis. The top two teams in each group qualify for the semi-finals, which are straight knockout matches. However, since the 2006–07 season, the top eight teams of the regular season have qualified for the quarter-finals with the team finishing first playing the eighth-placed team, second vs seventh, third vs sixth and fourth vs fifth, with all ties being played on a two-legged, home and away game basis with the four winners qualifying for the semi-finals.[2] Both the semi-finals and the final take place over a single weekend in April at the National Ice Centre in Nottingham. Some Elite League games may also count as Challenge Cup games and points count for both.

The Challenge Cup has taken a number of different formats, ranging from a table formed from the results of designated league fixtures to four team groups played on a round-robin basis at the beginning of the season. The semi finals and final are two-legged games, the winner being the team with the highest aggregate score at the end of the second game.

The Knockout Cup was created in 2005 after the London Racers withdrew from the league. The Cup is a knockout tournament in which teams are randomly drawn to face one another in two-legged games, with aggregate scoreline determining the winner of each tie.

The Elite League is governed by a board of ten directors: the owners of the eight participating teams, plus the owners of the London Racers and Milton Keynes Lightning, who maintain the right to join the league without making an application. The day-to-day operation of the league is overseen by chairman Eamon Convery and Director of Hockey Andy French. Disciplinary matters are handled by Director of Discipline and former referee Simon Kirkham. The level below the Elite League is the English Premier Ice Hockey League. A system of promotion and relegation is not operated by the Elite League; teams enter the league on the basis of a decision by the board of directors. In 2006 the Hull Stingrays, the club which finished eighth in the EPIHL during the 2005–06 season, were elected into the Elite League.

At the end of the 2008–09 season, two teams, the Basingstoke Bison and Manchester Phoenix, withdrew from the EIHL largely due to financial difficulties.

History[edit]

British ice hockey's structure underwent major reorganisation in 1996. The British Hockey League (the highest senior competition since 1982) was disbanded and replaced by the Ice Hockey Superleague and British National League.

The loss of the Cardiff Devils and Newcastle Jesters in 2001 reduced the membership of the Superleague to seven and when the Manchester Storm and Scottish Eagles collapsed within a week of one another at the beginning of the 2002–03 season,[3] there were just five remaining teams. In December 2002, the Bracknell Bees announced their intention to resign from the league to join the BNL at the end of the season and uncertainty surrounded the future of the London Knights and their London Arena home. Owing a large debt to Ice Hockey UK and facing the prospect of having only three members, the league put itself into liquidation on 30 April 2003.[4]

The three remaining clubs (the Belfast Giants, Nottingham Panthers and Sheffield Steelers) began considering the formation of a new league with a lower wage cap and larger commitment to British players to attract other clubs into joining them. In the weeks that followed they were joined by the Basingstoke Bison, Cardiff Devils and Coventry Blaze of the British National League and two new organisations from London and Manchester. A team based in Glasgow was also planned, but did not come to fruition.[5] The new league met considerable opposition from the British National League and the governing body Ice Hockey UK. IHUK wished the remaining Superleague clubs to integrate themselves into the BNL and initially refused to grant the new league affiliation.[6] The Superleague clubs were reluctant to join the predominantly British trained league after several years of playing in an import-dominated league where British players were seldom able to step up to the standard of their North American and European counterparts. The Elite League instead preferred a twelve import limit with the rest of the team comprising British-trained players.

The refusal to grant affiliation caused a bitter row to ensue that showed little sign of being resolved. Despite not having the support of the governing body, the new league continued their plans regardless.[4] No affiliation would have meant that the clubs would have problems attaining work permits for their signings and finding officials to referee their matches. The row also threatened the future of the Nottingham Panthers, as the National Ice Centre were reluctant to allow a team from an unaffiliated league hire their arena. The issue was resolved in August 2003 when the Panthers and the NIC announced an icetime agreement.[7] The EIHL finally agreed affiliation in August 2003, with only weeks to go before the beginning of the new season.[8]

The new league began on 12 September 2003 when the Sheffield Steelers, who went on to become the inaugural league champions, defeated the newly formed London Racers 6–1 at Alexandra Palace. The Racers endured a difficult first season, moving to a different rink only weeks into the season and having to wait 40 games to record a win, a 3–0 victory over the Cardiff Devils. The Racers finished the season with ten points, thirty-eight points behind second bottom Basingstoke. The other new team, Manchester Phoenix fared slightly better, qualifying for the playoff finals after finishing sixth in the league, where they were defeated 6–1 by Nottingham in the semi final. The club played at the 17,500 capacity MEN Arena which had been home to the Manchester Storm, but Phoenix crowds averaged 2,250, well below the break-even mark of 3,000.[9] Late in the season, the Phoenix choose to play a game at IceSheffield rather than pay the considerable cost of hiring the arena for a mid week game (which usually had lower attendances). In the close season they allowed fans to vote on the option of either suspending playing operations while a new rink was constructed or playing in exile away from Manchester while a new rink was built. Supporters opted to suspend playing operations pending the construction of a new facility.[10]

The second season of the EIHL saw a series of games between the EIHL clubs and the members of the BNL. In addition to three home games and three away games against their Elite opponents, each club also played one home game and one away game against the BNL clubs in crossover matchups. Results in these crossover games would count towards a team's points tally. The NHL lock-out also saw a number of NHL players join British clubs. Coventry won a Grand Slam of all three titles, winning the Championship with an overtime victory over the Nottingham Panthers.[11]

The crossover games with the BNL clubs were seen by many to be the first stage towards the amalgamation of the two organisations into one league. However, early in the season it was revealed that teams including the Edinburgh Capitals and Newcastle Vipers were seeking to resign from the BNL and join the Elite League.[12] A withdrawal of the these clubs would leave the British National League with only a small number of participating teams. This situation led to the resigning teams temporarily withdrawing their Elite League applications and entering into collective discussions on the entire BNL joining the EIHL instead. The Elite League offered the BNL clubs invitations to join the EIHL structure,[13] which were declined due to unfavourable terms. Subsequently Edinburgh and Newcastle resubmitted individual applications to the Elite League, both of which were accepted. A combination of this and Bracknell Bees owner John Nike's announcement that he was withdrawing funding from the BNL team prompted the collapse of the BNL at the end of the 2004–05 season.

With the Edinburgh Capitals and Newcastle Vipers becoming the ninth and tenth members of the league, the 2005–06 season began with nine clubs (Manchester had opted to take another season out with no rink yet constructed). However, in November 2005 the London Racers withdrew their team from competition and immediately ceased operations. From their formation the Racers had suffered problems finding a rink with comparable facilities to those of their rivals and maintained only a very small fan base. The club had made the Lee Valley Ice Centre their home after playing only a small number of games at the Alexandra Palace in their first season. The facilities were very basic, seating only 900 people with an overall capacity of barely 1000. In November 2005, during a game against Nottingham, Panthers player Blaž Emeršič suffered a serious facial injury after colliding with a protruding object in the boardings.[14] Further concerns were raised when a game against the Sheffield Steelers was abandoned after a piece of plexiglas shattered in an irregular manner, injuring a spectator. When a similar event took place during practice a few days later, the Racers management began to question seriously the safety of the rink. With the Ice Centre unable to ensure the safety of players and spectators at Elite League games, the Racers were forced to suspend team operations with immediate effect.[15]

In January 2006, the Manchester Phoenix were granted planning permission to construct a new rink in Altrincham. A few weeks later the Cardiff Devils also received planning permission for the construction of a new rink. The Wales National Ice Rink was earmarked for demolition and a campaign for the council to provide a new facility proved successful. With both clubs confirming their intent to take part the following season, speculation began about the possible inclusion of a tenth team to replace London. After the season was over, rumours about the possible admission of either Hull or Dundee became more and more widespread. On 22 June 2006, the Hull Stingrays were formally elected into the Elite Ice Hockey League as the tenth active member.[16]

In June 2006 the EIHL announced the adoption of the 'zero tolerance' interpretation of the rules with regard to holding, hooking and interference implemented in the National Hockey League during the 2005–06 season. These rules had proved highly successful in the NHL, increasing the pace of the game and leading to a rise in spectator numbers.[17]

On 25 August 2006, the Elite League announced a sponsorship deal with the low cost airline bmibaby. The agreement saw the company's name incorporated into the league's title and the airline's branding at each of the league's ten arenas. The deal was intended to last for seven seasons,[18] but ended prematurely during the 2008–09 season.

On 30 April 2009, the Manchester Phoenix announced that they would withdraw from the league, and play instead in the English Premier Ice Hockey League, due to cost issues.[19] This news followed the announcement that the Basingstoke Bison were also leaving to play in the EPL for the 2009–2010 season.[20]

After losing two teams at the end of the 2008/09 season the Elite League was boosted by a new franchise joining the league. The Braehead Clan were announced as the ninth team from the 2010/11 season. On 27 April 2010, the Dundee Stars were unanimously accepted into the League by the EIHL board. They competed from the 2010/11 season.

Hull Stingrays withdrew from the League on 11 August 2010, announced via the club's official website,[21] and later confirmed on the BBC's site.[22] However, after a takeover from Coventry Blaze on 17 August 2010, the Hull Stingrays confirmed that they would indeed be participating in the League for the 2010/11 season.[23]

Clubs[edit]

Club Founded City Arena(s) Capacity Years in EIHL
Belfast Giants 2000 Belfast Odyssey Arena 8,000 2003–present
Braehead Clan 2010 Glasgow Braehead Arena 3,750 2010–present
Cardiff Devils 1986 Cardiff Cardiff Arena 2,500 2003–present
Coventry Blaze 2000 Coventry SkyDome Arena 3,600 2003–present
Dundee Stars 2001 Dundee Dundee Ice Arena 3,300 2010–present
Edinburgh Capitals 1998 Edinburgh Murrayfield Ice Rink 4,800 2005–present
Fife Flyers 1938 Kirkcaldy Fife Ice Arena 4,280 2011–present
Hull Stingrays 2003 Kingston upon Hull Hull Arena 3,000 2006–present
Nottingham Panthers 1946 Nottingham National Ice Centre 8,000 2003–present
Sheffield Steelers 1991 Sheffield Motorpoint Arena Sheffield 13,500 2003–present

Former clubs[edit]

Club Founded City Arena(s) Capacity Years in EIHL
Basingstoke Bison 1988 Basingstoke Planet Ice Silverdome Arena 1,800 2003–2009
London Racers 2003 London (Waltham Forest) Lee Valley Ice Centre 1,200 2003–2005
Manchester Phoenix 2003 Manchester / Altrincham Manchester Arena / Altrincham Ice Dome 2,150 2003–2009
Newcastle Vipers 2002 Newcastle upon Tyne / Whitley Bay Metro Radio Arena / Whitley Bay Ice Rink 3,000 2005–2011

Players[edit]

Elite League teams rely heavily on players from outside the United Kingdom (termed imports). The majority of these players are from North America, and typically played in the minor North American leagues such as the ECHL and AHL before coming to Britain. For example, of the 21 players to play for champions Belfast Giants in the 2005–06 season, 10 were Canadian, 8 were British and 3 were American. The league restricts the number of import players which can be dressed for a game, with a current limit of 11 imports.[24] Player turnover is high, with a large proportion of players spending a single season at a team before moving on, and multi-year contracts are uncommon.

As would be expected in a league dominated by North American players, the style of ice hockey in Britain is similar to that played in North America, and has a more physical style than that played in other, technically natured European countries.[25] This was demonstrated during the 2004–05 NHL lock-out. Of the NHL players to join Elite League teams, the majority were players noted for physical strength rather than puck-handling skills, such as Wade Belak and Eric Cairns.

While British players account for a minority of Elite League players, the league supplies the majority of players for the Great Britain team. 20 of the 22 players in the Great Britain squad for the 2008 World Championships played for Elite League teams in the preceding season.[26]

Media coverage[edit]

Ice hockey receives little national media coverage in the United Kingdom. Some national newspapers list results and provide short summaries of the league's news but more extensive coverage remains minimal. There was a small surge in interest during the 2004–05 season when newspapers such as The Times reported on the NHL players playing the Elite League as a result of the lock-out[27] but since the lock-out ended, coverage has returned to its previous levels.

In the 1980s and 1990s, Sky Sports and the BBC's Grandstand programme covered the British Hockey League and Superleague and their important games and competitions regularly. However, in 2001 the Superleague sold its broadcasting rights to 'Premium TV Ltd' who planned to set up a new sports channel, which never materialised. British ice hockey was left without coverage from any television network.[28] This situation continued through the final seasons of the Superleague and into the first seasons of the Elite League. In 2005, Elite League officials concluded an agreement with the North American Sports Network to provide a weekly highlights and news programme. These usually provide highlights from a game recorded the previous weekend and are an hour in length. In September 2007 the Elite League announced a deal with Sky Sports for a weekly show of Elite League highlights.[29] In 2010 Sky Sports showed the playoff final between the Belfast Giants and Cardiff Devils live, this was the first time sky had shown a live game for several years. Sky Sports have recently announced plans to show 8 live games along with a weekly highlight show during the 2010/2011 season. In season 2013/2014 Premier Sports acquired the rights to film and broadcast 23 games from the Elite League with a live game shown every Saturday night from 23 November onwards. Live coverage will also include the playoffs and playoff final.

Of the national newspapers only the Daily Star has a regular ice hockey column which appears on Tuesday and Sunday.

Coverage in the towns and cities where Elite League clubs are based is more extensive, and local newspapers have dedicated ice hockey reporters who cover the local team. Local radio stations such as BBC Coventry & Warwickshire, BBC Radio Nottingham and BBC Radio Sheffield all provide live commentary of matches. These are either broadcast live on the stations themselves or are webcast through the stations' websites. Radio Sheffield also provides a weekly ice hockey programme Iceline while Radio Nottingham has broadcast a similar programme, Powerplay since the later stages of the 2005–06 season, and has a fifteen-minute weekly preview of games on a Saturday evening during the ice hockey season after the station's coverage of the local football teams is completed. BBC Coventry & Warwickshire have also followed suit with Faceoff, a program broadcast on the first Thursday of the month during the season. Video footage can also be viewed from the website.

The Coventry Blaze, Edinburgh Capitals and Belfast Giants also provide webcasts on match nights.

Champions[edit]

Season League Play-offs Challenge Cup British Knockout Cup 20/20
Champions Runners-up Champions Runners-up Winners Runners-up Winners Runners-up Winners Runners-up
2003–04 Sheffield Steelers Nottingham Panthers Sheffield Steelers Nottingham Panthers Nottingham Panthers Sheffield Steelers
2004–05 Coventry Blaze Belfast Giants Coventry Blaze Nottingham Panthers Coventry Blaze Cardiff Devils
2005–06 Belfast Giants Newcastle Vipers Newcastle Vipers Sheffield Steelers Cardiff Devils Coventry Blaze Sheffield Steelers Coventry Blaze
2006–07 Coventry Blaze Belfast Giants Nottingham Panthers Cardiff Devils Coventry Blaze Sheffield Steelers Cardiff Devils Coventry Blaze
2007–08 Coventry Blaze Sheffield Steelers Sheffield Steelers Coventry Blaze Nottingham Panthers Sheffield Steelers Coventry Blaze Basingstoke Bison
2008–09 Sheffield Steelers Coventry Blaze Sheffield Steelers Nottingham Panthers Belfast Giants Manchester Phoenix Belfast Giants Manchester Phoenix
2009–10 Coventry Blaze Belfast Giants Belfast Giants Cardiff Devils Nottingham Panthers Cardiff Devils Sheffield Steelers Coventry Blaze
2010–11 Sheffield Steelers Cardiff Devils Nottingham Panthers Cardiff Devils Nottingham Panthers Belfast Giants Braehead Clan Nottingham Panthers
2011–12 Belfast Giants Sheffield Steelers Nottingham Panthers Cardiff Devils Nottingham Panthers Belfast Giants
2012–13 Nottingham Panthers Belfast Giants Nottingham Panthers Belfast Giants Nottingham Panthers Sheffield Steelers
2013–14 Belfast Giants Sheffield Steelers Sheffield Steelers Belfast Giants Nottingham Panthers Belfast Giants

Comparison to other leagues[edit]

In terms of international quality, the EIHL is one of the lesser European Senior Leagues. The quality is below that of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga, the Liiga, and the Swedish Hockey League but is of a higher standard than the Dutch Eredivisie or the French Ligue Magnus. It is on par with the Italian Serie A, Danish AL-Bank Ligaen and Norwegian GET-ligaen.

In attendance, the EIHL ranks ninth among the European top leagues with an 1,977 average. Two teams are among the most popular of the continent, 2013 champions Nottingham Panthers at 54th (5,057 average) and 2012 champions Belfast Giants at 88th (3,932).[30]

The EIHL champions are invited to play in the Continental Cup, Europe's 2nd level club competition. For the 2009–2010 tournament, the EIHLs entrants entered the tournament in the penultimate (3rd) group stage.[31]

When compared to North American leagues, the calibre of play is probably equivalent to that of the teams in the ECHL even though the league has attracted top players from the AHL and even the NHL including number 5 draft pick Ed Courtenay, former Atlanta Thrashers Goaltender Scott Fankhouser and former Calgary Flames star Theo Fleury and many others like Nick Boynton, Eric Cairns, Chris McAllister, Wade Belak, and Rumun Ndur. During the 2012–2013 NHL Lockout, several NHL players plied their trade in the Elite League, including; Matt Beleskey, Paul Bissonnette, Drew Miller, Tom Sestito & Anthony Stewart.

Criticism of the EIHL[edit]

The main criticism levelled at the EIHL is that the league is too expensive, an accusation given credence by the collapse of the London Racers mid season in 2005, and the continued financial problems experienced by a number of other member clubs (most notably Basingstoke Bison and Manchester Phoenix in 2008–2009). Both the Edinburgh Capitals and Newcastle Vipers have made public statements about their potentially perilous financial situations, casting further doubt over both their own, and the league's sustained viability.[32][33] This perceived problem with expenditure was given further credence when the Hull Stingrays announced on 11 August 2010 that they were ceasing operations immediately due insufficient funds from sponsorship to guarantee completing the season.[22] They were, however, taken over on 17 August 2010 by Coventry Blaze and therefore Hull Stingrays continued to operate.[23] In 2011 the Newcastle Vipers announced that they would not be able to compete in the 2011–2012 season due to financial difficulties and lack of a permanent home stadium. Newcastle had, up to this point, been playing their home games at Whitley Bay ice rink. A proposed new stadium in the Newcastle area did not materialise.[34]

It has been argued by some fans that hosting the Elite League Playoff Weekend at the National Ice Centre in Nottingham gives an unfair advantage to the Nottingham Panthers (who have won the playoffs four times). There are arguably several other suitable venues in the UK such as Sheffields Motorpoint Arena, the MEN Arena in Manchester, the Odyssey Arena in Belfast and the Excel Centre in London (all of which have hosted major hockey events in the past). However, there are currently no plans to move the tournament out of Nottingham.

Expansion[edit]

Despite there being a limited number of suitable venues for league expansion, there have been various attempts during the EIHLs short lifespan to expand the league. After the successful addition of the Braehead Clan and the Dundee Stars for the 2010–2011 season, the EIHL reported that it had entered discussions with the Fife Flyers formerly of the defunct BNL, and then resident in the SNL.[35] On 24 June 2011, it was confirmed that the Fife Flyers had been admitted to the EIHL in time for the commencement of the 2011–2012 season.[36]

Further to this, Neil Black, owner of the Nottingham Panthers and Braehead Clan has expressed the desire to see a Manchester team back in the EIHL by 2015, along with teams in Dublin and London,[37] subject to there being suitable venues available.

Records[edit]

  • Most Wins in Regular Season: Belfast Giants (46) (2011–12, 54 Game Season)
  • Most Ties in Regular Season: London Racers (9) (2004–05, 50 Game Season)
  • Most Losses in Regular Season (inc. Overtime): London Racers (51) (2003–04, 56 Game Season)
  • Most Goals Scored in Regular Season: Cardiff Devils (269) (2010–11, 54 Game Season)
  • Most Goals Conceded in Regular Season: Edinburgh Capitals (418) (2010–11, 54 Game Season)
  • Most Points in Regular Season: Belfast Giants (95) (2011–12, 54 Game Season)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Erhardt and Gardiner". Elite Ice Hockey League. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  2. ^ Elite League (2007). "bmibaby Elite League confirm 2007/08 competitions". eliteleague.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2007. 
  3. ^ BBC (14 November 2002). "Eagles forced out". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2 July 2006. 
  4. ^ a b BBC (31 May 2003). "Elite League "will go ahead"". BBC News. Retrieved 2 July 2006. 
  5. ^ Hand, Tony; Appleton, Mike (2006). A Life in British Ice Hockey. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-3797-6.  p141
  6. ^ Sport Focus (2003). "Governing Body Decline to Affiliate Elite League". sportfocus.com. Retrieved 25 June 2006. 
  7. ^ Nottingham Panthers (2003). "GMB Panthers and National Ice Centre Reach Agreement for 2003/4 Season". panthers.co.uk. Retrieved 2 July 2006. 
  8. ^ BBC (10 September 2003). "Face-off for Elite ambitions". BBC News. Retrieved 2 July 2006. 
  9. ^ Manchester Evening News (2004). "Phoenix place future in fans' hands". Manchester Online. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2006. 
  10. ^ Manchester Evening News (2004). "Phoenix ice break". Manchester Online. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2006. 
  11. ^ "Grand Slam triumph for Coventry". BBC. 10 April 2005. Retrieved 2 June 2007. 
  12. ^ Nigel Duncan (2004). "Capitals eyeing their place among the elite". The Scotsman. Retrieved 3 July 2006. 
  13. ^ Bolton Evening News (2005). "Leagues look set to merge at last". This is Lancashire. Retrieved 3 July 2006. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Sports Round-up". London: Daily Telegraph. 2005. Archived from the original on 18 November 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2007. 
  15. ^ London Racers (2005). "Racers call 'time' on Lee Valley". londonracers.com. Retrieved 25 June 2006. [dead link]
  16. ^ Elite League (2006). "Stingrays addition brings Elite League to Ten". eliteleague.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2006. 
  17. ^ Elite League (2006). "Elite League Follows NHL Lead". eliteleague.co.uk. Archived from the original on 14 July 2006. Retrieved 2 July 2006. 
  18. ^ Manchester Phoenix (2006). "bmibaby unveiled as first ever sponsor of Ice Hockey's Elite League". www.manchesterphoenix.co.uk. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 25 August 2006. 
  19. ^ Manchester Evening News (2009). "Phoenix to leave top tier". www.manchesterevening news.co.uk. Retrieved 14 June 2009. 
  20. ^ [1][dead link]
  21. ^ http://www.hullstingrays.co.uk/
  22. ^ a b "Stingrays owners confirm closure". BBC News. 11 August 2010. 
  23. ^ a b "Hull Stingrays ice hockey team back in business after takeover". This is Hull & East Riding. Hull Daily Mail. 17 August 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2010. 
  24. ^ Newcastle Vipers (2006). "Wilson applauds import reduction". newcastlevipers.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2006. 
  25. ^ O Kivinen; J Mesikämmen; T Metsä-Tokila (2001). "A Case Study in Cultural Diffusion: British Ice Hockey and American Influences in Europe". Sport in Society 4 (1): 49–62. doi:10.1080/713999809. Retrieved 2 June 2007. 
  26. ^ Elite League (2007). "Team GB for the World Championships in Slovenia". eliteleague.co.uk. Archived from the original on 6 May 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2007. 
  27. ^ Robert Galster (5 March 2005). "The puck stops here for NHL stars". London: The Times. Retrieved 25 June 2006. 
  28. ^ BBC (20 November 2001). "Ice hockey TV deal collapses". BBC News. Retrieved 2 July 2006. 
  29. ^ Elite League (2007). [http://web.archive.org/web/20071118033409 /http://www.eliteleague.co.uk/news/detail.php?id=5190 "EIHL announce Sky deal"]. Archived from the original on 18 November 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2007. 
  30. ^ [backPid=955&cHash=85da1c3b06 "Swiss on top of Europe"]. IIHF. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  31. ^ 2010 Preliminary
  32. ^ Edinburgh Capitals :: News – Statement from Scott Neil on Gardiner Cup, position of club and Fans Forum
  33. ^ Statement from the General Manager
  34. ^ http://www.eliteleague.co.uk/newcastle-no-to-2011-12-p170996
  35. ^ http://www.fifetoday.co.uk/sport/ice-hockey/flyers_turn_down_elite_ice_hockey_1_1550804
  36. ^ http://www.fifetoday.co.uk/sport/ice-hockey/flyers_place_in_the_elite_league_confirmed_1_1697024
  37. ^ http://www.thisisnottingham.co.uk/panthers/Panthers-owner-future-Elite-League/article-2089847-detail/article.html

External links[edit]