An earworm is a piece of music that sticks in one's mind so that one seems to hear it, even when it is not being played. Other phrases used to describe this include musical imagery repetition and involuntary musical imagery. The phenomenon is common in normal life and so may be distinguished from brain damage that results in palinacousis. The word earworm is a calque from the German Ohrwurm.
It is a type of song that typically has a high, upbeat melody and repetitive lyrics that verge between catchy and annoying. Earworms are also referred as "stuck song syndrome", "involuntary musical imagery" (INMIs), "brainworms", or "sticky music". Researchers who have studied and written about the phenomenon include Theodor Reik, Sean Bennett, Oliver Sacks, Daniel Levitin, James Kellaris, Philip Beaman,  Vicky Williamson, and, in a more theoretical perspective, Peter Szendy.
One reason that this occurs is that melodic music tends to have a rhythm that repeats. This cyclical nature may cause endless repetition, unless some way to achieve a climax that breaks the cycle is found.
Research and cures 
According to research by James Kellaris, 98% of individuals experience earworms. Women and men experience the phenomenon equally often, but earworms tend to last longer for women and irritate them more. Kellaris produced statistics suggesting that songs with lyrics may account for 73.7% of earworms, whereas instrumental music may cause only 7.7%.
In a 2006 book by Daniel Levitin entitled This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession, he states that research has shown musicians and people with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are more likely to suffer from earworm attacks. An attack usually involves a small portion of a song equal to or less than the capacity of one's auditory short-term memory. Levitin reports that capacity as usually 15 to 30 seconds. Simple tunes are more likely to get stuck than complex pieces of music. He also mentions that in some situations, OCD medications have been known to minimize the effects. In 2010, published data in the British Journal of Psychology directly addressed the subject, and its results support earlier claims that earworms are usually 15 to 30 seconds in length.
Scientists at Western Washington University found that engaging the working memory in moderately difficult tasks (such as anagrams, Sudoku puzzles, or reading a novel) was an effective way of stopping earworms and of reducing their recurrence.
Notable cases 
Jean Harris, who murdered Dr. Herman Tarnower, was obsessed by the song "Put the Blame on Mame", which she first heard in the film Gilda. She would recall this regularly for over 33 years and could hold a conversation while playing it in her mind.
In popular culture 
It is quite a common thing to be thus annoyed with the ringing in our ears, or rather in our memories, of the burthen of some ordinary song, or some unimpressive snatches from an opera. Nor will we be the less tormented if the song in itself be good, or the opera air meritorious.
In Henry Kuttner's short story "Nothing but Gingerbread Left" (1943), Kuttner imagines a secret allied effort against Nazi Germany using a catchy rhyme to break the opposition's concentration. English speakers were safe from the earworm, as the text did not scan in English.
In Arthur C. Clarke's 1957 science fiction short story "The Ultimate Melody", a scientist, Gilbert Lister, develops the ultimate melody – one that so compels the brain that its listener becomes completely and forever enraptured by it. As the storyteller, Harry Purvis, explains, Lister theorized that a great melody "made its impression on the mind because it fitted in with the fundamental electrical rhythms going on in the brain." Lister attempts to abstract from the hit tunes of the day to a melody that fits in so well with the electrical rhythms that it dominates them completely. He succeeds and is found in a catatonic state from which he never awakens.
In Fritz Leiber's Hugo Award-nominated short story "Rump-Titty-Titty-Tum-TAH-Tee" (1959), the title describes a rhythmic drumbeat so powerful that it rapidly spreads to all areas of human culture, until a counter-rhythm is developed that acts as an antidote.
In Joe Simpson's 1988 book Touching the Void, he talks about not being able to get the tune "Brown Girl in the Ring" by Boney M out of his head. The book tells of his survival, against the odds, after a mountaineering accident in the remote Siula Grande region of South America. Alone, badly injured, and in a semi-delirious state, he is confused as to whether he is imagining the music or really hearing it.
See also 
- Intrusive thoughts
- Auditory imagery
- Hook (music)
- Musical hallucinations
- Musical ear syndrome
- Idée fixe (psychology)
- Phonological loop
- Tetris effect
- "earworm", wordspy.com
- Liikkanen, L. A. (2012). "Inducing involuntary musical imagery: An experimental study". Musicae Scientiae 16 (2): 217–234. doi:10.1177/1029864912440770.
- Liikkanen, Lassi A. (2008). "Music in Everymind: Commonality of Involuntary Musical Imagery". Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (ICMPC 10) (Sapporo, Japan): 408–412. ISBN 978-4-9904208-0-2.
- Sacks, Oliver (2007, 2008). Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain. First Vintage Books. ISBN 978-1-4000-3353-9.
- Reik, Theodor (1953, 1960). The Haunting Melody: Psychoanalytic Experiences in Life and Music. New York: Grove Press.
- Bennett, Sean (August 30, 2002). Musical Imagery Repetition (Master). Cambridge University. http://www.seanbennett.net/music/essays.html.
- Levitin, Daniel (2006). This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession. New York, New York: Dutton, Penguin. ISBN 0452288525. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Kellaris, James J. (Winter 2001). "Identifying Properties of Tunes That Get 'Stuck in Your Head'". Proceedings of the Society for Consumer Psychology (Scottsdale, AZ: American Psychological Society): 66–67.
- Beaman, C. P.; Williams, T. I. (2010). "Earworms (stuck song syndrome): Towards a natural history of intrusive thoughts". British Journal of Psychology 101 (4): 637. doi:10.1348/000712609X479636.
- Chatterjee, Rhitu (6 March 2012). "Earworms: Why songs get stuck in our heads". BBC News. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- Szendy, Peter (2012). Hits. Philosophy in the Jukebox. translated by William Bishop. Fordham University Press.
- Levitt, Stephan M. (1993). Machine Models of Music. MIT Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-262-19319-1.
- Adams, Cecil (October 16, 2009), "Why do songs get stuck in your head?", The Straight Dope
- Hoffman, Carey (2001-04-04). "Songs That Cause The Brain To 'Itch': UC Professor Investigating Why Certain Tunes Get Stuck In Our Heads". University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 2012-08-06. "Of the 1,000 respondents, the kind of music respondents said they got stuck on most recently were songs with lyrics for 73.7 percent, jingles or ads for 18.6 percent and an instrumental tune for 7.7 percent."
- Gray, Richard (24 March 2013). "Get that tune out of your head - scientists find how to get rid of earworms". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Got a song stuck in your head? Solving an anagram can help get rid of it, Daily Mail, 24 March 2013
- Díaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L. (October 16, 2004). "Jean Harris' Obsessive Film Song Recall". PsyArt.
- "Nothing but Gingerbread Left" (Blog), Tenser, said the Tensor, May 23, 2004
- Chorost, Michael, "The Ultimate Melody by Arthur C. Clarke", The Web site of aleph
- Pretor-Pinney, Gavin (2010), The Wavewatcher's Companion, Bloomsbury Publishing, p. 218, ISBN 978-0-7475-8976-1
- Simpson, Joe (1988). Touching the Void.
- "Ear Worm: Musical Doodle". Nick.com. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
Further reading 
- Vadim Prokhorov (22 June 2006), "Can't get it out of my head", The Guardian
- Divya Singhal (December 8, 2011), Why this Kolaveri Di: Maddening Phenomenon of Earworm