|Place of origin||Württemberg, Germany|
|Notable members||Albert Einstein, Maja Einstein, Hermann Einstein, Pauline Koch|
|Connected families||Koch, Moos, Overnauer, Clews|
The Einstein family is the family of the physicist Albert Einstein (1879–1955). Einstein's great-great-great-great-grandfather, Jakob Weil, was his oldest recorded relative, born around the turn of the 18th century, and the family continues to this day. Albert Einstein's great-great-grandfather, Löb Moses Sontheimer (1745–1831), was also the grandfather of the prominent tenor Heinrich Sontheim (1820–1912) of Stuttgart.
Albert's three children were from his relationship with his first wife, Mileva Marić, his daughter Lieserl being born a year before they married.
Albert Einstein's second wife was Elsa Einstein, whose mother Fanny Koch was the sister of Albert's mother, and whose father Rudolf Einstein was the son of Raphael Einstein, a brother of Albert's paternal grandfather. Thus Albert and Elsa were first cousins through their mothers and second cousins through their fathers.
- 1 Einstein Family table
- 2 Pauline Koch (Albert's mother)
- 3 Hermann Einstein (Albert's father)
- 4 Maria "Maja" Einstein (Albert's sister)
- 5 Lieserl Einstein (Albert's daughter)
- 6 Abraham Einstein (Albert's grandfather)
- 7 Ancestors and relatives
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Einstein Family table
|Jakob Weil from Wallerstein (?) (father of Jüttle Sara)|
|Second generation||Juda from Nordstetten (?), Chaja [last name unknown] (?),
Hoyna Moses Sontheimer (1705-?), Gölla [last name unknown] (?)
|Jakob Weil (?), Jüttle Sara Weil (1722–1808),
David Ka Löb Moses Sontheimer (1745-?)
|Jakob Simon Bernheimer (1756–1790), Leah Hajm (1753–1833)
Bernard (Beerle) Weil (1750–1840), Rösle Katz (1760–1826)
|Fourth generation||Naftali Einstein (1733-1801), Hayum Moos, Helene Steppach (1737-1790)|
|Fifth generation||Rupert Einstein (1759–1834) Veit Hirsch (1763–1820) Rebekka Overnauer (1770–1843)
Hayum Moos (1788-?), Fanny Schmal (1792-?)
|Zadok Löb Dörzbacher (1783–1852), Blumle Sontheimer (1786–1856)|
|Sixth generation||Abraham Einstein (1808–1868). Siblings: Hirsch Einstein [b.1799-?], Judith Einstein [b.1802-?], Samuel Rupert Einstein [b.1804-?], Raphael Einstein [b.1806-?], David Einstein [b.1810-?]),
Helene Moos (1814–1887, Siblings: None)
|Julius Dörzbacher (1816–1895, Siblings: None),
Jette Bernheimer (1825–1886, Siblings: None)
|Seventh generation||Hermann Einstein (1847–1902). Siblings: August Ignaz Einstein (b. 1841-?), Jette Einstein (b. 1844-?), Heinrich Einstein (b. 1845-?), Jakob Einstein (b. 1850-?), Friederike Einstein (b. 1855-?)||Pauline Koch (1858–1920). Siblings: Fanny Koch (1852–1926), Jacob Koch (?), Caesar Koch (?)|
|Eighth generation||Albert Einstein (1879–1955), Maja Einstein (1881–1951)||Albert's wives: Mileva Marić (1875–1948), Elsa Einstein (1876–1936)|
|Ninth generation (Albert's children)||Lieserl Einstein (1902-?), Hans Albert Einstein (1904–1973), Eduard Einstein (1910–1965)|
|Tenth generation||Bernhard Caesar Einstein (1930–2008), Klaus Martin (1933–1939); and Evelyn (1941–2011, adopted child)|
|Eleventh generation||Thomas Martin Einstein (1955-), Paul Michael Einstein (1959-), Eduard Albert (Ted) Einstein (1961-), Mira Einstein-Yehieli (1965-), Charles Quincy Ascher (Charly) Einstein (1971-)|
Pauline Koch (Albert's mother)
|Pauline Einstein (née Koch)|
Pauline Einstein (née Koch)
February 8, 1858|
|Died||February 20, 1920
|Children||Albert Einstein and Maja Einstein|
|Parent(s)||Julius Derzbacher and Jette Bernheimer|
Pauline Einstein (née Koch) (February 8, 1858 – February 20, 1920) was the mother of the physicist Albert Einstein. She was born in Cannstatt, Württemberg. She was Jewish and had an older sister, Fanny, and two older brothers, Jacob and Caesar. Her parents were Julius Doerzbacher, who had accepted the family name Koch in 1842, and Jette Bernheimer. They had married in 1847. Pauline’s father was from Jebenhausen, now part of the city of Göppingen, and came from simple circumstances. Later he lived in Cannstatt and together with his brother Heinrich, succeeded in making a considerable fortune in the corn trade. They even became “Royal Württemberg Purveyor to the Court”. Their mother was from Cannstatt and was a quiet and caring person.
At 18 years old, Pauline married the merchant Hermann Einstein who lived in Ulm. They got married in Cannstatt on August 8, 1876. After the marriage, the young couple lived in Ulm, where Hermann became joint partner in a bed feathers company. Their son, Albert was born on March 14, 1879. On the initiative of Hermann’s brother Jakob the family moved to Munich in the summer of 1880, where the two brothers together founded an electrical engineering company called  Einstein & Cie. The second child of Hermann and Pauline, their daughter Maria (called Maja), was born in Munich on November 18, 1881. Pauline Einstein was a very well educated and quiet woman who had an inclination towards the arts. When her duties in the household allowed it, she was an assiduous and good piano player. She made Albert begin with violin lessons at the age of five.
The factory of Hermann and Jakob was moved to Pavia, Italy in 1894. Hermann, Maria and Pauline moved to Milan in the same year and one year later, moved to Pavia. Albert stayed with relatives in Munich to continue his education there. The separation from her son was certainly difficult for Pauline. Due to poor business, the brothers had to abandon their factory in 1896. Though Hermann had lost most of their money, he founded (without his brother) another electrical engineering company in Milan. This time business was better. However, Hermann's health had gone downhill, and he died of heart failure in Milan on October 10, 1902.
In 1903, Pauline went to live with her sister Fanny and her husband Rudolf Einstein, a first cousin of Hermann, in Hechingen, Württemberg. Fanny's daughter, Elsa was to become the second wife of Albert in 1919. In 1910, Pauline moved with her sister, Fanny and her family to Berlin. She took on a job as housekeeper in Heilbronn, Württemberg in 1911. She lived with her brother Jacob Koch and his family in Zurich after 1914.
During World War I, Pauline fell ill with cancer. In 1918, when visiting her daughter, Maria and son-in-law, Paul Winteler in Luzern, Pauline was taken to the sanatorium Rosenau, due to her illness. At the end of 1919, Albert took his terminally-ill mother out of the sanatorium in Luzern and brought her to Haberlandstrasse 5, Berlin to stay with him and his second wife Elsa, where she later died.
Hermann Einstein (Albert's father)
August 30, 1847|
Buchau, Kingdom of Württemberg
|Died||October 10, 1902
Milan, Kingdom of Italy
|Occupation||Scientific utility salesman, Electrician|
|Children||Albert Einstein and Maja Einstein|
|Parent(s)||Abraham Einstein and Helene Moos|
Hermann Einstein (August 30, 1847 – October 10, 1902) was the father of Albert Einstein.
He had six siblings:
- Raphael (December 3, 1839 – January 15, 1842); male
- Jette (January 13, 1844 – January 7, 1905); female
- Heinrich (October 12, 1845 – November 16, 1877); male
- August Ignaz (December 23, 1849 – April 14, 1911); male
- Jakob (November 25, 1850 – 1912); male
- Friederike "Rika" (March 15, 1855 – June 17, 1938); female
At the age of 14, Hermann attended the secondary school in the regional capital Stuttgart and was academically successful. He had a strong affection for mathematics, and would have liked to study in this or a related area, but as the financial situation of the family opposed further education, he decided to become a merchant and began an apprenticeship in Stuttgart.
Marriage to Pauline
Hermann married 18-year-old Pauline Koch in Cannstatt, Württemberg on August 8, 1876. After their wedding, the young couple lived in Ulm, where Hermann became joint partner in the bed feathers shop of his cousins, Moses and Hermann Levi. In Ulm, their son Albert was born on March 14, 1879. On the initiative of Hermann's brother Jakob, the family moved to Munich in the summer of 1880. There, the two brothers founded the electrical engineering company Einstein & Cie, with Hermann being the merchant and Jakob the technician. The second child of Hermann and Pauline, their daughter Maria, (called Maja) was born in Munich on November 18, 1881.
The Einsteins' electrical firm manufactured dynamos and electrical meters based on direct current. They were instrumental in bringing electricity to Munich, the capital of a very Catholic Bavaria. In 1885, they won the contract that provided DC lights to illuminate the Oktoberfest for the first time. To young, impressionable Albert, this must have been the source of great pride, for at this time Albert was the only Jew in his Catholic Petersschule class.
To their dismay, the Einstein brothers eventually lost a bidding war for the electrification contract of Munich to Siemens, which promoted the modern alternating current. Their fortunes took a decidedly downward turn from there.
The two brothers moved their company to Pavia, Italy in 1894. Hermann, Pauline and Maja moved to Milan in the same year and one year later moved to Pavia. Albert stayed with relatives in Munich to continue his education there.
Due to poor business, Hermann and Jakob had to burn their factory in 1896. Though Hermann had lost most of their money, he founded another electrical engineering company in Milan, this time without his brother. He was supported financially by his relatives in this venture. Though business was better this time, Hermann was preoccupied with “worries due to the vexatious money”. He moved back to Germany in 1902.
Maria "Maja" Einstein (Albert's sister)
|Maria 'Maja' Einstein|
Maria 'Maja' Einstein ca.1930
November 18, 1881
|Died||June 25, 1951
Princeton, New Jersey, USA
Cause of death
Italy (1894–1902, 1922–1939)
United States (1939–1951)
|Known for||Albert's well known inventions|
|Parent(s)||Hermann Einstein and Pauline Koch|
"Yes, but where does it have its small wheels?" Question by a young Albert Einstein when he first saw his sister in 1881.
Maria "Maja" Einstein and her older brother, Albert Einstein were the two children of Hermann Einstein and Pauline Einstein (née Koch), who had moved from Ulm to Munich in June 1881, when Albert was one. There Hermann and his brother Jakob had founded Einstein & Cie., an electrical engineering company.
She was born November 18, 1881 in Munich. When little Albert saw his sister for the first time he thought she was a kind of toy and asked: "Yes, but where does it have its small wheels?" Maja and Albert got along very well all their lives. She was Albert's only friend during his childhood.
She attended elementary school in Munich from 1887 to 1894. She then moved with her parents to Milan, where she attended the German International School; Albert had stayed behind with relatives in Munich to complete his schooling. From 1899 to 1902, she attended a workshop for teachers in Aarau. After she passed her final exams, she studied Romance languages and literature in Berlin, Bern and Paris. In 1909, she graduated from University of Bern, her dissertation was entitled "Contribution to the Tradition of the Chevalier au Cygne and the Enfances Godefroi".
In the year following her graduation, she married Paul Winteler, but they were to be childless. The young couple moved to Luzern in 1911, where Maja's husband had found a job. In 1922, they moved to Colonnata near Florence in Italy.
After the Italian leader Benito Mussolini introduced anti-Semitic laws in Italy, Albert invited Maja to emigrate to the United States in 1939 and live in his residence in Mercer Street, Princeton, New Jersey. Her husband was denied entry into the United States on health grounds. Maja spent some pleasant years with Albert, until she suffered a stroke in 1946, and became bedridden. She later developed progressive arteriosclerosis, and died in Princeton on June 25, 1951 four years before her brother.
Lieserl Einstein (Albert's daughter)
Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Austria-Hungary (present day Republic of Serbia)
|Died||18 September 1903 (?)|
Cause of death
|Scarlet fever (?)|
|The outskirts of Novi Sad (?)|
|Residence||Novi Sad (1902–19??)|
|Parent(s)||Mileva Marić and Albert Einstein|
|Relatives||Marija Marić née Ružić, Miloš Marić, Pauline Einstein née Koch, Hermann Einstein, Hans Albert Einstein and Eduard Einstein.|
According to the correspondence between her parents, "Lieserl" was born in January, 1902, a year before her parents married, in Novi Sad, Vojvodina, present day Serbia, and was cared for by her mother for a short time while Einstein worked in Switzerland before Marić joined him there without the child.
"Lieserl's" existence was unknown to biographers until 1986, when a batch of letters between Albert and Mileva were discovered by Hans Albert Einstein's daughter Evelyn.
Marić had hoped for a girl, while Einstein would have preferred a boy. In their letters, they called the unborn child "Lieserl", when referring to a girl, or "Hanserl", if a boy. Both "Lieserl" and "Hanserl" were augmentatives of the common German names Liese and Hans.
The first reference to Marić's pregnancy was found in a letter Einstein wrote to her from Winterthur, probably on May 28, 1901 (letter 36), asking twice about "the boy" and "our little son", whereas Marić's first reference was found in her letter of November 13, 1901 (letter 43) from Stein am Rhein, in which she referred to the unborn child as "Lieserl". Einstein goes along with Marić's wish for a daughter, and referred to the unborn child as "Lieserl" as well, but with a sense of humour as in letter 45 of December 12, 1901 "... and be happy about our Lieserl, whom I secretly (so Dollie doesn't notice) prefer to imagine a Hanserl."
The child must have been born shortly before February 4, 1902, when Einstein wrote: "... now you see that it really is a Lieserl, just as you'd wished. Is she healthy and does she cry properly? [...] I love her so much and don't even know her yet!"
The last time "Lieserl" was mentioned in their extant correspondence was in Einstein's letter of September 19, 1903 (letter 54), in which he showed concern for her suffering from scarlet fever. His asking "as what is the child registered? [Adding] we must take precautions that problems don't arise for her later" may indicate the intention to give the child up for adoption.
As neither the full name, nor the fate of the child are known, so far several theories about her life and death have been put forward:
- Michele Zackheim, in her book on "Lieserl", Einstein's Daughter, states that "Lieserl" was mentally challenged at birth, and that she lived with her mother's family and probably died of scarlet fever in September 1903.
- Another possibility, favoured by Robert Schulmann of the Einstein Papers Project, is that "Lieserl" was adopted by Marić's close friend, Helene Savić, and was raised by her and lived under the name "Zorka Savić" until the 1990s. Savić did in fact raise a child by the name of Zorka, who was blind from childhood and died in the 1990s. Her grandson Milan Popović rejects the possibility that it was "Lieserl", and also favors the theory that the child died in September 1903.
Abraham Einstein (Albert's grandfather)
Abraham Einstein (8 Apr 1808–21 Nov 1868), the son of Ruppert Einstein and Rebekha Overnauer, is the father of Hermann Einstein and grandfather of Hermann's son, Albert. Abraham married Helene Moos, both German Jews, in April 1839 in Buchau. Together, they had several children:
- Raphael (3 Dec 1839–15 Jan 1842), male
- Jette (13 Jan 1844–7 Jan 1905), female
- Heinrich (12 Oct 1845–16 Nov 1877), male
- Hermann (30 Aug 1847–10 Oct 1902), male
- August Ignaz (23 Dec 1849–14 Apr 1911), male
- Jacob (25 Nov 1850–1912), male
- Friederike "Rika" (15 Mar 1855–17 Jun 1938), female
Ancestors and relatives
|This article's factual accuracy is disputed. (July 2014)|
Surnames are Einstein and places are in Germany unless otherwise noted.
Einsteins and Ainsteins
First known is Moses Ainstein, Germany (fl. c. 1700). He had two sons: Leopold (b. c. 1700); and Baruch Moses E/Ainstein (b. 1665 in Wangen; d. 1750). Baruch was likely the first to change the name spelling to Einstein.
Baruch was married to Borichle (b. 1635) and had three sons: Moyses (b. 1689 in Bad Buchau; d. 1732); Daniel (b. 1690 in Fellheim), and Abraham. He may have been married again.
Moyses was married twice. His first marriage produced a son, Abraham Einstein (b. c. 1704 in Bad Buchau), a daughter, and possibly another son, David Veit Einstein (b. 1713 in Buchau, Germany, d. 1763). His second marriage was to Judith Haymann. David was either Judith's son or that of Moyses' first wife. Judith also had 2 biological sons: Daniel (b. 1690 in Fellheim, Germany, d. after 1720) and Leopold (b. 1700, d. after 1718).
Daniel had 4 wives, but despite this he had only one child, either a son or stepson:
- Leopold (b. 1720 in Ulm, Germany, d. November 6, 1796 in Laupheim, Germany)
- Descendent families: Einsteins, Bernheins, Bukas, Steiners, Nathans, Noerdlingers, Straussses, Saengers
Leopold had one wife called Karoline (b. 1700 in Buchau, Germany) and had:
- Abraham (b. January 12, 1718 in Buchau, Germany, d. June 16, 1787)
- Descendent families: Guggenheims and Einsteins
Abraham had one unknown wife and a son:
- Joseph (b. 1726 in Sontheim, Germany, d. April 29, 1795 in Jebenhausen, Germany)
- Descendent families: Lindauer, Rohrbacher, Weils, Einsteins, Lindauers, Kohns, Levis, Fellheimers, Franks, Lindauers, Heumanns Sulzbergs, Katzs and Wormsers
From marriage with Karoline Ehrlich he had:
- Naphatali (b. 1733 in Buchau, Germany, d. 1799) (Einstein's great-great-grandfather), his is grandfather of Abraham above, whom had been the Spouse of Greta.
- Aron Tanzer (1988). Die Geschichte der Juden in Jebenhausen und Göppingen (The History of Jews in Jebenhausen and Göppingen). Weissenhorn, Germany: Anton H. Konrad Verlag. pp. 220, 301, 334, 378, 383.
- Short life history: Elsa Einstein.
- "Bernhard Caesar Einstein - Genealogy". Geni.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Short life history: Pauline Einstein". Albert Einstein In The World Wide Web. ETH-Bibliothek, Zurich. January 2015.
- "Albert Einstein – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on November 2014. Retrieved November 2014.
- Schwartz, Joseph. Introducing Einstein. ISBN 1-84046-667-7.
- Botstein, Leon; Galison, Peter; Holton, Gerald James; Schweber, Silvan S. Einstein for the 21st Century: His Legacy in Science, Art, and Modern Culture, Princeton Univ. Press (2008)
- http://www.einstein-website.de/biographies/print/p_hermann.html http://www.einstein-website.de/biographies/print/p_hermann.html
- Pauline Koch, Wikipedia page
- Short life history: Maria Winteler-Einstein
- Highfield 1993, p. 203
- Highfield 1993, p. 248
- Albert Einstein, Mileva Marić: The Love Letters, Princeton, N.J. 1992, p. 54
- Albert Einstein, Mileva Marić: The Love Letters, Princeton, N.J. 1992, p. 63
- the english translation of the german "Doxerl", one of the names Einstein used for Marić
- Albert Einstein, Mileva Marić: The Love Letters, Princeton, N.J. 1992, p. 66
- Albert Einstein, Mileva Marić: The Love Letters, Princeton, N.J. 1992, p. 73
- Albert Einstein, Mileva Marić: The Love Letters, Princeton, N.J. 1992, p. 78
- Lieserl Einstein's biography
- Milan Popović: In Alberts Shadow. The life and letters of Mileva Marić, Einstein’s first wife, Johns Hopkins University Press, London 2003, p.11, ISBN 978-0-8018-7856-5
- Highfield, Roger; Carter, Paul (1993). The Private Lives of Albert Einstein. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-17170-2.
- Albert Einstein, Mileva Marić: The Love Letters. Edited by Jürgen Renn & Robert Schulmann. Translated by Shawn Smith. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. 1992, ISBN 0-691-08760-1
- Michele Zackheim, Einstein's Daughter: the Search for Lieserl, Riverhead 1999, ISBN 1-57322-127-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Einstein Family.|
- Lieserl Einstein's Biography from einstein-website.de
- Pauline Koch's fact file from einstein-website.de