Ernest Bai Koroma

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Ernest Bai Koroma
Ernest Bai Koroma.jpg
4th President of Sierra Leone
Incumbent
Assumed office
17 September 2007
Vice President Samuel Sam-Sumana
Preceded by Ahmad Tejan Kabbah
Leader of the All People's Congress
Incumbent
Assumed office
24 March 2002
Preceded by Edward Turay
Minority Leader of Parliament
In office
2005–2007
Preceded by Edward Turay
Succeeded by Emmanuel Tommy
Member of Parliament from Bombali District
In office
2002–2007
Personal details
Born (1953-10-02) 2 October 1953 (age 61)
Makeni, Sierra Leone
Political party All People's Congress
Spouse(s) Sia Nyama Koroma (1986–present)
Children Alice and Danke Koroma
Residence State Lodge (official) Freetown
Alma mater Fourah Bay College
Profession Insurance Broker
Religion Christianity

Member of the Wesleyan Church[1] [2]

Website Government website

Ernest Bai Koroma (born 2 October 1953) is the current President of Sierra Leone and the fourth since 2007.

An insurance executive by profession, Koroma spent more than 24 years working in the private insurance industry before entering politics in 2002. From 1988 to 2002, he was the managing director of the Reliance Insurance Trust Corporation (Ritcorp).

He is a 1976 graduate from Fourah Bay College, the oldest university in West Africa. Koroma is a native of Makeni, Bombali District in the North of Sierra Leone; and a member of the Temne ethnic group.

He was elected as leader of the All People's Congress (APC), then Sierra Leone's main opposition party, on 24 March 2002,[1] after defeating then incumbent APC leader Edward Turay, his main opponent. Koroma stood as the APC candidate in the 2002 Sierra Leone presidential election but was defeated by incumbent Sierra Leone's President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, who won 70.3% of the vote, to Koroma's 22.35%.[2] Koroma conceded defeat.

Koroma was later elected to parliament representing his home District of Bombali from 2002 to 2007. In 2005, he was elected the minority leader of Parliament and remained in that position until his election to the Presidency in 2007.

In the 2007 presidential election run-off, Koroma received 54.6% of the vote and defeated incumbent Vice-President Solomon Berewa of the ruling SLPP.[3] Berewa conceded defeat, and Koroma was sworn in as President on 17 September 2007,'at the State House in the capital Freetown. International and local observers declared the election free and fair.[4][5]

Koroma succeeded President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, who was constitutionally ineligible to run for the presidency again after serving the maximum two five-year term limit. In his inauguration speech, Koroma promised zero tolerance on corruption and said he will fight against the mismanagement of the country's resources.[6][7]

In the November 2012 presidential election, Koroma was re-elected as President for his final term, receiving 58.7%, against his main opponent, SLPP candidate Julius Maada Bio, who received 37.4%.[8][9][10][11] International observers deemed the election to be free and fair.[12][9]

Early life and education[edit]

Ernest Bai Koroma was born on 2 October 1953, in Makeni,[13] Bombali District in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone. Koroma was born of Christian parentage in the predominantly Muslim north and a devout Christian himself. Koroma is a longtime member of the Wesleyan Church of Sierra Leone.[14][15]

His father Pa Sylvanus Koroma, who was of Temne heritage, and was a native of Makari Gbanti chiefdom, Bombali District. Pa Sylvanus spent years working as a bible school teacher at the Wesleyan Church in Makeni.[16][17]

Koroma's mother, Madam Alice Koroma (27 June 1932 – 6 July 2012), was an ethnic Biriwa Limba from the small rural town of Kamabai, Bombali District. She served as a councillor in the Makeni city council in the 1960s as a member of the All People's Congress (APC). Maddam Alice Koroma was a prominent member of the APC, and the women's leader of the APC Bombali District branch. She was also a strong supporter of then Sierra Leone's president Siaka Stevens' APC government. She later spent almost her entire career working as a primary school teacher in Makeni.

Koroma is an ethnic Temne, through his father, and was raised in a predominantly Temne household in Makeni. He is also a fluent speaker of the Temne language. He grew up in a religious Christian household in Makeni and regularly attended church services with his siblings at the Wesleyan church in Makeni, where his parents were longtime members of the congregation.

Koroma attended the Sierra Leone Church Primary School in Makeni, and then proceeded to the Magburaka Government Secondary School for Boys in Magburaka, Tonkolili District (about 25 miles from his hometown of Makeni), where he graduated in 1973.[18] He then moved to the capital Freetown to attend Fourah Bay College, from where he graduated in 1976 with a degree in Business Management.

Soon after graduating from Fourah Bay College, he was employed as a teacher at St. Francis Secondary School in Makeni (1976–78).

Career in the insurance industry[edit]

Koroma joined the Sierra Leone National Insurance Company in 1978. In 1985, he joined the Reliance Insurance Trust Corporation (Ritcorp), and in 1988, he became managing director of Ritcorp, remaining in that position for 14 years.[19]

Marriage and family[edit]

Koroma is married to Sia Nyama Koroma, the daughter of Abu Aiah Koroma, the former Attorney General of Sierra Leone, who also held several other government ministry positions under presidents Joseph Saidu Momoh and Ahmad Tejan Kabbah. An ethnic Kono from Kono District, Sia Koroma is a biochemist who holds a Bachelor of Science with Honours in Chemistry and a Masters in Biochemistry. She is also a psychiatric nurse trained and qualified in Great Britain.

Koroma and his wife Sia Koroma were married on 18 October 1986, at the King Memorial UMC Church in Freetown.[20] Together they have two daughters, Alice and Danke Koroma. The first daughter Alice, named after Koroma's mother, was born in Freetown. The second daughter Danké Koroma was born in London and is named after Danke Evelyn Koroma, the mother of Koroma's wife. Alice Koroma is a law school graduate from the University of East Anglia in Norwich, England.[21]

Political career[edit]

Run for APC leadership[edit]

In 2002 it was announced that the All People's Congress (APC) would hold their convention to elect a new leader that would challenge president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah of the SLPP who faced re-election for a second five-year term. Ernest Bai Koroma, then an Insurance broker from the northern district of Bombali who was virtually unknown by the general population in Sierra Leone announced his candidacy for the leadership of the All People's Congress (APC) ahead of the 2002 Sierra Leone presidential and parliamentary elections.[22] He was one of seven candidates for the APC leadership.

Koroma was a clear underdog to longtime APC leader Edward Turay who was the favourite and was expected to easily win the APC leadership yet again. Koroma stressed that under the APC leadership of Edward Turay, the party had lost a significant number of seats in parliament and had lost trust among Sierra Leoneans, even in its traditional stronghold in Northern Sierra Leone. Koroma said the party will continue to lose even more support unless the party moves to a new direction that will care more about the interest of Sierra Leoneans. The APC was thought to be divided between the old guards wing of the party leady by Edward Turay, and the new generation wing of the party led by Ernest Bai Koroma.[23] Koroma was elected leader of the All People's Congress (APC) on 24 March 2002, at a national convention of the party held in the northern town of Kabala, Koinadugu District ahead of the 2002 Sierra Leone Presidential and Parliamentary Elections. Koroma received 370 votes from APC delegates, while 12 delegates voted against him and the remainder abstained.[24]

2002 presidential and parliamentary election[edit]

In the 2002 Sierra Leone presidential election Koroma received 22.3% of the vote as the APC presidential candidate, losing in a landslide to incumbent President Ahmed Tejan Kabbah of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), who received 70.3% and was shortly sworn in for a new five-year term.[25] In the parliamentary election, Koroma was elected to a seat from Bombali District.[26]

Court case[edit]

Embattled by a series of court cases against his youthful leadership and executive and the 2002 APC Constitution, Koroma was eventually stripped of his de jure leadership of the APC by the Supreme Court of Sierra Leone on 22 June 2005.[27] He was, however, again unanimously elected as Leader and presidential candidate of the APC ahead of the 2007 Sierra Leone presidential and parliamentary elections at APC National Delegates Convention held on 3 September 2005 in the northern town of Port Loko. The internal party dispute was said to be resolved in April 2007, mainly between Koroma and Edward Turay, with Koroma being accepted by APC dissidents as the party's leader ahead of the 2007 general election.[28][29]

Under his leadership, the APC swept virtually all the seats in the Western Area and the Northern Province during the local government elections of 2004. This was in spite of the fact that some of the old guard of the APC dismissed his leadership as a matter of child's play.

Candidate[edit]

A man passes, in Freetown, posters for APC candidate Koroma (foreground) and the ruling SLPP ahead of presidential elections, 6 August 2007.

Koroma was the APC presidential candidate in the August 2007 general election. His main rival for the presidency of Sierra Leone was incumbent Vice-President of Sierra Leone Solomon Berewa of the SLPP. Koroma stronghold was in Northern Sierra Leone, and in the Western Area of Sierra Leone. Berewa, on the other hand, maintained strong support in south-eastern Sierra Leone.

Koroma was allegedly the target of an assassination attempt in the early hours of 23 July 2007 in Bo, Sierra Leone's second largest city (a traditional stronghold of the SLPP), when, according to the APC, a group of armed men led by Tom Nyuma, who was a participant in the 1992 coup that ousted the APC from power, attempted to enter Koroma's hotel room to kill him.[30] Nyuma was severely beaten by Koroma's guards, and he was hospitalised as a result.[31] According to another version of events, however, there was no assassination attempt and the claim was invented to justify the beating of Nyuma.[32]

2007 Presidential Election[edit]

In the first round of the 2007 presidential election in Sierra Leone, held on 11 August, Koroma garnered 44.3% of the votes, ahead of Solomon Berewa of the ruling SLPP, who received 38.3%. This was not enough to win outright,[33] and a run-off election was held on 8 September.[34]

In an interview with Reuters on 13 September, Koroma said that he wanted to run the country "like a business concern", emphasise agriculture and tourism rather than mining, and fight firmly against corruption.[35]

On 17 September, the Sierra Leone National Electoral Commission declared Koroma to be the winner of the election with 54.6% of the vote,[36] although the SLPP disputed the results.[37] He was sworn in later on the same day[38] at a ceremony attended by Berewa and Kabbah.[39]

On 21 September, Koroma left Sierra Leone for a diplomatic visit to neighbouring Guinea and Liberia, his first trip outside the country as President.[40]

Koroma took a notably long time to name his Cabinet ministers, doing so in stages.[41] The first group of 10 ministers was named on 8 October,[42] and another 10 were named on 12 October.[43] According to Koroma, he was willing to take additional time to find the right people;[41] others, however, speculated that the delay was due to manoeuvring within the APC for Cabinet positions.[41][42]

Inauguration[edit]

Koroma was formally inaugurated in Freetown on 15 November 2007[44] at a ceremony attended by seven other African leaders.[45] On this occasion, he promised to fight corruption and emphasised the importance of changing people's attitudes towards corruption.[44][45]

Koroma promised zero tolerance on corruption, to fight against the mismanagement of the country's resources and that he "would run Sierra Leone like a business concern", emphasising agriculture and tourism. He further promised his government will increase the GDP per capita; reduce poverty and increase jobs; pledged the provision of electricity not only in the urban areas, but to all parts of Sierra Leone.[46]

The inauguration ceremony was attended by several African Head of State and representatives of other world leaders and organisations, including Nigerian president Umaru Yar'Adua, Liberian president Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Senegalese president Abdoulaye Wade, Gambian president Yahya Jammeh, Burkina Faso's president Blaise Compaoré, Malian president Amadou Toumani Touré, Guinean Prime Minister Lansana Kouyaté and United States Assistant Secretary for African Affairs Jendayi Frazer.

Presidency[edit]

The Koroma presidency have focused upon rebuilding the country's national infrastructure after the Civil War, fighting corruption, improving the country's health care system. In April 2010, Koroma signed into law the country's free health care program for pregnant women, nursing mothers and children under the age of five.[47] Koroma has focused on free-market solutions, attracting more private investment.

On 4 September 2008, Koroma declared his assets to the Sierra Leone Anti-corruption Commission and signed into law the country's new Anti-Corruption Bill of 2008 at the State House in Freetown.[48][49] Under the new law, it is compulsory for the president and other government officials to declare their assets and update them annually.

Koroma has given the country's anti-corruption commission more powers to investigate and prosecute corrupt officials.[50] Since coming to power in 2007, Koroma has dismissed several government ministers associated with corruption, including two of his ministers indicted on corruption charges by the Sierra Leone anti-corruption commission.

Relations with UK[edit]

The British government has continued to provide large scale aid and advice, with former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair continuing to work closely with the Sierra Leone government and speak out for investment in Sierra Leone. At Koroma's request, Blair created a nine person board to advise the government on foreign investment.[51] The UK continues to be the largest donor to Sierra Leone, giving more money per person than to any other nation, and promising to raise aid by a further 50 million pounds sterling in 2010...[52]

In a 2009 BBC report by Humphrey Hawksley, some British diplomats and aid workers raised concerns about the slow pace of development in the country stressing on the problem of corruption, and asking whether almost a decade after the war – British military and post-war aid assistance has gone in vain as the country still struggle with poverty and massive unemployment.[53]

Reforms[edit]

Koroma pushed through arrest and prosecution authority for the Sierra Leone Anti-corruption Commission, and naming former Human Rights lawyer Abdul Tejan-Cole its head immediately after his election.[54] The government has spoken of transitioning from large scale aid to private investment in the nation, sought to boost the nascent tourist industry, signed deals for more extensive mobile phone service,[55] began a widescale public sector reform program aimed at cutting government waste, and gave greater powers to the government Ombudsman.[56]

Forest protection[edit]

At the same time, Koroma inaugurated a large new national park at Gola Forest,[57] and banned exports by logging companies, singling out Chinese-owned companies, which he accused of "plundering" the nation's forests.[58]

Relations with Zimbabwe[edit]

President Koroma has also controversially been one of the few African leaders to strongly condemn Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe.[59]

Drug trade[edit]

In July 2008, Koroma pledged to crack down on cocaine trafficking in Sierra Leone, after a large drug bust of an aircraft loaded with cocaine at the national airport.[60][61]

Election violence[edit]

In August 2008, fighting between supporters of Koroma's All People's Congress (APC) party and opposition Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) erupted in Freetown and the country's second largest city of Bo in the run up to municipal elections, with ruling party supporters charged with attacking opposition members and journalists. Koroma promised to crack down on such violence.[62]

2009 APC Convention[edit]

On 16 April 2009, Koroma was re-elected unopposed by the APC as the party's presidential candidate in the 2012 Sierra Leone presidential election at the APC National Delegates convention held in the northern city of Makeni. Several senior members of the country's main opposition party, the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), and the country's third major party, the PMDC, were invited as special guests at the convention to promote peace and National Reconciliation following the tense general elections in 2007. Those in attendance at the convention included John Oponjo Benjamin, the leader of the SLPP, and Charles Francis Margai, the leader of the PMDC.[3][63][64]

2012 re-election to second term[edit]

Koroma was re-elected as President for his second and final term on 23 November 2012 with 58.7% of the vote in the 2012 Sierra Leone Presidential election, defeating his main opponent, Retired Brigadier Julius Maada Bio of the main opposition Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), who got 37.4%.%.[8][9][10][11] Koroma was sworn in as President for his second and final term by Chief Justice Umu Hawa Tejan Jalloh at the State House in Freetown on the same day he was declared the winner of the election.

In his swearing-in speech to the nation at the State House, Koroma says the time for politics is over, the moment for continuing the transformation of Sierra Leone has come. He says this is the time for all APC and SLPP supporters and supporters of other political parties to embrace each other as one nation. He says Sierra Leoneans have endorsed the achievements his government have made with the Agenda for Change and he has been asked by the people of Sierra Leone to continue on to the Agenda for Prosperity. Koroma says he is inviting the leadership of the SLPP and other political parties to join the leadership of the APC in moving Sierra Leone forward. Koroma says the goodwill of the Country requires membership of all political parties.[needs copy edit]

Koroma says in his second term his government will focus on creating jobs for the youths, continue with infrastructural development, continue to fight corruption, continue to attract foreign investment, continue to bring electricity to every district, and continue to protect the rights of every Sierra Leonean.

Cabinet[edit]

2012 Election

On 23 November 2012 at 19:30 GMT Ernest Bai Koroma was re-elected President of Sierra Leone. Though the announcement was delayed by 10 days the election was acknowledged as peaceful and fearless by local and international observers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The President", State House, The republic of Sierra Leone.
  2. ^ "Victory of Sierra Leone President Was by Landslide Margin – 19 May 2002", Voice of America, 26 October 2009.
  3. ^ Bampia James Bundu, "Solomon Berewa Concedes Defeat to Ernest Bai Koroma in Sierra Leone", Awareness Times, 17 September 2007.
  4. ^ "S Leone elections 'free and fair'", BBC News, 13 August 2007.
  5. ^ "Sierra Leone Human Rights", Amnesty International.
  6. ^ "Sierra Leone profile", BBC News, 18 June 2013.
  7. ^ "What is happening now?" Safer Future Youth Development Project.
  8. ^ a b National Electoral Commission (NEC) Sierra Leone.
  9. ^ a b c "Sierra Leone: Ernest Bai Koroma wins presidential poll", BBC News – Africa, 23 November 2012,
  10. ^ a b "Sierra Leone President Ernest Bai Koroma Reelected", RTT News, 23 November 2012.
  11. ^ a b "Ernest Bai Koroma re-elected as Sierra Leone's President", English.news.cn, 24 November 2012.
  12. ^ Simon Akam, "Sierra Leone's Koroma promises growth in new term", Reuters, 23 November 2012.
  13. ^ Makeni is the nearest city, but some sources suggest that he was born in Makari Gbanti chiefdom. Kandeh, Mariama (2 April 2008). "Sierra Leone: Makari Gbanti Women Suffer Violations". Concord Times (Freetown, Sierra Leone). Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. 
  14. ^ "New president of West African country is Wesleyan", NCN News, 20 September 2007.
  15. ^ "Sierra Leone: President Koroma is 'Wesleyan Hero'", Concord Times (Freetown), 14 October 2008. AllAfrica.
  16. ^ Tarawalie, Sheka (July 5, 2008). "Crawler's Special Written Sometime in Mid-November, 2007". Sierra Herald. Archived from the original on July 9, 2008. 
  17. ^ Sawyerr, Ralph (28 June 2011). "President Koroma honours his late father Sylvanus Koroma at memorial service and launched a new foundation in his memory". Newstime Africa. 
  18. ^ http://www.kiva.org/app.php?page=businesses&action=about&id=85571
  19. ^ Mohamed Samura, "Profile: Ernest Bai Koroma, Sierra Leone’s new head of state", African Press Agency, 1 October 2007.
  20. ^ "Ernest Bai Koroma", My Africa. AllAfrica.
  21. ^ "Sierra Leone's First-Daughter Graduates with Honours in Law as Dad Drops in to Witness the Proud Occasion", NTA Newstime Africa, 17 July 2010.
  22. ^ "Sierra Leone: APC Convention: Ekutay Backs Ernest Koroma", Concord Times (Freetown), February 25, 2002. AllAfrica.
  23. ^ "Police Warn APC Leaders". Africa News Service, 2 March 2005.
  24. ^ Sierra Leone News Archives, March 2002, sierra-leone.org.
  25. ^ "SIERRA LEONE: New cabinet announced", IRIN-WA Weekly Roundup 124, 18–24 May 2002.
  26. ^ Sierra Leone News Archives, May 2002, sierra-leone.org.
  27. ^ Osman Benk Sankoh, "Sierra Leone: Supreme Court Rules Ernest Koroma No Longer APC Leader", Concord Times (Freetown), 23 June 2004.
  28. ^ Sayoh Kamara, "APC Gets Final Peace in Sierra Leone", Awareness Times, 5 April 2007.
  29. ^ "Sierra Leone’s main opposition party settles internal dispute", African Press Agency, 6 April 2007.
  30. ^ Alpha Kanu, "Statement issued by the All People's Congress in Sierra Leone", Awareness Times (news.sl), 24 July 2007.
  31. ^ James Butty, "Sierra Leone Investigates Alleged Attempted Assassination", VOA News, 24 July 2007.
  32. ^ Sia Tiyaama, "Prof. Sia Tiyaama Exposes Assassination Hoax Timeline of APC & Standard Times in Sierra Leone", Awareness Times, 27 July 2007.
  33. ^ "Freetown opposition party wins majority", Reuters (IOL), 24 August 2007.
  34. ^ "Presidential runoff in Sierra Leone went smoothly, observers say, urging calm as votes counted", Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 9 September 2007.
  35. ^ Katrina Manson, "SLeone leader vows to fight corruption", Reuters (IOL), 14 September 2007.
  36. ^ Rod MacJohnson, "Sierra Leone gets a new leader", AFP (The Times, South Africa), 17 September 2007.
  37. ^ "S Leone run-off results questioned", Al Jazeera, 16 September 2007.
  38. ^ Katrina Manson and Christo Johnson, "Koroma pledges healing in Sierra Leone", Reuters (IOL), 18 September 2007.
  39. ^ "Sierra Leone's new leader sworn in", Al Jazeera, 18 September 2007.
  40. ^ Saliou Samb, "New leader seeks deeper regional ties", Reuters (IOL), 21 September 2007.
  41. ^ a b c "Sierra Leonean leader’s piecemeal cabinet appointments", African Press Agency, 16 October 2007.
  42. ^ a b "New Sierra Leonean leader appoints first cabinet", African Press Agency, 9 October 2007.
  43. ^ "Sierra Leone: Ten more new cabinet appointments made", African Press Agency, 13 October 2007.
  44. ^ a b "Sierra Leone's New President Inaugurated", VOA News, 15 November 2007.
  45. ^ a b "SL leader pledges graft crackdown", BBC News, 15 November 2007.
  46. ^ Sierra Leone's President H.E. Ernest Bai Koroma Inaugurated in Freetown. Government of Liberia. 15 November 2007
  47. ^ SL leader pledges graft crackdown. 15 November 2007.
  48. ^ "S Leone president declares assets", BBC News, 1 September 2008.
  49. ^ Sierra Herald, 4 September 2008.
  50. ^ Mark Doyle, "Can S Leone flush away corruption?" BBC, 23 January 2009.
  51. ^ "Blair pushes Sierra Leone tourism", BBC, 28 April 2009.
  52. ^ "Paradise regained in Sierra Leone", The Independent (London), 2 May 2009.
  53. ^ "Shadows over Sierra Leone", BBC World Service, 3 August 2009.
  54. ^ S Leone president declares assets. BBC. 1 September 2008.
  55. ^ "Sierratel joins CDMA network today". Awoko (Freetown). 24 April 2009.
  56. ^ "Sierra Leone: Office of the Ombudsman Empowered/Koroma approves public sector reform". Mohamed Massaquoi, Concord Times (Freetown). 24 April 2009.
  57. ^ "Sierra Leone sets up forest park", BBC, 10 December 2007.
  58. ^ "Sierra Leone bans timber exports", BBC. 15 January 2008.
  59. ^ "Mugabe aide tells West: 'Go hang'", BBC. 1 July 2008.
  60. ^ "S Leone pledges cocaine crackdown", BBC. 22 July 2008.
  61. ^ "Cocaine Case Nearly Implodes: President Intervenes". WikiLeaks, 25 December 2010.
  62. ^ "Unrest 'appals' S Leone leaders", BBC. 14 August 2008.
  63. ^ Bampia Bundu & Abdul Karim Kabia, "Sierra Leone's Ruling APC Party Opens their National Delegates Convention - Highlights", Awareness Times, 17 April 2009.
  64. ^ "In Sierra Leone, Makeni Women Hail First Lady", Awareness Times, 23 April 2009.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Ahmad Tejan Kabbah
President of Sierra Leone
2007–present
Incumbent