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Exophoria is a form of heterophoria in which there is a tendency of the eyes to deviate outward. During examination, when the eyes are dissociated by prisms, the visual axes will appear to diverge away from one another.
Exophoria can be caused by several factors, which include:
- Refractive errors - distance and near deviation approximately equal.
- Divergence excess - exodeviation is more than 15 dioptres greater for distance than near deviation.
- Convergence insufficiency - near exodeviation greater than distance deviation.
- Allen, Edmund Turney (1899). The science of higher prisms. Harvard University: G. K. Hazlitt 6 Co., printer. p. 39.
- Grosvenor, Theodore (2007). Primary Care Optometry 5th Ed. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 224. Unknown parameter
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- Freier B E, Pickwell L D (1983). "Physiological exophoria". Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 3: 267–272.
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