Iridodialysis

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Iridodialysis
Classification and external resources
Iridodilaysis - Blunt trauma to the eye.jpg
Iridodialysis caused by blunt trauma to the eye
ICD-10 H21.5
ICD-9 364.76

Iridodialysis, sometimes known as a coredialysis, is a localized separation or tearing away of the iris from its attachment to the ciliary body.[1][2]

Causes[edit]

Iridodialyses are usually caused by blunt trauma to the eye,[2] but may also be caused by penetrating eye injuries.[3] An iridodialysis may be an iatrogenic complication of any intraocular surgery[4][5][6] and at one time they were created intentionally as part of intracapsular cataract extraction.[7] Iridodialyses have been reported to have occurred from boxing,[8] airbag deployments,[9] high-pressure water jets,[10] elastic bungee cords,[11][12] bottle caps opened under pressure,[13] water balloons,[14] fireworks,[15][16] and various types of balls.[17]

Symptoms and signs[edit]

Those with small iridodialyses may be asymptomatic and require no treatment, but those with larger dialyses may have corectopia or polycoria and experience monocular diplopia, glare, or photophobia.[18][19][20] Iridodialyses often accompany angle recession[21] and may cause glaucoma[3] or hyphema.[22] Hypotony may also occur.[23]

Treatment and management[edit]

Iridodialysis causing an associated hyphema has to be carefully managed, and recurrent bleeds should be prevented by strict avoidance of all sporting activities. Management typically involves observation and bed rest. Red blood cells may decrease the outflow of aqueous humor, therefore the eye should be kept soft by giving oral acetazolamide. Accidental trauma during sleep should be prevented by patching with an eye shield during night time. Avoid giving aspirin, heparin/warfarin and observe daily for resolution or progression. A large hyphema may require careful anterior chamber washout. Rebleeds may require additional intervention and therapy.

Later, surgical repair may be considered for larger avulsions causing significant double vision, cosmesis or glare symptoms.[19] Surgical repair is usually done by 10-0 prolene suture taking the base of iris avulsion and suturing it to the scleral spur and ciliary body junction.

Complications[edit]

Those with traumatic iridodialyses (particularly by blunt trauma) are at high risk for angle recession, which may cause glaucoma.[18] This is typically seen about 100 days or three months after the injury, and is thereby called "100 day Glaucoma". Medical or surgical treatment to control the IOP may be required if glaucoma is present.[3] Soft opaque contact lenses may be used to improve cosmesis and reduce the perception of double vision.[3][18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cline D; Hofstetter HW; Griffin JR. Dictionary of Visual Science. 4th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston 1997. ISBN 0-7506-9895-0
  2. ^ a b Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainesville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, 1990.
  3. ^ a b c d "Glaucoma: Angle Closure: Traumatic Iridodialysis." Digital Reference of Ophthalmology. Accessed October 11, 2006.
  4. ^ "Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery: Intraoperative Complications." ORBIS International Inc. Accessed October 11, 2006.
  5. ^ Gashau, AG; Anand, A; Chawdhary, S (2006). "Hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens exchange: Five-year experience". Journal of cataract and refractive surgery 32 (8): 1340–4. doi:10.1016/j.jcrs.2006.02.062. PMID 16863972. 
  6. ^ Walker, NJ; Foster, A; Apel, AJ (2004). "Traumatic expulsive iridodialysis after small-incision sutureless cataract surgery". Journal of cataract and refractive surgery 30 (10): 2223–4. doi:10.1016/j.jcrs.2004.03.040. PMID 15474840. 
  7. ^ Beetham, WP. (1941). "Cataract Extraction with Iridodialysis". Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 39: 104–15. PMC 1315004. PMID 16693243. 
  8. ^ Hazar, M; Beyleroglu, M; Subasi, M; Or, M (2002). "Ophthalmological findings in elite amateur Turkish boxers". British journal of sports medicine 36 (6): 428–30. doi:10.1136/bjsm.36.6.428. PMC 1724577. PMID 12453836. 
  9. ^ Kenney, KS; Fanciullo, LM (2005). "Automobile air bags: friend or foe? A case of air bag-associated ocular trauma and a related literature review". Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.) 76 (7): 382–6. doi:10.1016/j.optm.2005.06.001. PMID 16038865. 
  10. ^ Gracner, B; Pahor, D (2001). "Bilateral eye injury caused by a high-pressure water jet from a fire hose". Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 113 Suppl 3: 62–4. PMID 15503624. 
  11. ^ Viestenz, A; Küchle, M (2002). "Ocular contusion caused by elastic cords: a retrospective analysis using the Erlangen Ocular Contusion Registry". Clinical & experimental ophthalmology 30 (4): 266–9. doi:10.1046/j.1442-9071.2002.00529.x. PMID 12121366. 
  12. ^ Chorich Lj, 3rd; Davidorf, FH; Chambers, RB; Weber, PA (1998). "Bungee cord-associated ocular injuries". American journal of ophthalmology 125 (2): 270–2. doi:10.1016/S0002-9394(99)80111-1. PMID 9467466. 
  13. ^ Viestenz, A; Küchle, M (2002). "Eye contusions caused by a bottle cap. A retrospective study based on the Erlangen Ocular Contusion Register (EOCR)". Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft 99 (2): 105–8. PMID 11871070. 
  14. ^ Bullock, JD; Ballal, DR; Johnson, DA; Bullock, RJ (1997). "Ocular and orbital trauma from water balloon slingshots. A clinical, epidemiologic, and experimental study". Ophthalmology 104 (5): 878–87. PMID 9160038. 
  15. ^ Arya, SK; Malhotra, S; Dhir, SP; Sood, S (7/1/2001). "Ocular fireworks injuries. clinical features and visual outcome". Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 49 (3): 189–90. PMID 15887729. 
  16. ^ Sacu, S; Ségur-Eltz, N; Stenng, K; Zehetmayer, M (2002). "Ocular firework injuries at New Year's eve". Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift fur Augenheilkunde 216 (1): 55–9. doi:10.1159/000048298. PMID 11901290. 
  17. ^ Purdie, AT; Whyte, IF (1998). "Shinty and ocular trauma in north west Scotland". The British journal of ophthalmology 82 (12): 1445. doi:10.1136/bjo.82.12.1444a. PMC 1722457. PMID 9930282. 
  18. ^ a b c Rappon JM. "Ocular Trauma Management for the Primary Care Provider." Pacific University College of Optometry. Accessed October 12, 2006.
  19. ^ a b "Cornea & External Diseases: Trauma: Traumatic Iridodialysis." Digital Reference of Ophthalmology. Accessed October 11, 2006.
  20. ^ Brown, SM (1998). "A technique for repair of iridodialysis in children". Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 2 (6): 380–2. doi:10.1016/S1091-8531(98)90041-6. PMID 10532731. 
  21. ^ Sullivan BR. "Glaucoma, Angle Recession". eMedicine.com. August 16, 2006. Accessed October 11, 2006.
  22. ^ Kiel, J; Chen, S (2001). "Contusion injuries and their ocular effects". Clinical & experimental optometry : journal of the Australian Optometrical Association 84 (1): 19–25. PMID 12366340. 
  23. ^ Behndig, A. (2002). "Results with a modified method for scleral suturing of intraocular lenses". Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 80 (1): 16–18. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0420.2002.800104.x/full/. PMID 11906298. 

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