List of extinct animals of Australia

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Following is a complete list of Australian animal extinctions from 1788 to the present. There are 23 birds, 4 frogs, and 27 mammal species or subspecies strongly believed to have become extinct since European settlement of Australia.

Extinctions are recorded under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Several invertebrate species have also been listed as extinct by the World Conservation Union (IUCN); however, this list is less exhaustive, as invertebrates are more difficult to survey and are less well studied.

Extinct Australian animals: 1788 to present[edit]

Birds[edit]

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Aplonis fusca Norfolk Island, NSW 1923. Competition from introduced European Starling, Song Thrush and Common Blackbird, clearance for agriculture.
Columba vitiensis godmanae White-throated Pigeon (Lord Howe Island), Lord Howe Pigeon Lord Howe Island Last recorded 1853. Believed due to hunting. LordHoweIslandPigeonByGeorgeRaper.jpg
Cyanoramphus erythrotis Red-crowned Parakeet (Macquarie Island), Macquarie Island Parakeet Macquarie Island
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae subflavescens Red-crowned Parakeet (Lord Howe Island), Lord Howe Parakeet Lord Howe Island Last recorded 1869. Due to persecution, because of predation on gardens and crops.
Dasyornis broadbenti litoralis Rufous Bristlebird (western), South-western Rufous Bristlebird WA
Dromaius ater Dwarf Emu, King Island Emu Tas 1822. Extinction through hunting and, apparently, fires started by visiting sailors Dromaius parvulus.jpg
Dromaius baudinianus Kangaroo Island Emu Kangaroo Island 1805. Extinction has been attributed to hunting and habitat clearance through burning. A captive bird died in 1822 Extinctbirds1907 P40 Dromaius peroni0371.png
Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis Emu (Tasmanian) Tas 1850
Drymodes superciliaris colcloughi Roper River Scrub-robin NT Last record: 1910. This subspecies may be invalid. It is known from only two specimens of doubtful provenance.[1]
Gerygone insularis Lord Howe Gerygone, Lord Howe Warbler Lord Howe Island Not recorded since 1928. Believed to be a result of the introduction of Black Rats following the grounding of SS Makambo in June 1918.
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea New Zealand Pigeon (Norfolk Island race) Norfolk Island NorfolkIlslandPigeonByJohnHunter.jpg
Lalage leucopyga leucopyga Norfolk Island Long-tailed Triller Norfolk Island
Nestor productus Norfolk Island Kaka Norfolk Island John-Gould-001.jpg
Ninox novaeseelandiae albaria Southern Boobook (Lord Howe Island), Lord Howe Boobook Owl Lord Howe Island
Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata Southern Boobook (Norfolk Island), Norfolk Island Boobook Norfolk Island 1996 Norfolk Boobook.jpg
Porphyrio albus White Gallinule Lord Howe Island Extinctbirds1907 P33 Notornis alba0357.png
Psephotus pulcherrimus Paradise Parrot NSW, Qld Date uncertain but around 1927; more recent sightings are sometimes claimed but have never been confirmed. Cause uncertain, most hypotheses centre on starvation from lack of grass seed after drought, overgrazing, more frequent fires, and introduction of prickly pear. Paradise Parrot.jpg
Rallus pectoralis clelandi Lewin's Water Rail (western) WA Last record: 1932.
Gallirallus philippensis macquariensis Macquarie Island Rail Macquarie Island
Rhipidura cervina Lord Howe Fantail Lord Howe Island Not recorded since 1924. Believed to be a result of the introduction of Black Rats following the grounding of SS Makambo in June 1918.
Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus Norfolk Island Thrush, Grey-headed Blackbird Norfolk Island Turdus.p.poliocephalus.jpg
Turdus poliocephalus vinitinctus Lord Howe Island Thrush Lord Howe Island Not recorded since ca 1924. Believed to be a result of the introduction of Black Rats following the grounding of SS Makambo in June 1918.
Zosterops albogularis White-chested White-eye, Norfolk Island Silvereye Norfolk Island The IUCN considers this species endangered; it is listed as extinct under the EPBC act since it has not been officially documented for over 20 years.
Zosterops strenuus Robust White-eye Lord Howe Island Not recorded since 1923. Believed to be a result of the introduction of Black Rats following the grounding of SS Makambo in June 1918.

Amphibians[edit]

The reason for the decline and extinction of these frog species is unclear, decline in frog populations is an international phenomenon.

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Rheobatrachus silus[2] Gastric-brooding Frog Qld Last wild specimen recorded in 1981
Rheobatrachus vitellinus[3] Eungella Gastric-brooding Frog Qld Last wild specimen recorded in 1985
Taudactylus acutirostris[4] Sharp-snouted Day Frog, Sharp-snouted Torrent Frog Queensland Last wild specimen recorded in 1997
Taudactylus diurnus[5] Southern Day Frog,1987 Mt Glorious Torrent Frog Qld Last wild specimen recorded in 1979

Mammals[edit]

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Bettongia gaimardi gaimardi Eastern Bettong (mainland) NSW, Qld, SA, VIC
Bettongia lesueur graii Boodie, Burrowing Bettong (inland) WA
Bettongia penicillata penicillata Brush-tailed Bettong (south-east mainland) NSW, NT, SA, VIC, WA
Caloprymnus campestris[6] Desert Rat-kangaroo Qld, SA Caloprymnus.jpg
Chaeropus ecaudatus[7] Pig-footed bandicoot NSW, NT, SA, Tas, VIC, WA 1950s PigFootedBandicoot.jpg
Conilurus albipes[8] White-footed Rabbit-rat NSW, Qld, SA, VIC Conilurus albipes - Gould.jpg
Lagorchestes asomatus[9] Central Hare-wallaby NT 1935
Lagorchestes hirsutus hirsutus Rufous Hare-wallaby (south-west mainland) NT, SA, WA Rufous hare wallaby.jpg
Lagorchestes leporides[10] Eastern Hare-wallaby NSW, Qld, SA, VIC 1890 Lagorchestes leporides Gould.jpg
Lagostrophus fasciatus albipilis Banded Hare-wallaby (mainland) WA
Macropus eugenii eugenii Tammar Wallaby (South Australia) SA Population Rediscovered in New Zealand Macropus greyi - Gould.jpg
Macropus greyi[11] Toolache Wallaby SA, VIC 1932
Macrotis leucura[12] Lesser Bilby NT, Qld, SA 1931 Lesserbilby.jpg
Notomys amplus[13] Short-tailed Hopping-mouse NT, SA 1896
Notomys longicaudatus[14] Long-tailed Hopping-mouse NT, SA, WA 1901
Notomys macrotis[15] Big-eared Hopping-mouse WA 1843
Notomys mordax[16] Darling Downs Hopping-mouse NSW, Qld 1846
Nyctophilus howensis Lord Howe Long-eared Bat Lord Howe Island
Onychogalea lunata[17] Crescent Nail-tail Wallaby SA, WA Onychogalea lunata.jpg
Perameles bougainville fasciata Western Barred Bandicoot (mainland) NSW, VIC
Perameles eremiana[18] Desert Bandicoot NT, SA, WA
Potorous platyops[19] Broad-faced Potoroo WA 1865 BroadFacedPotoroo.jpg
Pseudomys glaucus[20] Blue-gray Mouse NSW, Qld 1956
Pseudomys gouldii[21] Gould's Mouse NSW, Qld, SA, VIC, WA Pseudomys gouldii - Gould.jpg
Pteropus brunneus[22] Dusky Flying Fox Qld late 1800s Pteropus.jpg
Rattus macleari[23] Maclear's Rat Christmas Island 1908 MaclearsRatSkull.png
Rattus nativitatis[24] Bulldog Rat Christmas Island last recorded in 1903 Rattus nativitatis.jpg
Thylacinus cynocephalus[25] Thylacine, Tasmanian Tiger Tas 1936

There have been 1-4 sightings a year but not confirmed.

Thylacinus.jpg

Possibly Extinct

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Crocidura trichura[26] Christmas Island Shrew Christmas Island 1985
Leporillus apicalis[27] Lesser Stick-nest Rat NSW, NT, SA, VIC, WA 1933 Leporillus apicalis - Gould.jpg
Pipistrellus murrayi[28] Christmas Island Pipistrelle Christmas Island August 2009

Invertebrates[edit]

Several Australian Invertebrates have been listed by the World Conservation Union as having become extinct. However they are not listed as extinct under Australian legislation.

Species Common name Location(s) Comments Pictures
Hypolimnus pedderensis Lake Pedder Earthworm Tas Probably extinct in 1972, confirmed in 1996
Romankenkius pedderensis Lake Pedder Planarian Tas Probably extinct in 1972, confirmed in 1986[29]
Tornelasmias capricorni [30]
Austrogammarus australis Rediscovered. Status requires updating[31]
Beddomeia tumida 1996[32]
Angrobia dulvertonensis 1996[33]
Placostylus bivaricosus etheridgei [34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schodde R, Mason IJ (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. A Taxonomic and Zoogeographic Atlas of the Biodiversity of Birds in Australia and its Territories. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. pp. x 851 pp. ISBN 0-643-06456-7. 
  2. ^ Ed Meyer, David Newell, Harry Hines, Sarah May, Jean-Marc Hero, John Clarke, Frank Lemckert (2004). "Rheobatrachus silus (Southern Gastric Brooding Frog, Southern Platypus Frog)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  3. ^ Jean-Marc Hero, Keith McDonald, Ross Alford, Michael Cunningham, Richard Retallick (2004). "heobatrachus vitellinus (Eungella Gastric-brooding Frog, Northern Gastric Brooding Frog)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  4. ^ Jean-Marc Hero, Keith McDonald, Michael Cunningham, Ross Alford, Richard Retallick (2004). "Taudactylus acutirostris (Sharp Snouted Day Frog)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  5. ^ Jean-Marc Hero, Sarah May, David Newell, Harry Hines, John Clarke, Ed Meyer (2004). "Taudactylus diurnus (Mount Glorious Day Frog, Mount Glorious Torrent Frog, Southern Day Frog)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  6. ^ Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop (2008). "Caloprymnus campestris (Buff-nosed Rat-kangaroo, Desert Rat Kangaroo, Plains Rat-kangaroo)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  7. ^ Burbidge, A., Dickman, C. & Johnson, K. (2008). "Chaeropus ecaudatus (Pig-footed Bandicoot)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  8. ^ Baillie, J.E.M. (2008). "Conilurus albipes (Rabbit-eared Tree-rat, White-footed Rabbit-rat, White-footed Rabbit Rat, White-footed Tree-rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  9. ^ Burbidge, A. & Johnson, K. (2008). "Lagorchestes asomatus (Central Hare-wallaby, Central Hare Wallaby, Least Hare-wallaby, Least Hare Wallaby)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  10. ^ Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop (2008). "Lagorchestes leporides (Eastern Hare-wallaby, Eastern Hare Wallaby)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  11. ^ Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop (2008). "Macropus greyi (Toolache Wallaby)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  12. ^ Burbidge, A., Johnson, K. & Dickman, C. (2008). "Macrotis leucura (Lesser Bilby, Lesser Rabbit-eared Bandicoot, White-tailed Rabbit-eared Bandicoot, Yallara)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  13. ^ Baillie, J.E.M. (2008). "Notomys amplus (Short-tailed Hopping Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  14. ^ Morris, K. & Burbidge, A. (2008). "Notomys longicaudatus (Long-tailed Hopping Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  15. ^ Morris, K. & Burbidge, A. (2008). "Notomys macrotis (Big-eared Hopping-mouse, Big-eared Hopping Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  16. ^ Baillie, J.E.M. (2008). "Notomys mordax (Darling Downs Hopping Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  17. ^ Burbidge, A. & Johnson, K. (2008). "Onychogalea lunata (Crescent Nail-tailed Wallaby, Crescent Nailtail Wallaby, Wurrung)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  18. ^ Burbidge, A., Johnson, K. & Aplin, K. (2008). "Perameles eremiana (Desert Bandicoot)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  19. ^ Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop (2008). "Potorous platyops (Broad-faced Potoroo)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  20. ^ Lamoreux, J. (2008). "Pseudomys glaucus (Blue-gray Mouse, Blue-grey Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  21. ^ Baillie, J.E.M. (2008). "Pseudomys gouldii (Gould's Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  22. ^ Richards, G. & Hall, L. (2008). "Pteropus brunneus (Dusky Flying Fox, Percy Island Flying Fox)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  23. ^ Lamoreux, J. (2009). "Rattus macleari (Maclear's Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  24. ^ Lamoreux, J. (2009). "Rattus nativitatis (Bulldog Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  25. ^ McKnight, M. (2008). "Thylacinus cynocephalus (Tasmanian Tiger, Tasmanian Wolf, Thylacine)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  26. ^ Lumsden, L. & Schulz, M. (2008). "Crocidura trichura (Christmas Island Shrew)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  27. ^ Robinson, T. & Burbidge, A. (2008). "Leporillus apicalis (Lesser Stick-nest Rat, White-tipped Stick-nest Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  28. ^ Lumsden, L., Racey, P.A. & Hutson, A.M. (2010). "Pipistrellus murrayi (Christmas Island Pipistrelle)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  29. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/19741/all
  30. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/21996/all
  31. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/2425/all
  32. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/2713/all
  33. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/1292/all
  34. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/17448/all