Fergana Kipchak, also Kuman, Qomanian, or Kipchak Uzbek, is an extinct Turkic language formerly spoken in the Fergana Valley in Central Asia. It split from East Kipchak in the middle of the 8th century (the South Altay language likely split earlier). Other East Kipchak dialects gave rise to the modern Kyrgyz language. In some regions of Fergana Province the features of Kipchak are seen, especially in phonetics. These regions (uzbek tuman) are Baghdad, Buvayda, Uchko'prik and some parts of neighboring regions. Many idioms spoken in Uzbekistan that are nowadays regarded to be part of the Kyrgyz language are in fact Fergana Kipchak dialects. According to the E. D. Polivanov, the Fergana Kipchak language existed as a separate idiom as late as in the 1920s. According to A. N. Samoilovich’s latest research, some descendants of Fergana Kipchaks identify themselves as a separate ethnic group independent from the Uzbeks, Kazakhs or the Kyrgyz, although closely related to the latter.
Some modern Fergana Kipchak dialects seem to be closely related to the Kipchak–Nogay group of the Turkic languages.