Firozpur

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This article is about the municipality in Punjab, India. For its namesake district, see Firozpur district.
Firozpur
ਫਿਰੋਜਪੁਰ
‘ the land of martyrs ’
city
The National Martyrs Memorial, built at Hussainiwala in memory of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru
Nickname(s): FZR
Punjab
Firozpur
Firozpur
Location in Punjab, India
Coordinates: 30°55′00″N 74°36′00″E / 30.9166°N 74.6°E / 30.9166; 74.6Coordinates: 30°55′00″N 74°36′00″E / 30.9166°N 74.6°E / 30.9166; 74.6
Country  India
State Punjab
District Firozpur
Founded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Government
 • Deputy Commissioner D.P.S. Kharbanda
 • Member of Parliament Sher Singh Ghubaya (SAD)
 • Member of the Legislative Assembly Parminder Singh Pinky (INC)
Elevation 182 m (597 ft)
Population (2011)‡[›]
 • Total 110,091
 • Density 380/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
Demonym Firozpuri
Languages
 • Official Punjabi
 • Dialect Malwai
 • Other Hindi and English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 152001
Area code(s) 91-1632
Vehicle registration PB 05
Sex ratio 885/1000[1] /
Literacy 69.80%
Lok Sabha constituency Firozpur
Vidhan Sabha constituency Firozpur
Planning agency PUDA
Website www.ferozepur.nic.in

Firozpur, (Punjabi: ਫਿਰੋਜਪੁਰ) officially Ferozepur is a city on the banks of the Sutlej River in Firozpur District, Punjab, India. It was founded by Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1309–88), a Muslim ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. However, the Manj Rajputs believe that the town was named after one of their chiefs, a Rajput of the Bhatti clan called Feroze Khan, in the middle of the 16th century. However, the first assumption is more widely accepted as Firoz shah Tughluq had a passion for building new cities and renaming old ones especially after his own name.[2] Firozpur today is an administrative and transportation center.

Firozpur is called ‘the land of martyrs’.[3] After partition of India in 1947, it became a border town on the Indo-Pakistan border with memorials of India's freedom fighters.[4] Firozpur also holds a historic place in Indian history as it was from here that British Raj established control over much of North-West India as well as what is now Pakistan through the Anglo-Sikh Wars that were fought in this region. Firozpur Cantonment is adjacent to and south of the city; during British times it was one of the largest cantonments in the country. Even today it is the headquarters of a division of the Western Command of the Indian Army.

Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engineering and Technology is located on Moga road in Firozpur. It is a government Engg. College and has an excellent reputation.[5]

Firozpur has easy access by road and rail to other places such as Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Delhi, and Chandigarh; the city is a center of numerous holy shrines and historic places. At the nearby city of Zira, is located a Jain Shwetambar Temple with ancient brass icons and wall murals.

In addition to cotton and grain cultivation and agriculture-related services, Firozpur has some light manufacturing. Commercial progress has been restricted by its vicinity to the border with Pakistan. Normalizing relations between the two nuclear nations promises to raise the city's profile as a potential trade hub. Firozpur is the oldest British district of the Punjab, established in 1833 as district headquarters even well before Ludhiana and Amritsar became districts. Firozpur district, even after the independence of Pakistan in 1947, included many areas which were later re-organised to be a part of the Faridkot, Moga, Muktsar, Bathinda and Fazilka Districts. The per hectare wheat yields of this district are comparable to the best in the world and they matched wheat yields per hectare of Ontario Province in Canada.

History[edit]

Firozpur is an ancient city situated close to the present day Indo-Pakistan border. It is believed to have been founded by Firoz shah Tughluq in the 14th century. Another version claims that it was founded by a Bhatti chief called Feroze Khan. However, the first version is more widely accepted as Firoz shah Tughluq had a passion for building new cities and renaming old ones especially after his own name. He claimed, "Among the many gifts which God bestowed upon me, His humble servant, was a desire to erect public buildings. So I built many mosques, colleges and monasteries, that the learned and the elders, the devout and the holy, might worship God in these edifices and aid the kind builder with their prayers."

Firozpur's strategic position in the northwest of the country has resulted in its being part of many military expenditions in the area. During the first Anglo-Sikh war in 1845, it due to the negligence of the British commander at Firozpur that the Khalsa was able to cross the Sutlej unopposed. When Lord Hardinge declared war on the Sikhs, the first battle was fought at Mudki, 20 miles south-east of Firozpur. In 1838, Firozpur was the centre from where British troops advanced to Kabul during the rist Anglo-Afghan war.

Three heroic martyrs of India's freedom struggle Shaheed Bhagat Singh and his associates Shaheed Rajguru and Shaheed Sukhdev have their final resting place on the banks of the river Sutlej in Firozpur. On March 23, 1931, despite popular protest, these three heros were executed in Lahore and were stealthily cremated in the dead of night near Firozpur. They were killed for raising the flag of revolutionary terrorism against the British, displaying their deep patriotism and defiance for the foreign rulers till the very end.

Today, a Shaheed Bhagat Singh Memorial marks the spot and every year on March 23, thousands of people gather to pay homage of these noble heroes. Firozpur has another historical memorial, the Saragarhi Gurudwara, commemorating the sacrifice of 21 Sikh soldiers who perished at Saragarhi in Baluchistan. On 12 September, every year, people gather here to pay tribute to the heroic soldiers and celebrate Saragarhi Day. The memorial service also provides an occasion for exservicemen to have a reunion. [6]

Location[edit]

Firozpur city is to the south-west of Amritsar city and located some 109 km from Amritsar. Another nearby city to the north of Firozpur is Tarn Taran. To the east is Ludhiana about 120 km away. In the west it has Kasur and Lahore in Pakistan across the international border at Hussainiwala/Ganda Singh Wala. Other nearby cities include Fazilka and Abohar located 85 km and 122 km respectively to the south-west of Firozpur. To the north-east of Firozpur are the towns of Nakodar, Kapurthala and Jalandhar (120 km away). The cities of Muktsar and Faridkot are to the South of Firozpur.

Important distances from the city of Firozpur are shown below:

Climate[edit]

The climate of the Firozpur District is, on the whole, dry and is characterized by a very hot summer, a short rainy season and a bracing winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season is from November to March. This is followed by the summer season which lasts up to about the end of June. The period from July to the middle of September constitutes the south-westerly monsoon season. The latter half of September and October may be termed the post-monsoon or the transition period.

Climate data for Firozpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19
(66)
21
(69)
26
(78)
34
(94)
38
(101)
39
(103)
34
(94)
33
(91)
33
(92)
32
(89)
26
(79)
21
(69)
29.7
(85.4)
Average low °C (°F) 7
(44)
8
(47)
13
(55)
18
(65)
23
(73)
26
(79)
26
(79)
24
(76)
23
(74)
17
(63)
11
(52)
7
(45)
16.9
(62.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 20.3
(0.80)
38.1
(1.50)
30.5
(1.20)
20.3
(0.80)
20.3
(0.80)
61
(2.40)
228.6
(9.00)
188
(7.40)
86.4
(3.40)
5.1
(0.20)
12.7
(0.50)
20.3
(0.80)
731.6
(28.8)
Source: [7]

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional data of 2011 census, Firozpur had a population of 110,091, out of which males were 58,401 and females were 51,690. The literacy rate was 79.75 per cent.[8]

According to the 2001 Indian census,[9] Firozpur had a population of 95,451, which increased from 78,738 in 1991. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Firozpur has an average literacy rate of 71%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 73%, and female literacy is 68%. In Firozpur, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Education[edit]

Following are the lists for schools and colleges for studying in the Firozpur.

Schools[edit]

Colleges[edit]