Delhi Sultanate

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Sultanate of Delhi
दिल्ली सलतनत
پادشاهی دهلی





Delhi Sultanate under various dynasties.
Capital Delhi
Languages Persian (official)[1]
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate
 -  1206–1210 Qutb-ud-din Aibak (first)
 -  1517–1526 Ibrahim Lodi (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Independence 12 June[2] 1206
 -  Battle of Amroha 20 December 1305
 -  eagle
 -  Battle of Panipat 21 April 1526
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Avar Khaganate 564–804
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Old Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Volga Bulgaria
Turgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Pecheneg Khanates
Kimek Khanate
Kipchak Khanates
Oghuz Yabgu State
Shatuo dynasties 923–979
  Later Tang
  Later Jin
  Later Han (Northern Han)
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Seljuq Sultanate of Rum 1092–1307
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khilji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Cairo Sultanate 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty

The Delhi Sultanate (Urdu: سلطنت دہلی‎) was a Delhi-based Muslim kingdom that ruled over large parts of India for 320 years (1206 – 1526).[3][4] Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially, the first four of which were of Turkic origin and the last was the Afghan Lodi. The Lodi dynasty was replaced by the Mughal dynasty. The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414); the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51); and the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).

Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a former slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. Delhi sultanate is also noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire.[5]

The Sultanate caused destruction and desecration of ancient temples of South Asia,[6] as well as led to the emergence of Indo-Islamic architecture.[7][8] The Delhi Sultanate is the era that enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana from 1236 to 1240.[9] In 1526 the Delhi Sultanate fell, and it was replaced by the Mughal Empire.


By 962 AD, north India was under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia and Persia.[10] Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India, from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river, 17 times between 997 AD to 1030 AD.[11] Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.[12][13]

A wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni, for plunder and loot from these kingdoms.[14] These raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms. The Ghurid Sultan Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, from 1173 AD began a systematic war of expansion into north India.[15] He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world, a tradition common among the warring orthodox (Sunni) and heterodox (Shia) warlords in West and Central Asia since the 9th century onwards.[11][16] Mu’izz sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own, that extended east of Indus river, and he thus laid the foundation for Muslim kingdom called Delhi Sultanate.[11] Some historians chronicle Delhi Sultanate over 1192-1526 AD (334 years) because of Mu'izz al-Din's presence and geographical claims in South Asia by 1192 AD.[17]

Mu'izz al-Din was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims by some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars by other accounts.[18] After the assassination, it was one of Mu’izz slaves (or Mamluk, Arabic: مملوك), the Turkic Qutbu l-Din Aibak, who assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi.[11]



Qutub-ud-din Aibak was a slave of Mu'izz al-Din, whose reign started Delhi Sultanate. He was of Cuman-Kipchak origin.[19] On account of his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk (Slave) Dynasty (not to be confused with Mamluk dynasty of Iraq or Mamluk dynasty of Egypt).[20]

Aybak reign as the Sultan of Delhi lasted 4 years. After his death, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated by Iltutmish in 1211.[21] Iltutmish's power was precarious, and a number of Muslim amirs (nobles) challenged his authority. Some Qutbi amirs supported him. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, he consolidated his power.[22] His rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, and this led to a series of wars.[23] Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranathambhore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He also attacked, defeated and executed Taj al-Din Yildiz, who asserted his rights as heir to Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad.[24] Iltutmish's rule lasted till 1236. Following the death of Iltutmish, Delhi Sultanate saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim nobility, assassinations and short lived tenures. Power shifted from Rukn ud din Firuz to Razia Sultana and others, until Ghiyas ud din Balban came to power and ruled from 1266 to 1287.[23][24] He was succeeded by 17-year old Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, who ordered poisoning of Nizam-ud-Din and appointed Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji as the commander of Delhi Sultanate army. Khilji assassinated Muiz ud din Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk dynasty.

Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during Mamluk and Khalji dynasty periods of Delhi Sultanate.[25]

During the Mamluk dynasty, Qutbu'd-Din Aibak initiated the construction of Qutub Minar and Quwwatu'l-Islam (literally, Might of Islam) mosque, now a UNESCO world heritage site.[25] It was built from materials reused from 20 demolished Hindu temples, and completed by Muhammad-bin-Sam. The Qutub Minar complex was expanded by Iltutmish, later by Alauld-Din Khalji in early 14th century.[25][26] During the Mamluk dynasty, many amirs (nobles) of Afghan and Persia migrated and settled in India, as West Asia came under Mongol seize.[27]


Main article: Khilji dynasty

The first ruler of Khilji dynasty was Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji. He came to power in 1290, after ending the life of Mamluk dynasty's last ruler Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, at the behest of Turkic, Afghan and Persian amirs.

Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji was of Turko-Afghan origin, and ruled for 6 years before he was murdered in 1296 by his nephew Juna Khan, who was also his son-in-law.[28] Juna Khan later came to be known as Ala al-din Khilji. Ala al-din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa (1292) and Devagiri (1294) for plunder and loot. His military campaign returned to these lands as well other South Indian kingdoms after he assumed power. He conquered Gujarat, Ranthambor, Chitor and Malwa.[29] However, these victories were cut short because of Mongol attacks and plunder raids from northwest. The Mongols withdrew after plundering, and stopped raiding northwest parts of Delhi Sultanate.[30]

After Mongols withdrew, Ala al-din Khilji continued expanding Delhi Sultanate into South India, with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur and Khusraw Khan, collecting large war booty (Anwatan) from those they defeated.[31] His commanders collected war spoils, paid Ghanima (الْغَنيمَة, tax on spoils of war) which helped strengthen the Khalji rule. Among these loots was the Warangal loot that included one of the largest known diamond in human history, the Koh-i-noor.[32]

Ala al-din Khilji also changed tax policies, raising agriculture taxes from 20% to 50% - payable in grain and agricultural produce, eliminating payments and commissions on taxes collected by local chiefs, banned socialization among his officials as well as inter-marriage between noble families to help prevent any opposition forming against him; he cut salaries of officials, poets and scholars in his kingdom.[28] These tax policies and spending controls strengthened his treasury to pay the keep of his growing army; he also introduced price controls on all agriculture produce and goods in kingdom, as well as controls on where, how and by whom these goods could be sold. Taxes collected in form of grain were stored in kingdom's storage. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army.[28] Ala al-din is also known for his cruelty against attacked kingdoms after wars. Historians note him as a tyrant and that anyone Ala al-din Khilji suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1297-1298, between 15,000 to 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, upon fears of an uprising.[33]

After Ala-ud-din's death in 1316, Malik Kafur tried to assume power, but lacked the support of Persian and Afghan nobility. Malik Kafur was killed.[28] The last Khilji ruler was Ala-ud-din's 18-year old son Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah Khilji, who ruled for 4 years before he was killed by Khusraw Khan. Khusraw Khan reign lasted few months, when Ghazi Malik later to be called Ghiasuddin Tughlaq killed him and assumed power in 1320 AD, thus beginning the Tughluq dynasty of Delhi Sultanate.[27][33]


Main article: Tughlaq dynasty
Delhi Sultanate from 1320-1330 AD under Tughluq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrunk.

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik rechristened himself as Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and is also referred in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah. He was of Turko-Indian origins, with a Turkic father and a Hindu mother. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ruled for 5 years and launched a town near Delhi named Tughlakabad. According to some historians such as Vincent Smith,[34] he was killed by his son Juna Khan, who then assumed power in 1325 AD. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq, and ruled for 26 years.[35] During his rule, Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, covering most of Indian subcontinent.[36]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of Quran, Fiqh, poetry and other fields. He was also deeply suspicious of his wazirs (ministers), extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval. For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses, and used them to pay taxes and jizya.[34][36]

A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq

On another occasion, Muhammad bin Tughlaq after becoming upset, ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi to Deogir in Maharashtra (renaming it to Daulatabad), by forcing mass migration of Delhi's population. Those who refused were killed. One blind person who failed to move to Deogir, was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad.[34] The capital move failed because Daulatabad was arid and did not have enough drinking water to support the new capital. The capital then returned to Delhi. Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq orders affected history as large number of Delhi Muslims who came to Deccan area, did not return to Delhi to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq. This influx of the then Delhi residents into Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India.[36] Muhammad bin Tughlaq adventures in the Deccan region also marked campaigns of destruction and desecration of Hindu and Jain temples; for example of the Svayambhu Shiva Temple and the Thousand Pillar Temple.[37]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq moved his capital to Daulatabad in Deccan Plateau, ordered Delhi people to move and build a new capital named Daulatabad (shown), then reversed his decision because Daulatabad lacked the river and drinking water supply Delhi had.[34]

Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in 1327, continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate shrunk. In 1337, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered an attack on China by sending part of his forces through Nepal over the Himalayas. Few survived that journey. The few who returned were executed for failing.[34] During his reign, state revenues collapsed from his policies such as the base metal coins from 1329-1332 AD. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty and rebellion grew across the kingdom. By 1339, the eastern regions under local Muslim governors and southern parts led by Hindu kings had revolted and declared independence from Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom.[38] The historian Walford chronicled Delhi and most of India faced severe famines from 1342 through 1345, during Muhammad bin Tughlaq's rule.[39] By 1347, Bahmanid Sultanate had become an independent and competing Muslim kingdom in Deccan region of South Asia.[10]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in 1351 while trying to punish people in Gujarat rebelling against Delhi Sultanate.[38] He was succeeded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), who tried to regain the old kingdom boundary by waging a war with Bengal for 11 months in 1359. However, Bengal did not fall, and remained outside of Delhi Sultanate. Firoz Shah Tughlaq ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from river Yamuna. An educated sultan, Firoz Shah left a memoir. In it he wrote that he banned torture in practice in Delhi Sultanate by his predecessors, tortures such as amputations, tearing out of eyes, sawing people alive, crushing people's bones as punishment, pouring molten lead into throats, putting people on fire, driving nails into hands and feet, among others.[40] The Sunni Sultan also wrote that he did not tolerate attempts by Rafawiz Shia Muslim and Mahdi sects from proselytizing people into their faith, nor did he tolerate Hindus who tried to rebuild their temples after his armies had destroyed the temples. As punishment, wrote the Sultan, he put many Shia, Mahdi and Hindus to death (siyasat). In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours. Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, accessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who historically had exempted all Hindu Brahmins from jizya tax. He also vastly expanded the number of slaves in his service and those of amirs (Muslim nobles). Firoz Shah Tughlaq reign was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, and heightened intolerance against targeted groups.[40]

Firoz Shah Tughlaq's death created anarchy and disintegration of kingdom. The last rulers of this dynasty were two, both calling themselves Sultans from 1394 to 1397 - Mahmud Tughlaq, the grandson of Firoz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Delhi, and Nusrat Shah, another relative of Firoz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Firozabad which was few miles from Delhi.[41] The battle between the two relatives continued till the invasion by Timur in 1398. Timur, also known as Tamburlaine in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic Islamic king of Samarkhand. He became aware of the weak and quarreling Sultans in Delhi. So he plundered and marched his way with his army into Delhi, killed between 100,000 to 200,000 people during his campaign.[42] Timur had no intention of staying in or ruling India. He looted the lands he crossed all the way to Delhi, then plundered and burnt Delhi, collected and carried the wealth, captured women and slaves (particularly skilled artisans) back to Samarkhand. The people and lands within Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos and pestilence.[41]


Main article: Sayyid dynasty

The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dyanasty.[43] It ruled Delhi Sultanate from 1415 to 1451.[10] Sayyids succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled the Sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty.


Main article: Lodi dynasty

The Lodi Dynasty was an Afghan dynasty[44] that was the last Delhi Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi who ruled from 1489-1517 was one of the better known rulers of this dynasty. The dynasty founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi ruled from 1451 to 1526. The last ruler of this dynasty, Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed by Babur in the first Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526.

Destruction and desecration[edit]

The 6th century Martand Sun Temple in Kashmir was destroyed during Delhi Sultanate around 1400 AD.[45][46]

Delhi Sultanate marked an era of temple destruction and desecration. Richard Eaton[6] states a campaign of destruction of idols and temples by Sultans, intermixed with instances of years where the temples were protected from desecration to pay for expenses or treasury of the Sultanate.[47] The first historic record of a campaign of temples destruction are from 1193 through early 13th century in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh under the command of Ghuri. Under Khalaji, the campaign of temple desecration expanded to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra, and continued through late 13th century.[6] The campaign extended to Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu under Malik Kafur and Ulugh Khan in 14th century, and by Bahmani in 15th century.[37] Orissa temples were destroyed in 14th century under Tughlaq. Temples in Kashmir were destroyed by Sikandar.[45] Lodi, the last ruler, commanded destruction of temples in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.[6]

Temple desecration during Delhi Sultanate period [37] [48]
Sultan / Agent Dynasty Years Temple Sites States
Mohammad Ghuri, Aibek Mamluk 1193-1194 Ajmer, Samana, Kuhram, Delhi, Kol, Benaras Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Bakhtiyar, Iltumish, Jalal al-Din, Ala al-Din, Malik Kafur Khilji 1202-1311 Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramasila, Bhilsa, Ujjain, Jhain, Vijapur, Devagiri, Somnath, Chidambaram, Madurai Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
Ulugh Khan, Firoz Tughluq, Nahar, Muzaffar Khan Tughluq 1299-1395[49] Somnath, Warangal, Bodhan, Pillalamarri, Puri, Sainthali, Idar, Somnath[50] Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Haryana
Sikandar, Muzaffar Shah, Ahmad Shah, Mahmud Sayyid 1400-1442 Paraspur, Bijbehara, Tripuresvara, Martand, Idar, Diu, Manvi, Sidhpur, Delwara, Kumbhalmir Kashmir, Gujarat, Karnataka, Rajasthan
Suhrab, Begdha, Bahmani, Khalil Shah, Khawwas Khan, Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi Lodi 1457-1518 Mandalgarh, Malan, Dwarka, Kondapalle, Kanchi, Amod, Nagarkot, Utgir, Narwar, Gwalior Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh

Mongol invasion and the fall of the Sultanate[edit]

Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.

The invasion of Timur in 1398 significantly weakened the Delhi Sultanate. It revived briefly under the Lodis before it was conquered by the Mughal emperor Babur in 1526.[citation needed]

The last Lodi ruler, Ibrahim Lodi, was greatly disliked by his court and subjects. Upon the death of his father Sikander Lodi, he quashed a brief rebellion led by some of his nobles who wanted his younger brother Jalal Khan to be the Sultan. After seizing the throne, by having Jalal Khan murdered, he never really did succeed in pacifying his nobles. Subsequently Daulat Khan, the governor of Punjab and Alam Khan, his uncle, sent an invitation to Babur, the ruler of Kabul to invade Delhi.[citation needed]

Babur won the first Battle of Panipat (April 1526), in which Ibrahim Lodi was killed on the battlefield. This marked the end of Delhi Sultanate. Babur subsequently occupied Agra and Delhi and the new Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi until the arrival of colonial era in South Asia.


Mamluk/Slave dynasty[edit]

The mausoleum of Qutub ud Din Aibak in Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan.

Khalji dynasty[edit]

Tughluq dynasty[edit]

Sayyid dynasty[edit]

  • Khizr Khan (1414–1421)
  • Mubarak Shah (1421–1434)
  • Muhammad Shah (1434–1445)
  • Alam Shah (1445–1451)

Lodi dynasty[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  2. ^ Peter Jackson, The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, (2003), Cambridge University Press. p.28. ISBN 0521543290
  3. ^ Delhi Sultanate, Encyclopedia Britannica
  4. ^ A. Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Leiden, 1980
  5. ^ Pradeep Barua The State at War in South Asia, ISBN 978-0803213449, p. 29-30
  6. ^ a b c d Richard Eaton(2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, 11(3), pp 283-319
  7. ^ A. Welch, “Architectural Patronage and the Past: The Tughluq Sultans of India,” Muqarnas 10, 1993, Brill Publishers, pp 311-322
  8. ^ J. A. Page, Guide to the Qutb, Delhi, Calcutta, 1927, page 2-7
  9. ^ Bowering et al., The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, ISBN 978-0691134840, Princeton University Press
  10. ^ a b c M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-9004177581, Brill
  11. ^ a b c d Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 3-30
  12. ^ T. A. Heathcote, The Military in British India: The Development of British Forces in South Asia:1600-1947, (Manchester University Press, 1995), pp 5-7
  13. ^ Barnett, Lionel (1999), Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan, p. 1, at Google Books, Atlantic pp. 73–79
  14. ^ Richard Davis (1994), Three styles in looting India, History and Anthropology, 6(4), pp 293-317, doi:10.1080/02757206.1994.9960832
  15. ^ MUHAMMAD B. SAM Mu'izz AL-DIN, T.W. Haig, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, ed. C.E.Bosworth, E.van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1993)
  16. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), pp 161-170
  17. ^ History of South Asia: A Chronological Outline Columbia University (2010)
  18. ^ Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām Encyclopedia Britannica (2011)
  19. ^ Bruce R. Gordon. "Nomads of the Steppe". Retrieved 2012-01-20. 
  20. ^ Jackson P. (1990), The Mamlūk institution in early Muslim India, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 122(02), pp 340-358
  21. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, Columbia University Press (1996)
  22. ^ Barnett & Haig (1926), A review of History of Mediaeval India, from ad 647 to the Mughal Conquest - Ishwari Prasad, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 58(04), pp 780-783
  23. ^ a b Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 29-48
  24. ^ a b Anzalone, Christopher (2008), "Delhi Sultanate", in Ackermann, M. E. etc. (Editors), Encyclopedia of World History 2, ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4
  25. ^ a b c Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
  26. ^ Welch and Crane note that the Quwwatu'l-Islam was built with the remains of demolished Hindu and Jain temples; See: Anthony Welch and Howard Crane, The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate, Muqarnas, Vol. 1, (1983), pp. 123-166
  27. ^ a b Anthony Welch and Howard Crane, The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate, Muqarnas, Vol. 1, (1983), pp. 123-166
  28. ^ a b c d Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim west, ISBN 978-0521291378, pp 9-13
  29. ^ Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, ISBN 978-1598843361, pp 62-63
  30. ^ Rene Grousset - Empire of steppes, Chagatai Khanate; Rutgers Univ Pr,New Jersey, U.S.A, 1988 ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
  31. ^ Frank Fanselow (1989), Muslim society in Tamil Nadu (India): an historical perspective, Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 10(1), pp 264-289
  32. ^ Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0
  33. ^ a b Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 231-235, Oxford University Press
  34. ^ a b c d e Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 236-242, Oxford University Press
  35. ^ Elliot and Dowson, Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí of Ziauddin Barani, The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3), London, Trübner & Co
  36. ^ a b c Muḥammad ibn Tughluq Encyclopedia Britannica
  37. ^ a b c Richard Eaton, Temple Desecration and Muslim States in Medieval India at Google Books, (2004)
  38. ^ a b Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 242-248, Oxford University Press
  39. ^ Cornelius Walford (1878), The Famines of the World: Past and Present, p. 3, at Google Books, pp 9-10
  40. ^ a b Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 249-251, Oxford University Press
  41. ^ a b Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 248-254, Oxford University Press
  42. ^ Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". In P. J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam 10 (2 ed.). Brill. 
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ a b John Briggs (translator) (1829–1981 Reprint). Tãrîkh-i-Firishta (History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India). New Delhi; Quote: Hindu temples were felled to the ground and for one year a large establishment was maintained for the demolition of the Grand Martand temple. But when the massive masonry resisted all efforts, fire was applied and the noble buildings cruelly defaced.- Firishta;
  46. ^ India: A History. Revised and Updated at Google Books, John Keay
  47. ^ Richard Eaton, Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states, Frontline (January 5 2001), pp 70-77
  48. ^ Richard Eaton, Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states, Frontline (January 5 2001), pp 72-73
  49. ^ Ulugh Khan also known as Almas Beg was brother of Ala-al Din Khilji; his destruction campaign overlapped the two dynasties
  50. ^ Somnath temple went through cycles of destruction by Sultans and rebuilding by Hindus
  51. ^ Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..