Flags of the Philippine Revolution
During the Philippine Revolution, various flags were used by the Katipunan secret society and its various factions, and later, after the Katipunan had been dissolved, the Philippine Army and its civil government.
Other flags were the personal battle standards of different military zone commanders operating around Manila.
Flags of the Revolution by the 1998 Philippine Centennial
The flags shown below are the official flags recognized during the Philippine Centennial celebration in 1998. These flags are often erroneously included in the "Evolution of the Philippine Flag"; these are properly called "Flags of the Revolution". While many of the depicted symbols and layouts on some of the flags have inspired the national flag, there is no direct relationship.
With the establishment of the Katipunan, Andrés Bonifacio requested his wife, Gregoria de Jesús, to create a flag for the society. De Jesús devised a simple red flag bearing the society's acronym, KKK, in white and arranged horizontally at the center. This became the society's first flag. Bonifacio stated the "K" in the middle of the Sun stood for Kalayaan, Freedom.:105
Some Katipunan members used other variations. One variation has the three Ks arranged in the form of a triangle. Some others used a red flag with only one K.
When the revolution heated up, the Magdiwang faction of the Katipunan, which operated in Cavite under Mariano Álvarez, adopted a flag consisting of a red banner with a white sun with the baybayin (the ancient Tagalog script) letter ka (for K) at the center.
The Magdalo faction of the Katipunan, which also operated in Cavite under Emilio Aguinaldo, used a flag similar to the Magdiwang faction's, featuring a white sun with a baybayin letter ka. The sun initially had an indefinite number of rays and was later standardized to eight rays, to represent the eight provinces that Spanish colonial authorities placed under martial law (Manila, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Bataan, and Nueva Ecija). An eight-rayed sun was later used in the national flag of the Philippines.
As the Katipunan's Supremo, Andrés Bonifacio had a personal flag which depicts a white sun with an indefinite number of rays on a field of red. Below the sun are three white Ks arranged horizontally. This flag was first unveiled on August 23, 1896 during the Cry of Pugadlawin where the assembled Katipunan members tore their cedulas (community tax certificates) in defiance of Spanish authority. The flag was used later during the Battle of San Juan del Monte on August 30, 1896, the first major battle of the Philippine Revolution.
General Mariano Llanera who fought in the provinces of Bulacan, Tarlac, Pampanga, and Nueva Ecija used a black flag with a white K on the left and a white skull and crossed bones on the right, resembling the Jolly Roger. Bonifacio referred to the flag as Bungo ni Llanera or Llanera's Skull.
General Pío del Pilar used a red banner which has a white equilateral triangle on the hoist with a K at each angle. At the centre of the triangle was a mountain with a rising sun behind it. The flag was called Bandila ng Matagumpay (Flag Of the Triumphants) and was first used on July 11, 1895. The flag was also one of the first to depict an eight-rayed sun.
General Gregorio del Pilar used a tricolour with a blue triangle at the hoist, a red stripe at the top and a black stripe at the bottom. Del Pilar patterned his flag after that of Cuba's, which was also in revolt against Spain.
First official Filipino flag
At the Naic Assembly on 17 March 1897, the Katipunan military leaders decided to adopt a new flag. The new design was red and depicted a white sun with eight rays and a face. This flag became the first official Philippine flag, but was used for less than a year because Filipino leaders signed a truce with Spanish authorities on 14 and 15 December 1897.
These are other flags which are not recognized during the Philippine Centennial celebration in 1998 but nevertheless still used during the Philippine Revolution
Aniceto Lacson, Juan Araneta and other Negrense revolutionists also used a tricolour flag in 1898. Their standard was inverted, with the red field in the upper part to indicate wartime and solidarity with other revolutionaries. and a sun that resembling a medal. The colours are similar to those of the current flag of the Philippines.
A flag reminiscent of historical Katipunan flags was used by a breakaway faction of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, who called themselves the Bagong Katipuneros ("new Katipuneros") but labelled the "Mágdalo Group" by media. These officers participated in the 2004 Oakwood mutiny and 2007 Manila Peninsula mutiny against the government of former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. The Mágdalo Group mutinied at the behest of Senator Gregorio Honasan and were at both times led by Senator Antonio Trillanes IV.
- Alvarez, S.V., 1992, Recalling the Revolution, Madison: Center for Southeast Asia Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, ISBN 1-881261-05-0
- Laurel, Herman T (22 February 2006). "Small setback...". The Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-08-10.
- “The Evolution of the Philippine Flag.” MSC's Philippine Centennial Celebration Website.
- “History of the Philippine Flag.” National Commission for Culture and the Arts.
- “Philippines – Historical Flags.” Flags of the World.
- “The History of the Philippine Flag.” Merit Badge Center, Philippines.