Propaganda Movement

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Filipino expatriates in Europe formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in Madrid, Spain in 1890.

The Propaganda Movement was a literary and cultural organization formed in 1872 by Filipino émigrés who had settled in Europe. Composed of Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending Europe's universities, the organization aimed to increase Spanish awareness of the needs of its colony, the Philippines.

Prominent members included José Rizal, author of Noli Me Tangere (novel) and El Filibusterismo, Graciano López Jaena, publisher of La Solidaridad, the movement's principal organ, Mariano Ponce, the organization's secretary[1] and Marcelo H. del Pilar.

Specifically, the Propagandists aims were:

  • Representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, the Spanish parliament;
  • Secularization of the clergy;
  • Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality;
  • Creation of public school system independent of Catholic friars;
  • Abolition of the polo y servicios (labor service) and vandala (forced sale of local products to the government);
  • Guarantee of basic freedoms;
  • Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter government service;