Ford Duratec engine

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Ford Duratec engine
Overview
Manufacturer Ford
Production 1993–present
Combustion chamber
Displacement 1.3 L (79 CID)
1.4 L
1.5 L
1.6 L (97 CID)
1.8 L (110 CID)
2.0 L (122 CID)
2.3 L (140 CID)
2.5 L (155 CID)
3.0 L (181 CID)
3.5 L (213 CID)
3.7 L (227 CID)
6.0 L
Cylinder block alloy Aluminum
Cylinder head alloy Aluminum
Valvetrain Twin chains
Variable valve timing
Intake Variable Cam Timing (iVCT)
Combustion
Fuel system Electronic fuel injection or direct injection, badged SCI[disambiguation needed]

Duratec is a brand name of the Ford Motor Company used for its gasoline-powered line of multivalve four-cylinder and six-cylinder passenger car engines in North America, and for all gasoline engines sold by Ford in Europe.

The Duratec name originally described the family of V6 engines introduced in 1993 in the Ford Mondeo, and in 2000, the four-cylinder engines in the Mondeo became part of the Duratec family. Over time, Duratec was expanded to become an omnibus name for Ford gasoline engines unrelated to the Mondeo V6, such as the Ford Zeta engine and Ford's variant of the Mazda L engine.

The Duratec family consists of four-, five-, and six-cylinder gasoline engines produced by the Ford Motor Company, used in Ford, Mazda, Aston Martin, Volvo, Caterham, Morgan, Tiger, Ginetta cars and by specialist engine tuner Cosworth.

Names reference[edit]

Name Family Displacements Year Features
Duratec 8v 60 PS Kent (Endura-E) 1.3 L (79.3 CID; 1299 cc) 1995–present OHV I4
Duratec 8v 70 PS Kent (Zetec-Rocam) 1.3 L (79.1 CID; 1297 cc)
1.6 L (97.45 CID; 1597 cc)
2000–present SOHC I4
Duratec Sigma (Zetec-SE) 1.25 L  (1242 cc)
1.4 L  (1388 cc)
1.6 L  (1596 cc)
1.7 L  (1679 cc)
2002–present
Duratec Ti-VCT Sigma (Zetec-SE) 1.5 L  (1499 cc) 2013–present
Duratec Ti-VCT Sigma (Zetec-SE) 1.6 L  (1596 cc) 2004–present
Duratec-ST
Duratec RS
Zeta (MVH) 1.8 L (110 CID; 1796 cc)
2.0 L (122 CID; 1999 cc)
1998–2004 DOHC I4
Volvo Modular engine 2.5 L  (2521 cc) 2003–2010 turbocharged DOHC I5
Duratec Mazda L engine 1.8 L (110 CID; 1798 cc)
2.0 L (122 CID; 1999 cc)
2.3 L (138 CID; 2261 cc)
2.5 L (152 CID; 2488 cc)
2001–present DOHC I4
Duratec SCi Mazda L engine 1.8 L (110 CID; 1798 cc) 2003–2007 DOHC GDI I4 Ti-VCT
Duratec-HE
Duratec FFV
Mazda L engine (MI4) 1.8 L (110 CID; 1798 cc)
2.0 L (122 CID; 1999 cc)
2005–present DOHC I4
Duratec-HE Ti-VCT
EcoBoost SCTi
Mazda L engine (MI4) 2.0 L (122 CID; 1999 cc)
2010–present DOHC GDI I4
Duratec V6/VE/25 Mondeo V6 2.5 L (155 CID; 2544 cc) 1994–2002 DOHC V6
Duratec 30 Mondeo V6 3.0 L (181 CID; 2967 cc) 1996–present DOHC V6
Duratec 35 Cyclone V6 3.5 L (213 CID; 3492 cc) 2006–present DOHC V6
Duratec 37 Cyclone V6 3.7 L (227 CID; 3721 cc) 2007–present DOHC V6

Ford global straight-4[edit]

Duratec 18[edit]

The Duratec 18 is a 1.8 L (110 CID; 1798 cc). Bore and stroke are a square 83 mm (3.3 in) × 83.1 mm (3.27 in × 3.27 in). It has an aluminum engine block with cast-in iron cylinder liners and an aluminum DOHC cylinder head. It uses SFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and a one-piece cast crankshaft. Output is 125 hp (93 kW) at 6000 rpm with 122 lb·ft (165 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. This engine is currently fitted to Ford models outside of North America.

Duratec 20[edit]

The Duratec 20 is a 2.0 L (122 CID; 1999 cc) version built in Dearborn, Michigan, United States and in Chihuahua, Mexico. Bore is 87.5 mm (3.44 in) and stroke is 83.1 mm (3.27 in).

It is used in the US/Argentinian Focus, US Transit Connect (engine built in Valencia, Spain), and the Brazilian Ford EcoSport. (European Fiesta ST, Ford Focus and Focus C-Max, Mondeo, S-Max, Transit and Galaxy use Duratec HE engines). On the 2007 Focus, output is 136 hp (101 kW) at 6000 rpm with 136 lb·ft (184 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The 2007 Focus sold in the US states of CA, NY, MA, VT and ME comes with the required PZEV emissions 20E version which produces 130 hp (97 kW) at 6000 rpm with 129 lb·ft (175 N·m) of torque at 4000 rpm. The PZEV is available as an option in border states. The compression ratio for both versions is 10:1. On the 2008 Focus, output is 140 hp (100 kW) at 6000 rpm with 136 lb·ft (184 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The 2009 Focus had 143 hp (107 kW) when equipped with manual transmission due to a higher flowing exhaust system. The 2008 Focus sold in the US states of CA, NY, MA, VT and ME comes with the required PZEV emissions 20E version which produces 132 hp (98 kW) at 6000 rpm with 133 lb·ft (180 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm.[1] The PZEV is available as an option in border states. The compression ratio for both versions is 10:1. It has an aluminum engine block and an aluminum DOHC cylinder head. The cylinders are lined with cast iron. It uses SFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods, a one-piece cast crankshaft, and a cast aluminum or reinforced plastic intake manifold. In 2011 Ford started selling the 2012 Focus in North America. It comes with a 160 hp (119 kW) version of the 2.0-liter Duratec with direct injection and Ti-VCT. A PZEV version of the Focus will be sold in certain states.

The plastic intake manifold on early versions of the 1.8 and 2.0 has a major fault due to poor-quality materials. The manifold has swirlplates mounted on a square shaft at the aperture where it mounts to the cylinder head. Early 4-cylinder Duratec engines can be ruined when the swirlplates break off and enter a cylinder. Most cases are of single swirlplates but also the shaft can wear and break. Early signs of this fault are evidenced by a ticking noise emanating from the front of the engine. This can occur as early as 25K miles, with failure typically occurring after about 90K miles. (more details)

Duratec 2.3[edit]

Duratec 23NS in a 2002 Ranger

The Duratec 23 is a 2.3 L (140 CID; 2261 cc).[2] Bore is 3.44 inches (87.5 mm) and stroke is 3.70 inches (94 mm).[2] It has an aluminum engine block with cast-in iron cylinder liners and an aluminum DOHC cylinder head. It uses SFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and a one-piece cast crankshaft.

The 23EW was built in Chihuahua, Mexico for transverse installation in several front-drive Ford/Mercury vehicles through the 2009 model year. "EW" in the Ford designation code denotes East-West configuration, or transverse mounting. 3 versions of the 23EW have been produced. A standard DOHC 16V version was used in the North American Focus producing 151 hp (113 kW) at 5750 rpm with 154 lb·ft (209 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. An iVCT (intake variable cam timing)-equipped DOHC 16V version was used in the 2006–2009 Ford Fusion/Mercury Milan, and several generations of CD2-based crossovers.

The 23NS was built in Dearborn, Michigan for the Ford Ranger and North American market Mazda B-Series from the 2001 model year to the 2011 model year. "NS" denotes North-South configuration, or longitudinal mounting. These engines are tuned for torque-bias making them suitable for light-truck use and are not equipped with iVCT or VICS. Output is 143 hp (107 kW) at 5250 rpm with 154 lb·ft (209 N·m) of torque at 3750 rpm.

Applications:

The Duratec 23E is a version of the Duratec 23 with California PZEV emissions.

A high-efficiency Atkinson cycle version was used in the Ford Escape Hybrid, Mercury Mariner Hybrid, and Mazda Tribute Hybrid.

Duratec 25[edit]

The Duratec 25, or Duratec 2.5 L I-4, built in Chihuahua, Mexico, is an evolution of the Duratec 23. 'Duratec 25' should not be confused with the similarly named 2.5 L V6 Ford Duratec. The new Duratec 25 is an inline 4-cylinder engine design that is identical to the Mazda MZR 2.5L engine. The bore and stroke have increased over the 2.3 L to 89 mm (3.5 in) x 100 mm and as such now displaces 2,488 cc (151.8 cu in). Power has been increased to 175 hp (130 kW) @ 6000 rpm with torque of 172 lb·ft (233 N·m) @ 4500 rpm. A Hybrid Duratec 25 will be replacing the Hybrid Duratec 23. It also uses iVCT.

Fuel saving features include adaptive knock control and aggressive deceleration fuel cutoff.[3]

Duratec HE[edit]

Duratec-HE in a 2006 Fiesta ST

The Duratec-HE is the name used by Ford Europe[4] for its family of small straight-4 DOHC engines. European 1.8 L and 2.0 L Duratec HE engines are built at the Valencia Engine Plant in Spain. Duratec FFV is a flex fuel version of the 1.8 L Duratec-HE modified to run on E85 fuel. 1.8L Focus C-Max and Focus Mk II versions use a drive-by-wire throttle to improve responsiveness.

The Duratec-HE family includes:

  • 1.8 L — 1,798 cc (109.7 cu in), 83.0 mm (3.27 in) bore, 83.1 mm (3.27 in) stroke, compression ratio 10.8:1, 92 kW (125 PS; 123 hp) of power @6000 rpm, 165 N·m (122 lb·ft) of torque @4500 rpm.
  • 2.0 L — 1,999 cc (122.0 cu in), 87.5 mm (3.44 in) bore, 83.1 mm (3.27 in) stroke, compression ratio 10.8:1, 107 kW (145 PS; 143 hp) of power @6000 rpm, 185 N·m (136 lb·ft) of torque @4500 rpm.

Duratec HE Ti-VCT[edit]

For 2011, Duratec-HE have been updated with Ti-VCT and gasoline direct injection for use in Ford Focus Mk.III for the Russian market.

Duratec SCi[edit]

In 2001, Ford introduced its first European Ford engine to use gasoline direct injection technology, badged SCi (Smart Charge injection) for Direct-Injection-Spark-Ignition (DISI).[5] The range will include some turbocharged derivatives, including the 1.1-litre, three-cylinder turbocharged unit showcased at the 2002 Geneva Show.[5] The 1.8 L was the first European Ford engine to use direct injection technology, badged SCi for Smart Charge Injection. This appeared in the Mondeo in 2003 and is today available on the 2.0 L engine as well as an expected 1.1 L version.

The SCi engines were designed at Ford's Cologne, Germany facility and are assembled in Valencia, Spain. The SCi engine is paired with a specially designed six-speed manual transmission.

Duratec RS[edit]

The Focus RS featured a turbocharged version of the 2.0 L Zeta unit producing 215 bhp (158 kW) and 310 N·m (229 lb·ft) of torque, although badged a Duratec-RS.

Duratec 8v[edit]

The Duratec 8v name is currently used on two different engines in the European Ford Ka and the 2003 Ford Fiesta:

  • The 60 PS (59 hp/44 kW) 1.3 L (79.3 CID; 1242 cc)
  • The 70 PS (69 hp/51 kW) 1.3 L (79.1 CID; 1242 cc), and 95 PS (94 hp/70 kW) 1.6 L (97.45 CID; 1597 cc) Duratec 8V is the South African and Brazilian-built Zetec-Rocam engine. The 1.3 is also used in the European Ford Ka. In Europe, the 1.3L & 1.6L is used in the Ka, only the 1.3L in Fiesta Mk6.
1.2 8V Ford KA engine

Another type of a Duratec 8V engine is the 1.2-litre Fiat unit used in the 2009 Ford KA. The new KA is a cooperation with Fiat, it's got the technical basis of the Fiat 500 and is also built by Fiat in Poland. This is the only gasonline engine that is available for the new KA at the moment. It produces 69 PS (51 kW)

Duratec V6[edit]

Duratec 30 engine in a 2006 Mercury Montego

The 2.5 L and 3.0 L V6 Duratecs are evolutions of the same design, first used in the 1994 Ford Mondeo (1995 Ford Contour in US). It is a modern aluminum DOHC V6 with a 60° bank angle. They were also used in the Ford Cougar.

The Jaguar AJ-V6 engine and Mazda's AJ engine featured variable valve timing.

Duratec 25[edit]

The Duratec 25 is a 2.5 L (155 CID; 2544 cc) 60° V6 and was introduced in 1994. It was developed for the Ford Contour and used in the Ford Mondeo, Mercury Cougar, Mercury Mystique, Jaguar X-Type, and others. The Duratec 25 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1995 and 1996, and the SVT version made the list for 1998 and 1999.

An SVT version produced 195 hp (145 kW) and 165 lb·ft (224 N·m) in 1998. Further improvements were made in 1999 that raised power output to 200 hp (149 kW) and 169 lb·ft (229 N·m) and were carried over in the 2000 model,14 L/100 km (17 mpg-US). The SVT engine was used in the 1998–2000 Ford Contour SVT, as well as the Ford Mondeo ST200 which was a limited edition model produced, and sold in Europe.

Bore is 82.4 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 79.5 mm (3.1 in) on most 2.5 L Duratec-derived engines for a total of 2544 cc. Mazda used the same block and camshaft in their 2000 MPV. However, they reduced the size to 2.49 L to keep under a 2.5 L tax cap in Japan. It was replaced in 2002 with the larger 3.0 L Duratec 30-based Mazda AJ.

Duratec 30[edit]

The Ford Duratec 30 Engine in a Mercury Sable.

The 3.0 L Duratec 30 or Mazda AJ was introduced in 1996 as a replacement for the 3.8 L (230 cu in) Essex V6 in the up-market versions of the Ford Taurus/Mercury Sable. It has 2,967 cc (181 cu in) of displacement and produces between 200 hp (150 kW) and 240 hp (180 kW). With an aluminum block and cylinder heads, it is the same basic engine used in the Jaguar S-Type, Lincoln LS, Mazda MPV, Mazda 6, Mondeo ST220 and many other Ford vehicles. It is essentially a bored-out (to 89 mm) Duratec 25 and is built in Ford Motor Company's Cleveland Engine #2 plant in Cleveland, Ohio. A slightly modified version for the Ford Five Hundred entered production at the Cleveland #1 plant in 2004.

There are two key versions of the first-generation Duratec 30:

  • DAMB - The Lincoln LS and Jaguar AJ30 versions have direct-acting mechanical bucket (DAMB) tappets. Output is 232 hp (173 kW) at 6750 rpm with 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque at 4500 rpm.
  • RFF - The Taurus/Sable/Escape version uses roller finger followers (RFF) instead and produces 201 hp (150 kW) at 5900 rpm with 207 lb·ft (281 N·m) of torque at 4400 rpm.

Variable Cam Timing[edit]

The 2006 Ford Fusion, Mercury Milan, and Lincoln Zephyr feature a version of the Duratec 30 using variable valve timing. The engine has an output of 221 hp (165 kW) at 6250 rpm, and 205 lb·ft (278 N·m) of torque at 4800 rpm.

The final major revision of the Duratec 30 was seen on the 2009 Ford Escape and Mercury Mariner small SUVs. Cam-torque-actuated iVCT was introduced in this version along with better breathing heads. The result is a bump from the previous version's 223 bhp (166 kW; 226 PS) to 240 hp (180 kW) at 6550 rpm. The newly refreshed engine made its way into the redesigned Ford Fusion as the optional base V6, and the Mercury Milan as the only V6 for the 2010 model redesign.

Replacement[edit]

The 3.0L delivered ample power in the midsize sedan segment, however the Fusion later received the Duratec 35 V6 as a top-tier "Sport" option to remain competitive with larger V6 offerings in the Toyota Camry and Honda Accord. The Duratec 30 remained as a step up from the base I4 in the Fusion, but the Milan kept the 3.0L as its sole V6 until it was discontinued for the 2011 model year. The 3.0L has the potential to deliver more power, but it is believed to be nearing the end of its development; Ford will begin to phase it out in favor of newer engine lines. The Duratec 30 will be dropped as the higher-end powerplant in the 2013 Escape in favor of the 2.0L EcoBoost I4, which produces similar power, more torque, and better fuel economy. As shown in the 2013 Ford Fusion, the Duratec 30 will also be replaced by the EcoBoost 2.0L. It is unlikely that another revision of the engine will appear in any future Ford vehicles, and will be replaced by the EcoBoost 2.0L I4, and Cyclone 35 V6. The original version of the engine without iVCT is available as a crate engine from Ford Power Products, producing 232 bhp (173 kW; 235 PS).

Other applications[edit]

A Twin-turbocharged version of this engine is used in the Noble M400, a British sports car. The engine is rebuilt and tuned to a max power of 425 bhp (317 kW) at 6500 rpm, with a torque figure of 390 lb·ft (529 N·m) at 5000 rpm. Noble has used forged pistons, an oil cooler, a larger baffled oil sump and extra cooling ducts to maintain its durability. 29 L/100 km (8.1 mpg-US)

Mazda's MZI version[citation needed] adds variable valve timing, as does Jaguar's AJ30. Note that the MZI name is also used in Europe on Mazda's version of the Ford Sigma I4. The 3.0 L, 226 hp (169 kW) V6 used in the Mondeo ST220 is called Duratec ST. The 3.0 L 204 hp (152 kW) V6 in the Mondeo Titanium is called Duratec SE. 28.1 mpg-US (8.4 L/100 km; 33.7 mpg-imp)

A racing version of this engine exists and is used on mini prototypes like the Juno SS3 V6. It is a 3.0-liter naturally aspirated non variable timing engines producing between 350 and 400 horsepower with a red line of around 8700 rpm. The engine has a 40 hour racing life span before it needs to be rebuilt with rings and bearings, and has proven very reliable and competitive. The engine has a Jaguar badge, and is branded as a Jaguar 3.0-liter V6 since it is built and mostly sold in the U.K.

Cyclone V6[edit]

Main article: Ford Cyclone engine

Duratec 35[edit]

The Duratec 35 is a 3.5 L (3496 cc; 213 CID) V6 with a 92.5 mm (3.64 in) bore and 86.7 mm (3.41 in) stroke. It began production in fall 2006 and is the first member of the all-new Ford Cyclone engine family.[6] The D35 is an all-aluminum DOHC 4V 60° bank angle V6 engine with variable cam timing on the intake camshafts and DAMB tappets. The Duratec 35 is ULEV-II compliant and is capable of meeting the PZEV by adding a zero evaporative emission fuel system and extending the emissions system warranty to 15 years or 150,000 miles for models in California and some Northeast states.

Applications:

The first generation of the Duratec 35 V6 with iVCT produces 265 hp (198 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) at 4,500 rpm in the following applications:

The engine produces 263 hp (196 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 249 lb·ft (338 N·m) at 4,500 rpm in the following applications:

The second generation of the Duratec 35 with TiVCT produces 285–288 hp (213–215 kW) at 6,500 rpm and 253–254 lb·ft (343–344 N·m) at 4,000 rpm in the following applications:

The engine produces 290 hp (216 kW) in the following applications:

EcoBoost V6.2[edit]

Main article: Ford EcoBoost engine

It is a twin turbocharged, gasoline direct injected (GTDI) version of the Duratec 3.5L.[7]

Duratec 37[edit]

The Duratec 37 3.7 L (3721 cc; 227 CID) V6 is another member of the Ford Cyclone engine family. The Duratec 37's additional displacement over the Duratec 35 is achieved through a 3 mm (0.1 in) increase in bore diameter which results in a 95.5 mm (3.76 in) bore. It is currently produced at Lima Engine in Lima, Ohio and Cleveland Engine in Cleveland, Ohio.

The engine was first introduced in the 2008 Mazda CX-9 under Mazda's MZI moniker and produced 273 hp (204 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) at 4,250 rpm.[8] The American assembled version seen in the 2009 Lincoln MKS produces 275 hp (205 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 276 lb·ft (374 N·m) at 4,250 rpm. A few days before the 2009 Los Angeles International Auto Show, Ford unveiled a new version of the Duratec 37 for the 2011 Mustang, making it the first Duratec-badged V6 used in a rear-wheel drive application since the Mondeo V6 in the Lincoln LS. The new version of the engine features Twin Independent Variable Cam Timing (Ti-VCT) and, thanks in part to the addition of this technology, makes 305 hp (227 kW) at 6,500 rpm and 280 lb·ft (380 N·m) at 4,250 rpm while delivering 31 mpg-US (7.6 L/100 km; 37 mpg-imp) highway mileage in the Mustang.[9][10] This RWD Ti-VCT version has also since been added to the engine lineup of the F-150 pickup for 2011.

  • 2008– Mazda CX-9
  • 2009–2013 Mazda6: 272 hp (203 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 269 lb·ft (365 N·m) at 4,250 rpm
  • 2009–2012 Lincoln MKS: 279 hp at 6,500 rpm and 273 lb·ft at 4,000 rpm
  • 2013- Lincoln MKS: 304 hp at 6,500 rpm and 279 lb·ft at 4,000 rpm
  • 2010–2012 Lincoln MKT: 268 hp (200 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 267 lb·ft (362 N·m) at 4,250 rpm
  • 2013– Lincoln MKT: 303 hp (226 kW) at 6,500 rpm and 278 lb·ft (377 N·m) at 4,000 rpm
  • 2011– Ford Mustang: 305 hp (227 kW) at 6,500 rpm and 280 lb·ft (380 N·m) at 4,250 rpm
  • 2011– Ford Edge Sport: 305 hp (227 kW) at 6,500 rpm and 280 lb·ft (380 N·m) at 4,000 rpm
  • 2011– Lincoln MKX: 305 hp (227 kW) at 6,500 rpm and 280 lb·ft (380 N·m) at 4,000 rpm
  • 2011–2014 Ford F-150: 302 hp (225 kW) at 6,500 rpm and 278 lb·ft (378 N·m) at 4,000 rpm
  • 2012– Ginetta G60: 310 hp (231 kW) at 6,500 rpm and 288 lb·ft (390 N·m) at 4,500 rpm

SHO V8[edit]

Main article: Ford SHO V8 engine

Ford's 3.4 L SHO V8 is related to the 2.5 L Mondeo V6.[11] Each cylinder uses the same bore and stroke as the 2.5, but this engine was never officially referred to with the Duratec name.

Duratec V12 6.0 L[edit]

Ford's 6.0 L V12 version of its Duratec engine is used in the present Aston Martin lineup.[12] It is best thought of as two 3.0L Duratec V6s mated end to end, albeit with slightly larger main journals.[13] The regular Aston Martin V12 uses roller rockers (RFF), [14] and was designed by Ford and Cosworth. [15] [16] [17] Cosworth assembled the V12 engines for a year before Aston Martin took over production. [18] [19] However, Cosworth still casts the heads and blocks. [20] [21] The variant used in the Aston Martin One-77 uses (DLC coated) DAMB cam followers like the later Duratec engines, [22] and is built by Cosworth. [23] [24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2008 Ford Focus [Specifications]". Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  2. ^ a b "2010 Ford Escape Features | Official Site of the Ford Escape". FordVehicles.com. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  3. ^ By  Sam Abuelsamid RSS feed. "Tech Analysis: 2010 Ford Fusion/Mercury Milan powertrains, 38 mpg hybrid!". Autobloggreen.com. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  4. ^ "Ford’s new 4-Cylinder Engine Family - howtopdf.com - Resources for Free PDF Tutorial". howtopdf.com. 2009-10-01. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  5. ^ a b Ford of Europe showcases most extensive range ever at the 2002 Paris Show, Media.ford.com, 2002-09-26.
  6. ^ Whitfield, Kermit (2003). "Ford's next step in engine manufacturing". Automotive Design & Production. 
  7. ^ "FORD 3.5-LITER ECOBOOST™ V-6 & 2.5-LITER HYBRID I-4 ENGINES MAKE WARD'S '10 BEST ENGINES' LIST | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Media.ford.com. 2009-12-09. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  8. ^ Sadlier, Josh (2008-09-23). "2008 Mazda CX-9: The 3.7-Liter Cyclone Finds A Home". Blogs.insideline.com. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  9. ^ Ford Motor Company. "Twin Independent Variable Camshaft Timing (Ti-VCT) Helps Make 2011 Mustang V-6 a True Thoroughbred." Ford Media. 30 November 2009
  10. ^ "NEW MUSTANG V-6 WITH 305 HP CERTIFIED AT 31 MPG HIGHWAY; MAKES HISTORY AS FIRST CAR WITH 300+ HP AND 30+ MPG | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Media.ford.com. 2010-03-04. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  11. ^ "Ford Taurus SHO (1997)". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  12. ^ "New Mercedes V12 engine will power S-Class and Aston Martin Rapide". Indianautosblog.com. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  13. ^ http://www.autozine.org/Archive/Aston/classic/DB7.html
  14. ^ http://www.motoiq.com/magazine_articles/id/2684/nerds-eye-view-2014-aston-martin-vanquish.aspx
  15. ^ http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=4588
  16. ^ http://www.astonmartins.com/db7/db7_v12_vantage.htm
  17. ^ http://www.astonmartins.com/vanquish/index.html
  18. ^ http://www.astonmartins.com/factory/db9_production.htm
  19. ^ http://media.ford.com/article_download.cfm?article_id=15421
  20. ^ http://www.mahle-powertrain.com/C1257126002DFC22/vwContentByUNID/C807923162DF211EC12578CD00529814/$FILE/Castings%20Flyer%20EN.pdf
  21. ^ http://www.mahle.com/C1256F7900537A47/vwContentByKey/W26FKK5C803MARSEN/$FILE/Press%20Information%20MAHLE%20Expands%20Powertrain%20Capabilities_en.pdf
  22. ^ http://www.enginetechnologyinternational.com/downloads/Aston_Martin.pdf
  23. ^ http://www.themanufacturer.com/articles/cosworth-engine-of-growth/
  24. ^ http://cosworth.com/pr-media/news-archive/automotive/aston-martin-reveal-one-77-supercar/