Ford Duratorq engine

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The Ford Duratorq engine, commonly referred to as Duratorq, is the marketing name of a range of Ford diesel engines first introduced in 2000 for the Ford Mondeo range of cars.

The first design, codenamed "Puma" during its development, replaced the older Endura-D unit which had been around since 1984. Commercial versions of the Puma unit replaced Ford's older "York" type unit used in the Transit, and many other manufacturers' vehicles - most notably the London Taxi.

Other unrelated units in this range have been developed by Ford and PSA.[1][2] The TDCi Duratorq engines are available in vehicles from Ford, Jaguar, Land Rover, Volvo and Mazda vehicles.

Engine reference[edit]

Name Parent Family Displacements Year Features Common Applications
HDi/TDCi DLD ("Tiger") 1.4 L (1399 cc)
1.6 L (1560 cc)
2002–present I4 turbo (twin-scroll turbo in 1,6, 110 PS) Common Rail DI Ford Fiesta, Ford Focus, Ford C-Max, Ford Figo, Ford Bantam, Mazda3, Mini Cooper D, Citroën C2, Citroën C3, Citroën Xsara, Citroën C4, Citroën C4 Picasso, Citroën C5, Peugeot 206, Peugeot 207, Peugeot 307, Peugeot 308, Peugeot 3008, Peugeot 407, Volvo C30, Volvo S40, Volvo V50, Citroën Berlingo, Peugeot Partner, Mini Cooper
TDCi Endura-DI ("Lynx") 1.8 L (1753 cc) 1998–present I4 turbo intercooled 8-valve Ford Focus, Ford Mondeo, Ford Galaxy, Ford S-Max, Ford Transit Connect
TDCi 16v ZSD ("Puma") 2.0 L (1998 cc)
2.2 L (2198 cc)
2.4 L (2402 cc)
2.5 L
3.0 L
1999–present I4 turbo intercooled 16-valve DI Ford Mondeo, Ford Transit, Jaguar X-TYPE, LDV, London Taxi TX1, TXII, Citroen Jumper, Peugeot Boxer, Fiat Ducato & Land Rover Defender
HDi/TDCi PSA DW 2.0 L (1997 cc) 2004–present I4 turbo intercooled 16-valve Mk IV Mondeo, Ford Focus, Ford C-Max, Ford S-Max, Ford Galaxy, Peugeot 307, Peugeot 308, Peugeot 3008, Peugeot 5008, Peugeot 407, Peugeot 607, Citroën C4, Citroën C4 Picasso, Citroën C5, Volvo C30, Volvo S40, Volvo V50, Volvo V70, Volvo S80
HDi/TDCi PSA DW 2.2 L (2179 cc) 2005–present I4 turbo intercooled 16-valve Mk IV Mondeo, Ford S-Max, Ford Galaxy, Peugeot 407, Peugeot 4007, Peugeot 607, Citroën C5, Citroën C6, Citroën C-Crosser, Land Rover Freelander, Mitsubishi Outlander, Range Rover Evoque
TDCi "Puma" 3.2 L (3198 cc) 2006–present I5 turbo intercooled Ford Transit, Ford Ranger
DT17/DT20 AJ ("Lion") 2.7 L (2720 cc)
3.0 L (2926 cc)
2004–present V6 turbo intercooled DI Jaguar S-Type, Jaguar XF, Jaguar XJ, Land Rover Discovery, Peugeot/Citroën, Ford Territory
? AJ 3.6 L (3630 cc)
4.4 L (4367 cc)
2006–present V8 turbo intercooled DI Range Rover

DLD[edit]

Main article: Ford DLD engine

The inline-four engines are sold under the Duratorq TDCi name by Ford, and as the HDi by Citroën and Peugeot. These are part of the DLD family. Mazda also uses the DLD engine in the Mazda2 and the Mazda3, calling it the MZ-CD or CiTD. The Ford/PSA joint-venture for the production of the DLD was announced in September, 1998.[citation needed]

Officially, there are two families of engines in the range:

  • The 1.4L is generally nonintercooled
  • The 1.5L derived from the 1.6L
  • The 1.6 L always intercooled

Ford later added their unrelated 1.8 L DLD-418 engine to the DLD family, though it is properly part of the Ford Endura engine family.

1.4 "Tiger"[edit]

The Duratorq DLD-414 (or DV4) is a 1.4 L (1399 cc/85 cu in) inline-four turboDiesel. Output is 50 kW (67 hp) at 4500 rpm and 160 N·m (117 lb·ft) at 2000 rpm. This engine was developed in Trémery by Peugeot, as described in the joint-venture agreement with Ford. This engine is built in France, UK and India.

The DV4 is available in two versions:

1.5[edit]

In 2012, Ford added the 1.5-litre, closely derived from the 1.6-litre engine.[3] Bore was reduced from 75 to 73.5 mm while the stroke remaines unchanged 88.3 mm.

1.6 "Tiger"[edit]

The DLD-416 (or DV6) is a 1.6 L (1560 cc/95 cu in) 90 hp or 110 hp (82 kW) version also used by Ford, Mazda, Volvo, Mini, Peugeot and Citroën. This particular engine was designed by Peugeot[4] engineers on behalf of PSA and Ford. Due to high demand, it is currently (2008) being produced in both France[citation needed] and England.

1.8 "Lynx"[edit]

The Duratorq DLD-418 is a 1.8 L (1753 cc) intercooled common rail diesel engine. It is completely unrelated to the 1.4/1.6 units, and is a development of Ford's 1.8 8v Endura-D engine that saw service through the 1980s and 1990s. However, Ford considers it part of the DLD family, as evidenced by the official "DLD" name.

The Endura-D was heavily revised and updated with a variable-vane turbocharger and a Delphi high-pressure common rail injection system and relaunched in 2001 as the 'DuraTorq TDCi', with the original engine being rebadged 'DuraTorq TDDi'.

ZSD ("Puma")[edit]

ZSD-420 2000–2001 1,998 cc (1.998 L; 121.9 cu in) (?x?) I4 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) 280 N·m (210 lb·ft)
ZSD-420 (Duratorq TDDi) 2001–2002 1,998 cc (1.998 L; 121.9 cu in) (?x?) I4 130 PS (96 kW; 130 hp) 330 N·m (240 lb·ft)
ZSD-420 (Duratorq TDCi) 2002- 1,998 cc (1.998 L; 121.9 cu in) (?x?) I4 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) 285 N·m (210 lb·ft)
ZSD-422 ? 2,184 cc (2.184 L; 133.3 cu in) (?x?) 155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp) I4 355 N·m (262 lb·ft)
ZSD-422 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2,184 cc (2.184 L; 133.3 cu in) (?x?) I4 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp) 250 N·m (180 lb·ft)
ZSD-422 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2,184 cc (2.184 L; 133.3 cu in) (?x?) I4 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) 300 N·m (220 lb·ft)
ZSD-422 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2,184 cc (2.184 L; 133.3 cu in) (?x?) I4 140 PS (100 kW; 140 hp) 350 N·m (260 lb·ft)
ZSD-424 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2,402 cc (2.402 L; 146.6 cu in) (?x?) I4 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp) 285 N·m (210 lb·ft)
ZSD-424 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2,402 cc (2.402 L; 146.6 cu in) (?x?) I4 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) 310 N·m (230 lb·ft)
ZSD-424 (Duratorq TDCi) ? 2,402 cc (2.402 L; 146.6 cu in) (?x?) I4 140 PS (100 kW; 140 hp) 375 N·m (277 lb·ft)
2.5 (WLC) (Duratorq TDCi) 2006- 2,499 cc (2.499 L; 152.5 cu in) (93 mm (3.7 in)x92 mm (3.6 in)) I4 143 PS (105 kW; 141 hp)@3500 330 N·m (240 lb·ft)@1800
3.0 (WEC) (Duratorq TDCi) 2006- 2,953 cc (2.953 L; 180.2 cu in) (96 mm (3.8 in)x102 mm (4.0 in)) I4 156 PS (115 kW; 154 hp)@3200 380 N·m (280 lb·ft)@1800
3.2 (Duratorq TDCi / Power Stroke) 2006- 3,198 cc (3.198 L; 195.2 cu in) (89.9 mm (3.54 in)x100.7 mm (3.96 in)) I5 200 PS (150 kW; 200 hp) 470 N·m (350 lb·ft)

Codenamed Puma during development, these Ford 2.0 L, 2.2 L, and 2.4 L engines are called ZSD. They are produced at the company's Dagenham plant in east London.

Note: the 2.5 and 3.0L "W" engines in above table are NOT Puma engines. They are Mazda designed commercial Diesel engines with no commonality to Puma. The "W" engine family is used in the Asia Pacific Ranger and Everest models currently running out.

2.0[edit]

Ford Mondeo Mk3 2.0 TDCi 130, Ford Duratorq 2.0 L engine (1998 cc).

Released in 2000, to coincide with the launch of the Mk3 Ford Mondeo, the Duratorq ZSD-420 was initially available as a 2.0L (1998 cc) direct injection turbodiesel. Producing 115 PS (113 hp/85 kW) and 280 Nm (207 lb·ft) it was a vast improvement over the 1.8 Endura-D powering the Mk2 Mondeo. It featured a 16-valve cylinder head with twin chain driven camshafts and utilised a variable geometry turbocharger with overboost function.

In late 2001 the engine was fitted with Delphi common rail fuel injection and called the Duratorq TDCi (Turbo Diesel Commonrail injection), with the original unit being renamed the Duratorq TDDi (Turbo Diesel Direct injection). Although generally identical to the original engine, the addition of the common rail system meant power was increased to 130 PS (128 hp/95 kW), with torque rising to 330 Nm (244 lb·ft). In 2002 the Duratorq TDDi was replaced by a detuned version of the Duratorq TDCi. Producing 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp) and 285 N·m (210 lb·ft), this unit used a fixed geometry turbocharger in place of the variable geometry unit used in the TDDi and 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp) TDCi.

With 2005 came another detuned version of the TDCi for the Mondeo. Producing 90 PS (89 hp/66 kW) and 280 Nm (207 lb·ft), this engine was substantially cheaper than other versions and was mainly targeted at fleet buyers.

Applications:

  • 2000–2002 Ford Mondeo 2.0 TD & TDDi, 115 PS (113 hp/85 kW) and 207 lb·ft (280N·m)
  • 2001–2007 Ford Mondeo 2.0 TDCi 130, 130 PS (128 hp/95 kW) and 244 lb·ft (330N·m)
  • 2002–2007 Ford Mondeo 2.0 TDCi 115, 115 PS (113 hp/85 kW) and 210 lb·ft (285N·m)
  • 2005–2007 Ford Mondeo 2.0 TDCi 90, 90 PS (89 hp/66 kW) and 181 lb·ft (245N·m)
  • 2003–2009 Jaguar X-Type 2.0d, 130 PS (128 hp/95 kW) and 244 lb·ft (330N·m) DSWDD

2.2[edit]

In 2005, Ford introduced the Duratorq ZSD-422, a 2.2 L (2184 cc) turbodiesel for top-of-the-range versions of the Mondeo and Jaguar X-Type which produced 155 PS (153 hp/114 kW). This is unrelated to the PSA DW12 2.2 unit used in Peugeot and Citroën applications.

Applications:

2.4[edit]

The 2,402 cc (2.402 L; 146.6 cu in) Duratorq ZSD-424 is a turbocharged and intercooled Diesel. Output is 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) to 137 PS (101 kW; 135 hp) and 185 N·m (136 lb·ft) to 285 N·m (210 lb·ft).

Applications:

2.5 (Mazda WLC)[edit]

Introduced for the Thailand-built 2007 Ford Ranger (J97U) is a 2.5L diesel engine. This truck is a clone of the Mazda B-Series and thus the engine is a Mazda engine. It has a bore of 93mm and a stroke of 92mm. The engine has no commonality to Ford's "Puma" engine or VM Motori. It is a development of the IDI Mazda 2.2L normally aspirated, later 2.5L NA and Turbo and later 2.9L NA, with Bosch common-rail direct injection and a variable geometry turbocharger. The WLC engine code is a Mazda engine code, not being changed for use in the Mazda B-Series clone Ford Ranger. It produces 143 PS (105 kW; 141 hp)@3500 rpm and 330 N·m (240 lb·ft)@1800rpm.[5]

3.0 (Mazda WEC)[edit]

A 3.0L Mazda W-engine similar to the 2.5 is also used in the 2007 Ranger as the top of the range. Displacement is increased with a wider bore of 96mm and longer stroke of 102mm. It produces 156 PS (115 kW; 154 hp)@3200 rpm and 380 N·m (280 lb·ft)@1800 rpm.

The W-engine family remains a Mazda engine and has no commonality to "Puma"

3.2[edit]

It is an I5 engine used in the Ford Transit and the Ford Ranger. The engine is rated 200 PS (150 kW; 200 hp) and 470 N·m (350 lb·ft).

For the North American-spec Transit, the 3.2L Duratorq is modified to meet American and Canadian emissions standards and is branded as a Power Stroke engine.[6]

2005 TDCi (PSA DW Based)[edit]

Main article: PSA EW/DW engine

Continuing the Ford/PSA diesel engine joint-venture[citation needed], these straight-four engines are again sold under the Duratorq TDCi name by Ford, and as the HDi by Citroën and Peugeot. A development of the existing DW10/DW12 engine[citation needed], the new engines have a traditional belt-driven system, moving away from the chain-driven camshafts of the previous generation (Puma) TDCi engines. Both engines utilise common rail diesel technology and are the result of the fourth phase of the cooperation between PSA and Ford (initiated in 1998)[citation needed].

Both engines utilise all-new, third-generation common rail injection systems. The 2.0 engines utilising a system from Siemens and the 2.2 a system from Bosch. In both systems the injection pressure has been increased to 1800 bar. This higher injection pressure, associated with new piezo-electric injectors in which each nozzle is equipped with seven apertures (instead of five previously), allows the number of injections to be multiplied (potentially up to six per cycle) and ensures meticulous uniformity of the diesel injection spray pattern. As a result of this optimised air/diesel mix, combustion is more complete and more uniform, and therefore reduces emissions at source.

2.0[edit]

Based on the PSA DW10 engine[citation needed] and with a capacity of 1997 cc, this engine was developed by Peugeot engineers in France on behalf of both PSA and Ford Motor Company.[citation needed] Production is currently taking place in France and Skövde in Sweden[citation needed]. The engine was released to Ford models in 2005 Ford Focus, and followed in the 2007 Mk IV Mondeo. It features a 16-valve cylinder head with twin belt driven camshafts (inlet camshaft connected to cambelt with exhaust camshaft indirectly linked via a timing chain) and utilises a variable geometry turbocharger with overboost function. An intercooler is always present, as opposed to some applications of its predecessor.

In the 2005 Focus, output is a respectable 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW). In the 2007 Mondeo it is offered with 130 PS (128 hp/96 kW) or 140 PS (138 hp/103 kW), mated to a manual or 6-speed Durashift automatic gearbox. In early 2010 this 2.0 unit was updated, as well as the existing 138 bhp version, a new 163 bhp (120 kW) with 340Nm of torque was added to the range.

Applications:

  • 2003–present Ford Focus C-Max 2.0 TDCi, 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2005–present Ford Focus 2.0 TDCi, 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2006–present Ford S-Max 2.0 TDCi, 130 PS (128 hp/96 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2006–present Ford S-Max 2.0 TDCi, 140 PS (138 hp/103 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2006–present Ford Galaxy 2.0 TDCi, 130 PS (128 hp/96 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2006–present Ford Galaxy 2.0 TDCi, 140 PS (138 hp/103 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2007–present Ford Mondeo 2.0 TDCi, 140 PS (138 hp/103 kW) and 248 lb·ft (320 N·m)
  • 2007–present Ford Mondeo 2.0 TDCi, 160 PS (163 hp/120 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2008–present Ford Kuga 2.0 TDCi, 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) and 236 lb·ft (320 N·m)
  • 2008–present Ford Kuga 2.0 TDCi, 163 PS (161 hp/120 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)

Other Applications:

  • 2004–2007 Peugeot 307 2.0 HDi, 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2005–present Peugeot 407 2.0 HDi, 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2005–present Peugeot 607 2.0 HDi, 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2006–present Peugeot 807 2.0 HDi, 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2008–present Peugeot 308 2.0 HDi, 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2011–present Peugeot 508 2.0 HDi, 165 PS (163 hp/122 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2004–2010 Volvo C30/C70/S40/V50 2.0 D, 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)
  • 2007–2010 Volvo S80/V70 2.0 D, 136 PS (134 hp/100 kW) and 251 lb·ft (340 N·m)

2.2[edit]

Based on the PSA DW12 engine[citation needed] and with a capacity of 2179 cc, this engine was released in April 2008 by Ford in the Mk IV Mondeo, soon following in the Ford S-Max and Ford Galaxy. It has been engineered by Ford in England, as described in the fourth phase of the joint-venture agreement with PSA. Dagenham is the place of manufacture. It features a 16-valve cylinder head with twin belt driven camshafts and utilises a variable geometry turbocharger with overboost function, rather than the twin turbo approach of Peugeot and Citroen. The result is a very respectable 175 PS (172 hp/129 kW) complete with 295 lb·ft (400 N·m) of torque, although 310 lb·ft (420 N·m) is temporarily available thanks to the transient overboost function.

In 2010 Ford and PSA revised the engine with a new turbocharger and a new power output of 200 PS with a torque of 420 N·m and even 450 N·m at overboost conditions while the emissions are at Euro 5 level.

Applications:

  • 2008–2010 Ford Mondeo 2.2 TDCi, 175 PS (172 hp/129 kW) and 295 lb·ft (400 N·m)
  • 2008–present Ford S-Max 2.2 TDCi, 175 PS (172 hp/129 kW) and 295 lb·ft (400 N·m)
  • 2008–present Ford Galaxy 2.2 TDCi, 175 PS (172 hp/129 kW) and 295 lb·ft (400 N·m)
  • 2010–present Ford Mondeo 2.2 TDCi, 200 PS (197 hp/148 kW) and 420 N·m (450 N·m at overboost)

Other applications:

  • 2011–present Range Rover Evoque 2.2 eD4, 150 PS (148 hp/110 kW) and 295 lb·ft (400 N·m)
  • 2011–present Range Rover Evoque 2.2 SD4, 190 PS (188 hp/142 kW) and 317 lb·ft (430 N·m)
  • 2014–present Land Rover Discovery Sport 2.2 SD4, 190 PS (188 hp/142 kW) and 317 lb·ft (430 N·m)
  • 2011–2014 Land Rover Freelander 2 2.2 eD4, 150 PS (148 hp/110 kW) and 295 lb·ft (400 N·m)
  • 2006–2014 Land Rover Freelander 2 2.2 TD4, 160 PS (157 hp/117 kW) and 295 lb·ft (400 N·m)
  • 2006–2014 Land Rover Freelander 2 2.2 SD4, 190 PS (188 hp/142 kW) and 317 lb·ft (430 N·m)
  • 2006–present Citroën C5 2.2 HDi, 172 PS (170 hp/126 kW) and 277 lb·ft (370 N·m)
  • 2006–present Citroën C6 2.2 HDi, 172 PS (170 hp/126 kW) and 277 lb·ft (370 N·m)
  • 2006–present Citroën C8 2.2 HDi, 172 PS (170 hp/126 kW) and 277 lb·ft (370 N·m)
  • 2006–present Citroën C-Crosser 2.2 HDi, 160 PS (156 hp/126 kW) and 277 lb·ft (370 N·m)
  • 2006–present Fiat Ulysse 2.2 D Multijet, 172 PS (170 hp/126 kW) and 277 lb·ft (370 N·m)
  • 2007–present Peugeot 407 2.2 HDi, 172 PS (170 hp/126 kW) and 277 lb·ft (370 N·m)
  • 2007–present Peugeot 607 2.2 HDi, 172 PS (170 hp/126 kW) and 277 lb·ft (370 N·m)
  • 2007–present Peugeot 807 2.2 HDi, 172 PS (170 hp/126 kW) and 277 lb·ft (370 N·m)
  • 2007–present Peugeot 4007 2.2 HDi, 160 PS (156 hp/126 kW) and 277 lb·ft (370 N·m)

V6[edit]

AJD-V6/DT17[edit]

Main article: Ford AJD-V6/PSA DT17

The 2.7 L (2720 cc) V6 is built by Ford and Jaguar Cars at their Dagenham facility, and was designed by Ford engineers at their Dunton and Whitley product development centres. It is called AJD-V6 by Jaguar and DT17 by PSA Peugeot Citroën.

Ford and PSA extended their Diesel engine joint-venture in October, 1999, to include this V6 engine.

Applications:

  • 2006–present Citroën C6 2.7 V6 HDi, 204 PS (201 hp/150 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
  • 2008–present Citroën C5 2.7 V6 HDi, 204 PS (201 hp/150 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
  • 2004–2008 Jaguar S-Type 2.7 DV6, 204 PS (201 hp/150 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
  • 2005–present Jaguar XJ TDVi 2.7, 204 PS (201 hp/150 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
  • 2008–present Jaguar XF 2.7D, 204 PS (201 hp/150 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
  • 2005–present Land Rover Discovery Tdv6, 190 PS (187 hp/140 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
  • 2006–present Land Rover Range Rover Sport Tdv6, 190 PS (201 hp/150 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
  • 2005–present Peugeot 407 Coupé 2.7 V6 HDi, 204 PS (201 hp/150 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
  • 2004–2010 Peugeot 407 Touring 2.7 V6 HDi, 204 PS (201 hp/150 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
  • 2005–2011 Peugeot 607 2.7 V6 HDi, 204 PS (201 hp/150 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
  • 2011–present Ford Territory 2.7 V6 TCDi, 190 PS (188 hp/140 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)

V8[edit]

AJD-V8[edit]

Main article: Jaguar AJD-V6 engine

The 3.6 L V8 is built at Dagenham engine, It is a twin-turbocharged Diesel V8 producing 270 PS (266 hp/199 kW) and 640 N·m (472 lb·ft). Production began in April 2006. It is very closely related to the 2.7L V6 version (same bore & stroke) and was designed at Ford's Dagenham Diesel Centre product development site, with input from Land Rover powertrain team.

Applications:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://media.ford.com/article_download.cfm?article_id=21706
  2. ^ "news: PSA Peugeot Citroën and Ford unveil new diesel engines". Dieselnet.com. 2003-02-20. Retrieved 2011-11-05. 
  3. ^ The new Ford B-MAX at ford.com
  4. ^ "Cooperating on diesel engines since 1998". psa-peugeot-citroen.com. 2010-08-04. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 
  5. ^ ALL NEW FORD RANGER MAKES WORLD DEBUT IN THAILAND Ford press release, March 7, 2006
  6. ^ "3.2L I-5 Power Stroke® Turbo Diesel". Ford Motor Company. Retrieved 17 January 2013.