Fribourg

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Fribourg/Freiburg
Fribourg/Freiburg -
Country Switzerland Coat of Arms of Fribourg/Freiburg
Canton Fribourg
District Sarine
46°48′N 7°09′E / 46.800°N 7.150°E / 46.800; 7.150Coordinates: 46°48′N 7°09′E / 46.800°N 7.150°E / 46.800; 7.150
Population 36,633 (Dec 2011)[1]
- Density 3,931 /km2 (10,180 /sq mi)
Area 9.3 km2 (3.6 sq mi)[2]
Elevation 610 m (2,001 ft)
• Highest 702 m - Schönberg
Postal code 1700
SFOS number 2196
Executive Conseil communal/Gemeinderat
with 5 members
Mayor Syndic/Ammann (list)
Pierre-Alain Clément SPS/PSS
(as of February 2014)
Parliament Conseil général/Generalrat
with 80 members
Localities Bourg, Beauregard, Jura, Pérolles, Neuveville, Auge, Schoenberg, Places, Bourguillon (Bürglen)
Surrounded by Düdingen, Givisiez, Granges-Paccot, Marly, Pierrafortscha, Sankt Ursen, Tafers, Villars-sur-Glâne
Twin towns Rueil-Malmaison (France)
Website www.ville-fribourg.ch
SFSO statistics
Fribourg/Freiburg is located in Switzerland
Fribourg/Freiburg
Fribourg/Freiburg

Fribourg (French pronunciation: ​[fʁibuʁ]; Franco-Provençal: Fribôrg/Friboua, IPA: [fʁibwa] ( ); German: Freiburg or Freiburg im Üechtland, Swiss German pronunciation: [ˈfrib̥ʊrɡ]; Italian: Friburgo or Friborgo) is the capital of the Swiss canton of Fribourg and the district of Sarine. It is located on both sides of the river Saane/Sarine, on the Swiss plateau, and is an important economic, administrative and educational center on the cultural border between German and French Switzerland (Romandy). Its Old City, one of the best maintained in Switzerland, sits on a small rocky hill above the valley of the Sarine.

Geography[edit]

Fribourg has an elevation of 581 metres (1,906 ft) (in the Old City), and is situated 28 kilometres (17 mi) southwest of Bern. It is located on the Swiss plateau, and extends on both sides of the Saane/Sarine River, which, in the vicinity of Fribourg, has cut deeply into the molasse. The Old City is located on a hill, only about 100 metres (330 ft) wide, which rises about 40 metres (130 ft) above the valley floor. Most quarters of the city are located on the High Plateau and the surrounding hills, which have an average elevation of 620 metres (2,030 ft). The valley floor is only settled in the area immediately around the Old City.

View of Fribourg
Valley of the Sarine near Fribourg

Fribourg has an area, as of 2009, of 9.3 square kilometers (3.6 sq mi). Of this area, 1.25 km2 (0.48 sq mi) or 13.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.58 km2 (0.61 sq mi) or 17.0% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 5.89 km2 (2.27 sq mi) or 63.3% is settled (buildings or roads), 0.53 km2 (0.20 sq mi) or 5.7% is either rivers or lakes and 0.07 km2 (17 acres) or 0.8% is unproductive land.[3]

Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 4.5% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 34.5% and transportation infrastructure made up 15.2%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.6% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 7.5%. Out of the forested land, 14.4% of the total land area is heavily forested and 2.6% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 6.9% is used for growing crops and 6.0% is pastures. Of the water in the municipality, 1.7% is in lakes and 4.0% is in rivers and streams.[3]

The area of the municipality, which is relatively small for a city, covers an area of Molasse in the central part of Canton Fribourg. The area is cut through from south to north by the tightly wound Saane/Sarine River, which has eroded a valley, in some places, to a depth of 100 metres (330 ft) below the surrounding Plateau. In general, the valley floor is between 200 and 500 metres (660 and 1,640 ft) wide. Pérolles-See, formed as a reservoir by Maigrauge Dam, the first Gravity Dam in Europe, in 1872, is located south of the city. The head of the Schiffenensee is located just 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) north of the city. At both of these artificial lakes, the Saane/Sarine covers nearly the entire valley floor.

The hills flanked on both sides by steep, largely wooded, slopes. To the east, the municipality reaches up the slopes of Mount Schönberg, which, with an elevation of 702 metres (2,303 ft), is the highest point in Fribourg. The Galtera River, also deeply cut into the plateau, flows between the mountain and the river, emptying into the Saane/Sarine near the Old City.

The former village of Bourguillon lies within the municipality. Fribourg borders on Düdingen and Tafers to the east, Pierrafortscha to the southeast, Marly to the south, Villars-sur-Glâne and Givisiez to the west, and Granges-Paccot to the north.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Fribourg / Posieux (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
5.4
(41.7)
9.9
(49.8)
13.6
(56.5)
18.5
(65.3)
21.8
(71.2)
24.6
(76.3)
24.1
(75.4)
19.6
(67.3)
14.5
(58.1)
8.0
(46.4)
4.3
(39.7)
14.0
(57.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
0.9
(33.6)
4.7
(40.5)
8.0
(46.4)
12.7
(54.9)
16.0
(60.8)
18.4
(65.1)
17.7
(63.9)
13.7
(56.7)
9.5
(49.1)
3.9
(39)
0.9
(33.6)
8.9
(48)
Average low °C (°F) −3.2
(26.2)
−2.8
(27)
0.4
(32.7)
2.9
(37.2)
7.4
(45.3)
10.6
(51.1)
12.7
(54.9)
12.3
(54.1)
9.0
(48.2)
5.7
(42.3)
0.8
(33.4)
−1.9
(28.6)
4.5
(40.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 57
(2.24)
55
(2.17)
72
(2.83)
84
(3.31)
126
(4.96)
115
(4.53)
113
(4.45)
117
(4.61)
100
(3.94)
91
(3.58)
74
(2.91)
72
(2.83)
1,075
(42.32)
Snowfall cm (inches) 13.7
(5.39)
16.2
(6.38)
11
(4.3)
2.4
(0.94)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.2
(0.08)
6.4
(2.52)
12.8
(5.04)
62.7
(24.69)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.2 9.5 10.6 10.7 13.4 11.4 10.6 10.5 8.9 10.4 10.6 10.3 127.1
Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 3.8 4.1 2.5 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 1.5 3.1 16
 % humidity 86.7 81.6 75.2 72.5 72.8 71.5 68.5 72.4 78.1 84.3 86.2 86.9 78.1
Source: MeteoSwiss [4]

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

The region around Fribourg has been settled since the Neolithic period, although few remains have been found. These include some flint tools found near Bourguillon, as well as a stone hatchet and bronze tools. A river crossing was located in the area during the Roman Era. The main activity in the Swiss plateau bypassed the area to the north, however, and was instead centered around the valley of the Broye River and Aventicum. Therefore only a few remains from the Roman era have been found in Fribourg. These include the traces of a wall foundation on the plains near Pérolles.[5]

Middle Ages[edit]

Fribourg Tour de Bourguillon
Fribourg

The town was founded in 1157 by Berchtold IV von Zähringen. Its name is derived from German frei (free) and Burg (fort). Its most ancient part is conveniently located on a former peninsula of the River Sarine, protected on three sides by steep cliffs. The easily defended city helped the Dukes of Zähringen to strengthen and extend their power in the Swiss plateau in the area between the Aar and the Saane/Sarine.[5]

Beginning at the time of its inception, Fribourg built a city-state; initially, the land it controlled lay some distance away. When the dukes of Zähringen died out in 1218, the city was transferred to the related Kyburg family. They granted the city its former privileges and wrote the municipal laws in the so-called Handfeste in 1249, in which the legal, institutional and economic organizations were established. Several treaties with neighbouring city-states, including Avenches (1239), Bern (1243), and Murten (Morat) (1245), were signed at this time.

The city was sold to the Habsburgs in 1277. Trade and industry began as early as the mid-13th century. In the early period, Fribourg consisted of four distinct inner city districts: Burg, Au, Neuenstadt (La Neuveville), and Spital. The city developed rapidly, which led to its first expansion: the Burg district expanded to the west in 1224, a town was established across the river in 1254, and in 1280 development began near Place Python. These expansions reflect the economic boom in Fribourg. The 14th century was dominated by trade, and cloth and leather production, which brought the city renown in Central Europe by 1370. In 1339, Fribourg participated alongside the Habsburgs and the County of Burgundy in the Battle of Laupen against Bern and its Swiss Confederacy allies.

The treaty with Bern was renewed in 1403. The leaders of the city began a territorial acquisition, in which they gradually brought more nearby land under their control. This laid the ground-work for the Canton of Fribourg. By 1442 the city had control of all the land within about 20 kilometres (12 mi), on both sides of the Saane. It was therefore directly controlled by the city leaders, not by any intermediate administration.

Fribourg City Hall

The mid-15th century was shaped by various military conflicts. First, considerable losses in a war against Savoy had to be made good. The Savoyard influence on the city grew, and the Habsburgs ceded it to them in 1452. It remained under the control of Savoy until the Burgundian Wars in 1477. As an ally of Bern, Fribourg participated in the war against Charles I of Burgundy, thereby bringing more land under its control.

After the city was released from the sphere of influence of Savoy, it attained the status of Free Imperial City in 1478. The city and its canton joined the Swiss Confederation in 1481, and has long influenced Swiss and European Catholicism. In the 16th century, Fribourg continued to grow, first following the invasion of Waadtland (Pays de Vaud) in 1536 with the help of Bern, and then in 1554 through the annexation of land formerly controlled by the Count of Greyerz (Gruyère).

Several prominent families developed as a result of the cloth and leather trade, beginning in the 14th century, including Gottrau, Lanthen, Affry, Diesbach (originally from Bern), Von der Weid, Fegeli, and Weck. Together with the local nobles (the Maggenberg, Düddingen/Velga, Montenach, Englisberg and Praroman families) they formed the 15th century patrician class. This contributed to the decline of the cloth trade, however, as the families involved in the industry began to be more concerned with governing the city and its surrounding possessions.

An important milestone for the politics of the city was reached in 1627, when the patricians drew up a new constitution, in which they declared that they were the only people capable of ruling the city, and thereby took control of all voting rights. This consolidated the oligarchy which had begun to form as early as the 15th century.[5]

Importance of monasteries and churches in Fribourg[edit]

The monasteries of Fribourg have always formed a centre of religious culture, which includes architecture, sculpture and painting, and have contributed to the culture of the city. The Franciscan monastery was donated by Jakob von Riggisberg in 1256. In early times, it was closely associated with the city council, because it housed the city archives and its monastery church was used for town meetings until 1433.

Maigrauge Abbey in Fribourg

Similarly, the Augustinian monastery was founded in the mid-13th century, and enjoyed the support of the noble Velga family for a long time. Additionally, Maigrauge Abbey has existed since 1255, and has belonged to the Cistercians since 1262. An important institution was the public hospital, opened in the mid-13th century, which provided services for the poor.[5]

During the Reformation, Fribourg remained Catholic, although it was nearly surrounded by the Protestant Bern. This led to repeated conflicts over religion in border regions, and in areas controlled jointly by Fribourg and Bern. The city was a major centre of the Counter-Reformation. At the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th, new monasteries were established in the city, including: a Capuchin monastery (1608), another on Bisemberg (1621), an Ursuline monastery (1634), and a Visitandine monastery (1635). The most influential monastery, however, was that of the Jesuits, which contributed to a large extent to the advancement and prosperity of the city. It established the College of Saint Michael in 1582, the theological faculty of which formed the basis of the University of Fribourg. The concept of an objective press was also begun by the Jesuits.[5]

In 1613 Fribourg became the seat of the Bishop of Lausanne, who, after the Reformation, was forced first into Evian, and then into exile in Burgundy. Today it is the seat of the Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg.[5]

1780–1809[edit]

Saane/Sarine river near the city

The strong patrician regime, consisting of no more than 60 families, filled all of the influential positions in the city and dominated all political, social, economic and cultural arenas of Fribourg. On several occasions unhappy citizens joined together to attempt a revolt, including in 1781 under the leadership of Pierre-Nicolas Chenaux. These revolts were repressed with the help of Bern and Bernese troops. The invasion of Switzerland by French troops in 1798 lead to the downfall of this Ancien Régime. Fribourg capitulated to the French on 2 March and relinquished leadership of its lands. This freed the way for the first municipal elections, in which Jean de Montenach was elected the first mayor. With the introduction of the Act of Mediation under Napoleon in 1803, the separation of the city of Fribourg from its Canton was finally carried out. Fribourg was made the capital of its region and Canton, and, between 1803 and 1809, was one of the capitals of Switzerland.[5]

Sonderbund[edit]

The patricians regained control of the city in 1814 during the Restoration period. They ruled until 1830. Its leadership was followed by a new and more liberal constitution. Fribourg was part of the 1845-1847 Sonderbund, a "separate alliance" of Catholic cantons attempting to secede from Switzerland. Fribourg and the Sonderbund capitulated to Federalist forces under General Dufour on 14 November 1847 in what amounted to a brief and nearly bloodless Swiss civil war. Since 1848, the new national constitution and the amendment to the Canton constitution has guaranteed every citizen the right to vote.

Modern times[edit]

The later 19th and the 20th century brought about drastic changes to the city's culture and physical nature. In 1848 the city wall was partially torn down and a new bridge constructed across the Saane/Sarine. The opening of the midland railway line through the city in 1862 led to the development of a "railway station quarter" of the city. The improved transportation enabled Fribourg to undergo industrialisation. The city centre shifted from the Old City to the new Train Station quarter. Extensive areas in Pérolles, Beauregard and Vignettaz were developed with industry or houses around 1900. The inauguration of the University in 1889 was an important event in Fribourg. Another economic boon to the city was the opening of the nearby A12 highway.

Coat of arms[edit]

The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure a Castle embattled and towered on dexter issuant from a Semi Annulet all Argent.[6]

Demographics[edit]

Fribourg has a population (as of December 2011) of 36,633.[1] As of 2008, 31.9% of the population are resident foreign nationals.[7] Over the last 10 years (2000–2010) the population has changed at a rate of 8.3%. Migration accounted for 8.1%, while births and deaths accounted for 0.9%.[8]

Fribourg is the largest city in Canton Fribourg. The population of Fribourg grew markedly at the beginning of the 20th century, as well as from 1930 to 1970. The maximum population of 42,000 was reached in 1974. Since then, there had been a population loss of approximately 14%, which might have recently reversed.

The population of the agglomeration around Fribourg is 110,000, or, counting only the most nearby suburbs, 70,000(2013). This includes the municipalities of Avry, Belfaux, Corminboeuf, Givisiez, Granges-Paccot, Marly, Matran and Villars-sur-Glâne. Surrounding municipalities include Givisiez, Granges-Paccot, Villars-sur-Glâne, Marly, as well as Corminboeuf, Belfaux, Grolley, and stretches as far as Düdingen (French Guin) and Tafers (French Tavel) on the right bank of the Sarine.

The growth of the agglomeration around Fribourg has fused the city proper with the neighboring towns of Villars-sur-Glâne, Givisiez, and Granges-Paccot. The town of Klein-Schönberg, which belongs to Tafers, and the village of Uebewil, which belongs to Düdingen, are located right on the eastern edge of town. This settlement area itself has a population of 55,000(2013).

As of 2008, the population was 48.8% male and 51.2% female. The population was made up of 12,080 Swiss men (31.8% of the population) and 6,475 (17.0%) non-Swiss men. There were 13,855 Swiss women (36.4%) and 5,636 (14.8%) non-Swiss women.[9] Of the population in the municipality, 10,756 or about 30.3% were born in Fribourg and lived there in 2000. There were 6,394 or 18.0% who were born in the same canton, while 7,164 or 20.2% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, and 8,981 or 25.3% were born outside of Switzerland.[10]

Nostalgic view of a street in Fribourg, Switzerland

As of 2000, children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up 19.3% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) make up 65.8% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 14.9%.[8]

As of 2000, there were 17,825 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 13,581 married individuals, 2,146 widows or widowers and 1,995 individuals who are divorced.[10]

As of 2000, there were 15,839 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2. persons per household.[8] There were 7,342 households that consist of only one person and 687 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 15,409 apartments (87.0% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 1,757 apartments (9.9%) were seasonally occupied and 549 apartments (3.1%) were empty.[11] As of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 5.5 new units per 1000 residents.[8]

As of 2003 the average price to rent an average apartment in Fribourg was 1062.05 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$850, £480, €680 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one room apartment was 623.40 CHF (US$500, £280, €400), a two-room apartment was about 792.47 CHF (US$630, £360, €510), a three-room apartment was about 993.14 CHF (US$790, £450, €640) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 1870.76 CHF (US$1500, £840, €1200). The average apartment price in Fribourg was 95.2% of the national average of 1116 CHF.[12] The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 1.45%.[8]

Historic Population[edit]

The historical population is given in the following chart:[5]

Languages[edit]

Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks French (22,603 or 63.6%) as their first language, German is the second most common (7,520 or 21.2%) and Italian is the third (1,359 or 3.8%). There are 55 people who speak Romansh.[10] Fribourg has two official languages, and French clearly outweighs German.

Fribourg has always been located on the Swiss language border, but at the time of the city's founding in the 12th century, German was the prevailing language. Although German was the official language of the city until 1800, French gradually became more influential. This was aided by industrialization, which led to an influx of French-speaking immigrants. Since the political changes of the late 18th century and early 19th century, the German-speaking population has been a minority. Even in German, the town is often called "Fribourg" instead of the more Germanic "Freiburg", this distinguishes it from Freiburg im Breisgau on the edge of the Black Forest.

Religion[edit]

From the 2000 census, 24,614 or 69.2% were Roman Catholic, while 2,763 or 7.8% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 443 members of an Orthodox church (or about 1.25% of the population), there were 13 individuals (or about 0.04% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church, and there were 668 individuals (or about 1.88% of the population) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 62 individuals (or about 0.17% of the population) who were Jewish, and 1,676 (or about 4.71% of the population) who were Islamic. There were 161 individuals who were Buddhist, 71 individuals who were Hindu and 43 individuals who belonged to another church. 2,843 (or about 8.00% of the population) belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 2,509 individuals (or about 7.06% of the population) did not answer the question.[10]

The city remained Catholic during the Reformation, and has since become a centre of Catholicism. It has a greater than average number of churches and monasteries. Fribourg has been the seat of the Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg since 1613. (See Sonderbund)

Politics[edit]

In the 2011 federal election the most popular party was the SPS which received 34.5% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP (19.3%), the SVP (13.0%) and the Green Party (7.3%).[13]

The SPS received about the same percentage of the vote as they did in the 2007 Federal election (31.4% in 2007 vs 34.5% in 2011). The CVP retained about the same popularity (23.9% in 2007), the SVP retained about the same popularity (14.9% in 2007) and the Green retained about the same popularity (10.0% in 2007). A total of 9,538 votes were cast in this election, of which 138 or 1.4% were invalid.[14]

Governance[edit]

Legislative[edit]

The legislative authority is vested in an 80-member general council elected by the citizens of the municipality every four years. The delegates are selected by means of a system of proportional representation. The responsibilities of the city council include the budget and audit, and the establishment of local regulations.

Executive[edit]

The executive power in Fribourg is the municipal council. It is formed of five members elected by the people using a system of Proportional Representation. In 2001, the number of members was decreased from nine to five. The term of office is five years. The responsibilities of the municipal council include the enforcement of the resolutions of the general council, the execution of the legislation of the Swiss federation and canton government, as well as representing and guiding the city. The mayor (Stadtamman) has additional authorities.

The five current members are (since 5 March 2006):

  • Pierre-Alain Clément (SP) - Mayor (Stadtamman)
  • Jean Bourgknecht (CVP) - Deputy Mayor (Vize-Stadtamman)
  • Marie-Thérèsa Maradan Ledergerber (SP)
  • Madeleine Genoud-Page (CSP)
  • Charles de Reyff (CVP)

Economy[edit]

Development of trade and economy[edit]

Several types of industry developed in Fribourg as early as the 13th and 14th centuries. The extension of the city along the east bank of the Saane/Sarine River made about this time was indicative of a strong economic upturn. In Galterntal, water power was used for various mills. Along the Saane new trade districts developed with the towns of Au, Neustadt and Matten.

The tanneries and cloth manufacturers, strengthened by widespread sheep raising, led to an economic boom in the 14th and 15th centuries. This helped Fribourg by making its trades well known throughout central Europe. A gradual decline in cloth making in the second half of the 15th century occurred as local farmers replaced their sheep with cattle. Other reasons for the collapse of the cloth industry in the 16th century include the fact that the guild refused to use new materials or modern styles, and that the social structure of the city changed with the rise of the patrician class.

After this time, Fribourg was shaped by low-level trade, and was not industrialized until it was connected to the Swiss Railroad, beginning in the 1870s. After Lake Pérolles was built in 1872, energy was able to be supplied to the plateau south and west of the city. Thus, an industrial area developed there, dominated in its early years by a wagon factory and a lumber mill. Later, two breweries were established in this area. A chocolate factory was established in Villârs-sur-Glâne in 1901, but it came under Fribourg's jurisdiction in 1906 after a change of borders.

In the course of the 20th century, the plateau became the industrial section of the city. The development of new industrial areas in neighbouring municipalities, beginning in the 1970s, has permitted continued economic growth.

Economic situation today[edit]

As of 2010, Fribourg had an unemployment rate of 4.9%. As of 2008, there were 18 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 5 businesses involved in this sector. 3,821 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 232 businesses in this sector. 21,614 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 2,004 businesses in this sector.[8] There were 17,207 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 47.1% of the workforce.

In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 20,099. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 14, of which 4 were in agriculture, 8 were in forestry or lumber production and 1 was in fishing or fisheries. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 3,530 of which 1,744 or (49.4%) were in manufacturing, 9 or (0.3%) were in mining and 1,455 (41.2%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 16,555. In the tertiary sector; 2,633 or 15.9% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 993 or 6.0% were in the movement and storage of goods, 1,003 or 6.1% were in a hotel or restaurant, 568 or 3.4% were in the information industry, 957 or 5.8% were the insurance or financial industry, 1,535 or 9.3% were technical professionals or scientists, 3,273 or 19.8% were in education and 1,970 or 11.9% were in health care.[15]

Fribourg has more jobs than laborers, and is therefore a large commuter destination for the largely agricultural surrounding area. Local industry includes food and luxury products, drinks (the breweries are owned by the Danish firm Carlsberg), metal and machine construction, electronics, and computer technology.

The largest number of workers are active in the service industries. Many of these work in government administrative positions. Other important sectors are education (at the University), banks and insurance companies, tourism and restaurants, as well as health services. Fribourg is home to the administrative offices of several international companies. The Cantonal hospital is on the border with Villars-sur-Glâne.

In 2000, there were 16,572 workers who commuted into the municipality and 6,505 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 2.5 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving.[16] Of the working population, 35% used public transportation to get to work, and 37.8% used a private car.[8]

Education[edit]

Schools at the compulsory and pre-university level are available in both French and German. The University is officially bilingual, meaning students are expected to have a passive knowledge of both languages, even though it is possible to graduate with a degree exclusively in either language, or both. It is also reputed abroad for its legal and theological studies.

The Villa St. Jean International School was also located in Fribourg.

  • University of Fribourg
  • University of Applied Science Fribourg : offers applied tertiary education in technical and management disciplines. Part of UAS Western Switzerland/HES-SO.
  • Ecole de multimedia et d'art de Fribourg: multimedia and art school, Fribourg, is a professional school on new media communication, image and technics.

Fribourg is home to 5 libraries. These libraries include; the BCU Fribourg, the Deutsche Bibliothek Fribourg, the Bibliothèque de la Ville, the Haute école de santé Fribourg and the Ecole d’ingénieurs et d’architectes (EIA-FR). There was a combined total (as of 2008) of 3,531,605 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 611,405 items were loaned out.[17]

In Fribourg about 11,649 or (32.8%) of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, and 5,671 or (16.0%) have completed additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule). Of the 5,671 who completed tertiary schooling, 47.7% were Swiss men, 31.2% were Swiss women, 12.4% were non-Swiss men and 8.7% were non-Swiss women.[10]

The Canton of Fribourg school system provides one year of non-obligatory Kindergarten, followed by six years of Primary school. This is followed by three years of obligatory lower Secondary school where the students are separated according to ability and aptitude. Following the lower Secondary students may attend a three or four-year optional upper Secondary school. The upper Secondary school is divided into gymnasium (university preparatory) and vocational programs. After they finish the upper Secondary program, students may choose to attend a Tertiary school or continue their apprenticeship.[18]

During the 2010-11 school year, there were a total of 14,170 students attending 974 classes in Fribourg. A total of 4,966 students from the municipality attended any school, either in the municipality or outside of it. There were 25 kindergarten classes with a total of 385 students in the municipality. The municipality had 117 primary classes and 2,037 students. During the same year, there were 117 lower secondary classes with a total of 2,313 students. There were 470 vocational upper Secondary classes and were 186 upper Secondary classes, with 4,012 upper Secondary students and 4,840 vocational upper Secondary students The municipality had 46 specialized Tertiary classes and were 13 non-university Tertiary classes, with 273 non-university Tertiary students and 310 specialized Tertiary students.[9] With its vast diversity of languages and course offerings, University of Fribourg is a popular destination for students on their Erasmus Programme.

As of 2000, there were 8,234 students in Fribourg who came from another municipality, while 305 residents attended schools outside the municipality.[16]

Transport[edit]

Fribourg is the most important transport hub of the canton of Fribourg.

Roads[edit]

The town lies on the old main road from Bern to Vevey, and acts as an access point to Payerne, Murten and Thun. The connection to the Swiss motorway network was established in 1971 with the opening of the A12 motorway from Bern to Matran, which was extended in 1981 to Vevey. The Swiss east-west A1 from the West Bern bypasses the town to the north and west, only affecting the communities of Tälchen and Chamblioux. The access points of Fribourg-Sud and Fribourg-North are each about 3 km from the city centre.

Railway[edit]

Zaehringen bridge crossing the Sarine

The connection to the railway network was accomplished in several stages from 1860. Initially, the railway line from Bern to Fribourg opened on 2 July 1860 with a temporary terminal at Balliswil about 4 km north of the city, as the Grandfey Viaduct over the Saanegraben was not yet finished. On 4 September 1862, the whole of the line from Balliswil to Lausanne via Fribourg opened, with a temporary station building at Fribourg railway station, until the permanent building opened in 1873. A line to Payerne opened on 25 August 1876 and to Murten on 23 August 1898.

Public transport[edit]

TPF trolley bus in Fribourg

A funicular railway has been operated from the Neuveville district to the upper city since 1899 by the sewage works. From 1897 to 1965 in Fribourg there was a 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) long tram network in operation, with the trams replaced from 1949 with the Fribourg trolleybus system. The current bus network is now operated by the Transports publics fribourgeois, with connections to Bulle, Avenches, Schmitten, Schwarzenburg and in the tourist region Schwarzsee.

Airport[edit]

The regional Bern-Belp Airport is an hour away from the area.[19]

Culture and tourism[edit]

Fribourg Hôtel Ratzé

Fribourg is a day trip destination for tourists who want to visit the sights of the city. These include the historic Old City with its Gothic Cathedral of Saint Nicholas renowned for its stained glass windows designed by Józef Mehoffer, and the museums. The Natural History Museum was founded in 1873, and is now located in the natural sciences building at the University. The Museum of Art and History, located in the Ratzéhof since 1920, has exhibits on ancient and early history, sculpture and paintings, traditional tin figures, arts and crafts, as well as money and graphic collections. In the cathedral, a treasure chamber has been on display since 1992. Other museums include the Swiss Museum of Marionnettes, the Swiss Sewing Machine Museum, the Gutenberg Museum, the Bible and Orient Museum and a beer museum.

Cultural experiences include the festival of religious music, the international folklore convention, the jazz parade, an international film festival and Cinéplus (since 1972).

Like its sister city Bern, Fribourg has preserved its medieval center as a whole that is now one of the largest in Europe. It is located on a spectacular peninsula, surrounded on three sides by the Saane/Sarine river. The architecture of the Old City date primarily from the Gothic period; it was built predominately before the 16th century. Most houses are built of the local molasse stone. Consisting of the neighborhoods Bourg, Auge and Neuveville, its old town is rich in fountains and churches dating from the 12th century until the 17th century. Its cathedral, reaching 76 metres (249 ft) in height, was built between 1283 and 1490. The fortifications of Fribourg form the most important medieval military architecture of Switzerland: 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) of ramparts, 14 towers and one big bulwark. The protections are especially well preserved east and south of the city.

Heritage sites of national significance[edit]

Fribourg is home to 67 buildings or sites that are listed as Swiss heritage site of national significance.[20]

  • Religious Buildings: Cistercians Maigrauge Abbey with Library, the former Convent of the Augustinians, Former Commandry de Saint-Jean, Notre-Dame Basilica, Saint-Nicolas et Trésor Cathedral, Centre paroissial du Christe-Roi, Chapel de Lorette, Chapel Saint-Barthélemy and Chapel de Pérolles, Convent of the Capucins, Convent of the Cordeliers, Convent of the Ursulines, Church of Saint-Pierre, Monastère de la Visitation and Monastère of the Capucines de Montorge
  • Secular Buildings: Former Hôtel des Postes et Télégraphes, Centrale énergétique de la Maigrauge, Cercle de la Grande Société, Chancellerie de l’Etat, Poya Castle, Cure at Rue de la Lenda 1, Factory Complex of the Chocolats Villars company, Fortifications, Funiculaire Neuveville-Saint-Pierre, Hôpital of the Bourgeois, Hôtel de Ville, Immeuble de rapport Sallin, Les Arcades, Motta Swimming Pool and Vieille Village
  • Houses and Private Buildings: Auberge de la Cigogne, House at Rue de la Neuveville 48, House at Rue d’Or 7, House at Rue d’Or 13, House d’Alt at Place de l’Hôtel-de-Ville 1, House de Castella, House de Fégely-d’Estavayer dite Vicarino, House de François-Prosper de Castella, House de Gottrau dite Les Tornalettes, House de Jean-François d’Ammann de Macconens, House de Lanthen-Heid, House de Reyff, House de Reyff de Cugy, House de Techtermann, House de Nicolas Kuenlin, House des tanneurs Reyff, House Fégely (?) dite tannerie Deillon and Villa Mayer
  • Schools: Collège Saint-Michel, Université Miséricorde
  • Archives, Libraries and Museums: Archives de l’Etat de Fribourg, Archives de la Ville de Fribourg, Cantonal and University Library, Grenier de Derrière-Notre-Dame et Museum Gutenberg, Museum suisse des arts graphiques, Grenier de la Planche and Hôtel Ratzé et Museum d’art et d’histoire
  • Fountains: Fountain de la Fidélité, Fountain de la Force, Fountain de la Samaritaine, Fountain de la Vaillance, Fountain de Sainte-Anne, Fountain de Saint-Georges, Fountain de Saint-Jean, Fountain de Samson and Jo Siffert Fountain
  • Bridges: Pont de Bern, Pont de Saint-Jean, Pont du Gottéron and Pont du Milieu

Sports[edit]

The most popular sports club in the town is the ice hockey club HC Fribourg-Gottéron, who play in the National League A and have so far won four Vice-Swiss championship. Games are held in the Patinoire St-Léonard (capacity: 7000 spectators).

Basketball is played by Benetton Fribourg Olympic, who play their home games at the 3,500 capacity gym of the Holy Cross College. The club has been successful, winning 13 championships: 1966,'71,'73,'74,'78,'79,'81,'82,'85,'91,'92,'98,'99 and 2007; 6 Swiss-times Cup winners: 1967,'76,'78,'97,'98 and 2007 and 1 League Cup winner: 2007; it is the leading national association.

The football club FC Fribourg plays in the Swiss 1st League, the third tier of Swiss Football.

Since 1933, on the first Sunday in October the Murten run between Morat-Fribourg takes place. Commemorating the Battle of Murten, the 17-mile (27 km) route is one of the most popular fun runs in Switzerland.

Famous Fribourgeois[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Miscellaneous[edit]

The canton and the capital share the same name but have different coats of arms.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistics Office – STAT-TAB Ständige und Nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Region, Geschlecht, Nationalität und Alter (German) accessed 3 October 2012
  2. ^ Arealstatistik Standard - Gemeindedaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
  3. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Land Use Statistics 2009 data (German) accessed 25 March 2010
  4. ^ "Climate Norm Value Tables". Climate diagrams and normals from Swiss measuring stations. Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss). Retrieved 31 January 2013.  The weather station elevation is 646 meters above sea level.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fribourg in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  6. ^ Flags of the World.com accessed 1 December 2011
  7. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Superweb database - Gemeinde Statistics 1981-2008 (German) accessed 19 June 2010
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 1 December 2011
  9. ^ a b Canton of Fribourg Statistics (German) accessed 3 November 2011
  10. ^ a b c d e STAT-TAB Datenwürfel für Thema 40.3 - 2000 (German) accessed 2 February 2011
  11. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB - Datenwürfel für Thema 09.2 - Gebäude und Wohnungen (German) accessed 28 January 2011
  12. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Rental prices 2003 data (German) accessed 26 May 2010
  13. ^ Canton of Fribourg National Council Election of 23 October 2011 Statistics (German) (French) accessed 3 November 2011
  14. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office, Nationalratswahlen 2007: Stärke der Parteien und Wahlbeteiligung, nach Gemeinden/Bezirk/Canton (German) accessed 28 May 2010
  15. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB Betriebszählung: Arbeitsstätten nach Gemeinde und NOGA 2008 (Abschnitte), Sektoren 1-3 (German) accessed 28 January 2011
  16. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Statweb (German) accessed 24 June 2010
  17. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office, list of libraries (German) accessed 14 May 2010
  18. ^ Chart of the education system in Canton Fribourg (German)
  19. ^ "Fribourg Access". fribourgtourisme.ch. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  20. ^ "Kantonsliste A-Objekte". KGS Inventar (in German). Federal Office of Civil Protection. 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  21. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Marquis Who's Who. 1967. 
  22. ^ http://www.fr.ch/ville-fribourg/informations/1700/196_juin03.pdf
This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.


External links[edit]