|Born||Georgina Hope Hancock
9 February 1954
Perth, Western Australia
|Occupation||Chairman of Hancock Prospecting HPPL|
|Spouse(s)||Greg (Milton) Hayward (m. 1973–81)
Frank Rinehart (m. 1983–90)
|Children||John Langley (Hayward) Hancock (b. 1976)
Bianca Hope Hayward (b. 1979)
Hope (Rinehart) Welker (b. 1986)
Ginia Rinehart (b. 1987)
Hope Margaret Nicholas
Georgina Hope "Gina" Rinehart (born 9 February 1954) is an Australian mining heiress and Chairman of Hancock Prospecting group. She is the daughter of Lang Hancock and Hope Margaret Nicholas. In the 2010s, Rinehart bought a stake in media organizations, becoming the largest shareholder in Fairfax Media and taking a significant share in Ten Network Holdings.
During 2011, both Forbes Asia and the Business Review Weekly reported that Rinehart was Australia's wealthiest person, a title that she continues to hold. During 2012, BRW named Rinehart as the world's richest woman, having surpassed Christy Walton; however, by 2013 Rinehart was the fourth richest woman in the world; and by 2014, the sixth richest.
Early life and family
Rinehart was born in Perth, Western Australia, the daughter of Hope Margaret Nicholas and Lang Hancock. An only child, Rinehart lived with her parents at Nunyerry, 60 kilometres (37 mi) north of Wittenoom, until she was four, later boarding at St Hilda's Anglican School for Girls in Perth. She briefly studied economics at the University of Sydney, before dropping out and working for her father, gaining an extensive knowledge of the Pilbara iron-ore industry.
As a teenager, Rinehart met Englishman Greg Milton, while both were working in Wittenoom. In 1973, aged 19, Rinehart married Milton and he changed his surname to Hayward. Together, they had two children, John Langley and Bianca Hope. However, the marriage did not last; Rinehart and Hayward separated in 1979 and divorced in 1981. In 1983 she married Frank Rinehart, a 57-year-old German American corporate lawyer, in Las Vegas. They had two children together, Ginia and Hope, born 18 months apart. Frank died in 1990.
She was involved in an acrimonious legal fight with her stepmother, Rose Porteous, in 1992 over the circumstances of her father's death and control of the Hancock assets. The court cases and negotiations ultimately took 14 years to settle.
In 1999, her proposal to name a mountain range after her family was approved. The so-named Hancock Range is situated about 65 kilometres (40 mi) north-west of the town of Newman at and commemorates the family's contribution to the establishment of the pastoral and mining industry in the Pilbara region.
In 2003, after a falling out with her, Rinehart's son John changed his surname by deed poll from Rinehart to Hancock and as of May 2014, their relationship remained difficult; Hancock married his partner of 14 years, Gemma Ludgate, in the absence of Rinehart. John's sister, Bianca Hope Hayward, who was once positioned to take over the family business, served as a director of Hancock Prospecting and HMHT Investments until 31 October 2011, when she was replaced by her half-sister, Ginia Rinehart. In 2013 Bianca married her partner Sasha Serebryakov; and Rinehart did not attend the wedding. Rinehart's other daughter, Hope, married Ryan Welker, an American director of Mineral Resources (a Hancock partial subsidiary) and they live together in Sydney.
After the death of her father in March 1992, Rinehart became Chairman of Hancock Prospecting Pty Limited (HPPL) and the HPPL Group of companies. All companies within the group are privately owned. With the notable exception of receiving a royalty stream from Hamersley Iron since the late 1960s, Lang Hancock's mining activities were mainly related to exploration and the accumulation of vast mining leases. In recent years Rinehart has focused on developing Hancock Prospecting's undeveloped deposits, raising capital through joint venture partnerships and turning the leases into revenue producing mines.
Rinehart, via Hancock Prospecting, shares 50 per cent of the profits generated by the Hope Downs mine, which is operated by Rio Tinto and produces 30 million tonnes of iron ore annually. Another joint venture with Mineral Resources Limited at Nicholas Downs, northwest of Newman, is producing 500 million tonnes of ferruginous manganese. The Alpha Coal and Kevin's Corner projects in Central Queensland, both with production due to commence in 2013, are expected to produce 30 million tonnes of coal each. The Roy Hill iron ore project, south of Port Hedland, in the Pilbara is expected to begin production in 2013 with a yield of 55 million tonnes a year.
In 2010 Rinehart took a 10 per cent stake in Ten Network Holdings; James Packer had acquired an 18 per cent stake in the same company shortly before. Since then she has also acquired a substantial stake in Fairfax Media. In acquiring these shares, she has become a major player in the media and no longer limits her interests to the mining business. In February 2012 she increased her stake in Fairfax to over 12 per cent, becoming the largest shareholder of the company. Fairfax journalists were reportedly fearful that she wanted to turn them into a "mouthpiece for the mining industry". In June 2012, she increased her stake further to 18.67 per cent, and was believed to be seeking three board seats and involvement in editorial decisions in Fairfax's newspaper division. Negotiations between Fairfax and Hancock Prospecting broke down in late June because of disagreements over Fairfax's editorial independence policy and other issues relating to board governance; chair Roger Corbett subsequently announced that Rinehart would not be offered any seats on the board.
In 2014, Rinehart was listed as the 27th most powerful woman in the world by Forbes; a decline of nine positions from her 2013 ranking of the 16th most powerful woman.
Rinehart opposed the Rudd government's Mineral Resource Rent Tax and Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme as part of a group of mining magnates that included Andrew Forrest. She has founded the lobby group ANDEV, ("Australians for Northern Development & Economic Vision") and has sponsored the trips of prominent climate change sceptic Christopher Monckton to Australia.
Since 2010 Rinehart has been actively promoting the cause of development of Australia's North and has spoken, written articles and published a book on this topic. Rinehart stresses that Australia must do more to welcome investment and improve its cost competitiveness, particularly when Australia faces record debt. She advocates a special economic zone in the North with reduced taxation and less regulations and has enlisted the support of many prominent Australians, plus the Institute of Public Affairs. In a 2012 article in the Australian Resources and Investment Magazine, Rinehart said that if people wanted to have more money they should "stop whingeing" and "Do something to make more money yourself − spend less time drinking or smoking and socialising, and more time working". She criticised what she saw as the "socialist" policies of the Australian Government of "high taxes" and "excessive regulation".
|Gina Rinehart YouTube Monologue, Sydney Mining Club|
|Gina Rinehart calls for Australian wage cut, BBC|
In a video posted to the Sydney Mining Club's YouTube channel on 23 August 2012, Rinehart expressed concern for Australia's economic competitiveness noting how "Indeed if we competed in the Olympic Games as sluggishly as we compete economically, there would be an outcry." She said "Furthermore, Africans want to work and its workers are willing to work for less than two dollars a day. Such statistics make me worry for this country's future." Rinehart's views were dismissed by the Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, who said that "It's not the Australian way to toss people $2, to toss them a gold coin, and then ask them to work for a day" and that "we support proper Australian wages and decent working conditions." The Australian Deputy Prime Minister and Treasurer, Wayne Swan, described Rinehart's statement as an "insult to the millions of Australian workers who go to work and slog it out to feed the kids and pay the bills."
As a means of increasing her political influence, Rinehart became the largest stakeholder in Fairfax Media in 2012. After failing to get board representation because she would not agree to the company's charter of independence, she sold her shareholding in 2015.
Hope Margaret Hancock Trust
In 1988 Lang Hancock established the Hope Margaret Hancock Trust, nominating Rinehart as trustee, with his four grandchildren named as beneficiaries. The Trust owns a quarter of the shares in Hancock Prospecting. In 2011 Rinehart's daughter, Hope Rinehart Welker, commenced a commercial action in the New South Wales Supreme Court for reasons understood to be related to the conduct of the trustee. The action sought to remove Rinehart as sole trustee. Her brother, John, and sister, Bianca, were later revealed as parties to the dispute.
In an agreement reached between the parties, the Court granted an interim non-publication order in September 2011. In making the interim order, Justice Paul Brereton stated: "This is not the first occasion of discord in the family, which has immense wealth, no small part of which resides in the trust. In the past, the affairs of the family, including such discord, has attracted considerable publicity in the media." Then, in a judgement handed down on 7 October 2011, Justice Brereton stated that he intended to dismiss an application by Rinehart, that there be a stay on court action, and that the family be directed into mediation. In December 2011, three justices of the NSW Court of Appeal lifted the suppression orders on the case. However, a stay was granted until 3 February 2012 and extended by the High Court of Australia until 9 March 2012. Rinehart's application for suppression was supported by Ginia Rinehart, but was opposed by Hope, John and Bianca. A subsequent application by Rinehart for a non-publication order on the grounds of fear of personal and family safety was dismissed by the NSW Supreme Court on 2 February 2012. In March 2012, when the suppression order was lifted, it was revealed that Rinehart had delayed the vesting date of the trust, which had prompted the court action by her three older children.
Rinehart stood down as trustee during the hearing in October 2013. While Rinehart's lawyers subsequently declared any legal matters closed, John and Bianca's legal representatives proceeded with a trial in the NSW Supreme Court to deal with allegations of misconduct, whereby Rinehart was accused of having "unclean hands". As of October 2013[update] it appeared likely that the matter would be settled by the court appointing a new trustee.
Rinehart first appeared on the 1992 BRW Rich 200 list, published annually in the Business Review Weekly (BRW), following the death of her father earlier that year. She has appeared every year since, and became a billionaire in 2006. Due to Australia's mining boom in the early 21st century, Rinehart's wealth increased significantly since 2010, and she diversified investments into media, taking holdings in Ten Network Holdings and Fairfax Media. According to BRW, she became Australia's richest woman in 2010, and Australia's richest person in 2011, and the first woman to lead the list. During 2012, BRW claimed Rinehart was the world's richest woman, surpassing Wal-Mart owner Christy Walton.
In 2012 BRW estimated her wealth at A$29.17 billion, with Ivan Glasenberg being her closest rival, with net wealth estimated at A$7.4 billion. At the time BRW stated that it was possible Rinehart would become the first person with a net wealth of US$100 billion.
In 2007, she first appeared on Forbes Asia Australia's 40 Richest, with an estimated wealth of US$1 billion; more than doubling that the next year to US$2.4 billion; and then, in spite of the global financial crisis, by 2011 had more than trebled to US$9 billion; doubled again in 2012 to US$18 billion; a slight reduction in 2013 to US$17 billion; and a slight increase in 2014 to US$17.6 billion. Releasing the results in February 2011, Forbes was the first to name her as Australia's richest person; with BRW conferring the same title in May that year.
In June 2011, Citigroup estimated that she was on course to overtake Carlos Slim, the Mexican magnate worth £46 billion (US$74 billion) and Bill Gates, who is worth £35 billion (US$56 billion), mainly because she owns her companies outright. Using a price-to-earnings ratio of 11:1 that applied at that time to her business partner, Rio Tinto, the Australian internet business news service, SmartCompany, stated: "It is possible to see Rinehart's portfolio of coal and iron ore production spinning off annual profits approaching US$10 billion", giving her a "personal net worth valuation of more than US$100 billion". In January 2012, there were further media reports that Rinehart's estimated wealth has increased to A$20 billion following estimates that the Roy Hill project was notionally valued at A$10 billion.
As of December 2012, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, Rinehart was the 37th richest person in the world with an estimated net worth of US$18.6 billion.
|Year||BRW Rich 200||Forbes Australia's 40 Richest|
|Rank||Net worth (AUD)||Rank||Net worth (USD)|
|2007||4||$4.00 billion||14||$1.00 billion|
|2008||5||$4.39 billion||6||$2.40 billion|
|2009||4||$3.47 billion||7||$1.50 billion|
|2010||5||$4.75 billion||9||$2.00 billion|
|2011||1||$10.31 billion||12||$9.00 billion|
|2012||1||$29.17 billion||4||$18.00 billion|
|2013||1||$22.02 billion||5||$17.00 billion|
|2014||1||$20.01 billion||6||$17.60 billion|
|Has not changed from the previous year|
|Has increased from the previous year|
|Has decreased from the previous year|
In a 2006 Business Review Weekly article reviewing the way Australia's rich support philanthropy, it was noted that Rinehart prefers to keep a low profile, partly to avoid being "harassed by other charities" and partly for reasons of privacy. Rinehart is publicly known for visiting girls' orphanages in Cambodia and is on the expert advisory board of SISHA, a Cambodian non-profit organisation campaigning against human trafficking, in particular by rescuing and assisting sexually exploited women and children.
- Leser, David (1999). The Whites of Their Eyes (paperback). Sydney: Allen & Unwin. p. 296. ISBN 978-1-86508-114-4.
- "home page, company website". Hancock Prospecting Pty Limited. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "BRW Rich 200 list 2014: 1. Gina Rinehart". BRW (a Fairfax Media Publication) (Sydney). 26 June 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- Treadgold, Tim (21 March 2014). "Australia's $17 Billion Woman On The Road To Becoming A Whole Lot Richer". Forbes. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Master John Langley Hayward Australia's richest baby". The Australian Women's Weekly (1932–1982) (National Library of Australia). 11 February 1976. p. 13. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Leser. The Whites of Their Eyes. p. 6.
- Burrell, Andrew (10 January 2012). "Filial loyalty pays off for Gina Rinehart heir". The Australian. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- "home page, company website". Hancock Prospecting Pty Limited. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "Australian tycoon world's richest woman: Report". The Times Of India. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Woodhead, Ben (5 March 2013). "Rinehart 36th richest, as Forbes names world's billionaires". Financial Review (Australia: Fairfax Media). Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- "She helped found a mining empire". The Australian Women's Weekly (1932–1982) (National Library of Australia). 5 April 1967. p. 2. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Treadgold, Tim (2 February 2011). "Miner's Daughter". Forbes: Australia's 40 Richest. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Murphy, Damien (27 November 2010). "Newsmaker: Gina Rinehart". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Leser. The Whites of Their Eyes. p. 7.
- Leser. The Whites of Their Eyes. p. 4.
- Pennells, Steve; Hall, Louise (10 September 2011). "Three siblings revealed in Rinehart court feud". The West Australian. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Burrell, Andrew (27 November 2010). "The Rinehart not afraid to get her hands dirty". The Australian. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- Leser. The Whites of Their Eyes. p. 10.
- "Australia & New Zealand's 40 Richest: #14 Gina Rinehart". Forbes Magazine. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- "Geographic Name Approvals in Western Australia" 15 (3). July–September 1999. p. 7.
- "Geographic Name Approvals in Western Australia" 15 (4). October–December 1999. p. 7.
- Ferguson, Adele (2012). Gina Rinehart (paperback). Sydney: Pan MacMillan. p. 400. ISBN 978-1-74261-097-9.
- Garvey, Paul (20 May 2014). "Gina Rinehart misses wedding of son John Hancock". The Australian. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Spooner, Rania (30 January 2012). "Another Rinehart daughter exits Hancock board". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- "Rinehart eyes dynasty succession". Business Specatator. AAP. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- McIntyre, David (26 May 2011). "Newsmaker: Gina Rinehart". news.com.au. AAP. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- Hernandez, Vittorio (10 January 2012). "The Ascent of Ginia Rinehart to the Family Business Empire". International Business Times. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Chessell, James (18 January 2012). "POSCO lifts stake in Hancock's Roy Hill" (PDF). Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Klinger, Peter (19 January 2012). "Ratings agencies endorse Roy Hill" (PDF). West Australian. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- "Gina Rinehart buys stake in Ten". The Age (Australia). 22 November 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- Durie, John (1 February 2012). "Share raid makes Gina Rinehart biggest stakeholder in Fairfax". The Australian. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- Simper, Errol (6 February 2012). "Gina Rinehart's Fairfax interest won't give her control of mining tax debate". The Australian. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- The Economist 30 June 2012 "Australia's media black night" pg 33
- Simpson, Kirsty (18 June 2012). "Rinehart steps up Fairfax board battle". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- "No deal: Fairfax won't offer Gina Rinehart a board seat". Media Spy. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- Hewett, Jennifer (1 June 2010). "Gina Rinehart joins anti-tax chorus". The Australian. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "About ANDEV". Australians for Northern Development & Economic Vision. 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Manne, Robert (8 February 2012). "Lord Monckton and the Future of Australian Media". The Monthly. Australia. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- "The Lord Monckton roadshow" (transcript). Background Briefing (Australia: ABC Radio). 19 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Rinehart, Gina (2012). Northern Australia and then some: Changes we need to make our country rich. Executive Media Pty Ltd. ISBN 9781921345258.
- Creighton, Adam (6 April 2013). "Southern red tape hobbles Top End's great leap forward". The Australian. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "Gina Rinehart tells whingers: Get out of the pub". The Courier Mail. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Rinehart, Gina (23 August 2012). "Gina Rinehart". YouTube. Sydney Mining Club.
- "World's richest woman calls for Australian workers to be paid A$2 a day to compete with companies hiring cheap African staff". Mail Online (London). 5 September 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- Kennedy, Duncan (5 September 2012). "Gina Rinehart calls for Australian wage cut". BBC.
- Memmott, Mark (5 September 2012). "Billionaire Slammed After Musing About Workers Paid $2 A Day". NPR.
- Thompson, Sarah, Anthony Macdonald, Jake Mitchell (6 February 2015). "Gina Rinehart sells out of Fairfax Media". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- Hall, Louise; Pennells, Steve (8 October 2011). "Rinehart's children win first round". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- Amy Dale (13 March 2012). "Australia's richest woman Gina Rinehart accused of offering her eldest daughter money to drop legal action". Herald Sun.
- Dale, Amy (13 March 2012). "Australia's richest woman Gina Rinehart accused of offering her eldest daughter money to drop legal action". Herald Sun. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- Pennells, Steve; Hall, Louise (9 September 2011). "Gina Rinehart sued by daughter". The West Australian. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Shanahan, Leo; Burrell, Andrew (9 September 2011). "Another family feud for Gina Rinehart". The Australian. AAP. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Shanahan, Leo (14 September 2011). "Rinehart gags media on family trust fund dispute". The Australian. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Madden, James (8 October 2011). "Gina Rinehart's children in bid to oust their mother". The Australian. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- Hall, Louise (14 January 2012). "Airing of dirty linen to come in three weeks". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Hall, Louise (2 February 2012). "Family feud details to stay secret for at least five more weeks". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Robinson, Natasha (2 February 2012). "Gina Rinehart's safety 'at risk', court told in suppression bid". The Australian. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Dale, Amy (13 March 2012). "Days away from being billionaires, Gina Rinehart locks trust for half a century". The Daily Telegraph (Australia). Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- Ferguson, Adele (12 October 2013). "Family feud over matters of trust". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Shanahan, Leo (2 October 2013). "Gina Rinehart exits bitter family row over trust". The Australian. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Shanahan, Leo (14 October 2013). "Family trust battle a 'kamikaze' mission, Gina Rinehart's lawyers say". The Australian.
- Ferguson, Adele (4 June 2012). "Rinehart world’s richest woman". BRW (Sydney). Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "The World's Billionaires: #48: Gina Rinehart". Forbes. March 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- Murphy, Damien (24 May 2012). "Rinehart world's richest woman as wealth triples in a year". The Age (Australia). Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "Australia's Gina Rinehart is 'world's richest woman'". BBC News. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- "Rinehart Doubles Fortune as Asia Pacific's Richest, Forbes Says". Business Week (Bloomsberg). 2 February 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- Treadgold, Tim (22 June 2011). "Why Gina Rinehart is on her way to being the world's richest: Treadgold". SmartCompany. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- "Australian woman predicted to become world's richest person". The Telegraph (United Kingdom). 27 June 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Thomson, James (19 January 2012). "Gina Rinehart's now worth $20 billion and her hard work's just started". SmartCompany. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Burrell, Andrew (21 January 2012). "Stakes raised as Posco play makes Rinehart a $20bn woman". The Australian. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- "Bloomberg Billionaires Index". Bloomberg LP.
- "James Packer still top of rich list". The Sydney Morning Herald. 30 May 2007.
- Litras, Peter (28 May 2008). "Rich surprise: Alan Bond bounces back". The Age (Melbourne). AAP. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Thomson, James (20 March 2008). "Australia and New Zealand's 40 Richest: The List". Forbes Asia. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Zappone, Chris (27 May 2009). "Rich get poorer". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Australia's 40 Richest: Gina Rinehart". Forbes Asia. 13 May 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Gina Rinehart tops Australian rich list". The Age (Australia). 3 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- Jackson, Sally (23 May 2012). "The $29.17 billion woman: Gina Rinehart tops BRW's Rich List". The Australian. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Colquhoun, Steve; Heathcote, Andrew (22 May 2013). "Rinehart drops more than Lowy's entire worth". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Ferguson, Adele (29 June – 5 July 2006). "Not Enough". Business Review Weekly (Melbourne). p. 30. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Kerr, Peter (25 May 2011). "First lady". Business Review Weekly. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- "In October 2010, SISHA launched our new Hope Scholarship Award Program". SISHA. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- "Georgina Rinehart flies to Cambodia to visit SISHA!". Facebook. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Hewett, Jennifer (4 February 2012). "Rinehart: reclusive, driven entrepreneur, but a mining pioneer at heart". The Weekend Australian. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- Bryant, Nick (May 2012). "What Gina Wants: Gina Rinehart's quest for respect and gratitude". The Monthly (Australia). Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- Cadzow, Jane (21 January 2012). "The iron lady". The Age (Australia). Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- Finnegan, William (25 March 2013). "The Miner's Daughter". The New Yorker (New York: Condé Nast).
- Ferguson, Adele (26 June 2012). Gina Rinehart: The Untold Story of the Richest Woman in the World. Sydney: Macmillan Australia. ISBN 9781742610979. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Marshall, Debi (2012). The House of Hancock: The Rise and Rise of Gina Rinehart. Sydney: William Heinemann Australia. ISBN 9781742756745.
- Newton, Gloria (19 February 1975). "Lang Hancock's daughter comes of age". The Australian Women's Weekly (1932–1982) (1932–1982: National Library of Australia). p. 10. Retrieved 14 January 2011.