H. W. L. Poonja
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Sri H. W. L. Poonja (born Hariwansh Lal Poonja; 13 October 1910 (or later) in Punjab, British India – 6 September 1997 in Lucknow, India), also known as "Poonjaji" or "Papaji", was an independent teacher of Self-enquiry as advocated by Ramana Maharshi.
Early life 
H. W. L. Poonja was born in Gujranwalla, in western Punjab, which is now Pakistan, in a family of Saraswat Brahmins. His mother was the sister of Swami Rama Tirtha, one of the most famous saints of India.
Seeing Krishna 
At the age of eight, he experienced a highly unusual state of consciousness:
The experience was so overwhelming it had effectively paralysed my ability to respond to any external stimuli. For about an hour they tried everything they could think of to bring me back to a normal state of consciousness, but all their attempts failed.[web 1]
He was persuaded by his mother that he could reconnect to this unitary experience by practicing devotion to the Hindu God Krishna, and so he gave himself over to Krishna Bhakti (devotion) with vigor. He proved to be a prodigy of sorts and while still a boy he began to have visions of Krishna. This is known in the Vaisnava tradition as receiving the "Darsana" of God. Playfully interacting with his visions of Krishna while simultaneously experiencing the bliss of spiritual union, he spent his youth in intimate relationship with Krishna as his friend.
Seeking God 
As an adult he led an apparently normal life, married, raised two children and even joined the British army, while secretly his love for Krishna (and his visions of Him) continued. Pursuing the life of a devotee he was not satisfied with having sporadic visions and was deeply troubled when Krishna did not appear. He became obsessed with a longing to have the experience of seeing God all the time. He continuously repeated Krishna's name (japa) and traveled throughout India asking sages if they could deliver the ability to produce the darshan of God at will.
Meeting Ramana Maharshi 
After all his attempts had failed, he returned to his family in Lyallpur. A sadhu appeared at the door soon after that, and Poonjaji invited him in and asked him the question he had asked swamis throughout the country: "Can you show me God? If not, do you know of anyone who can?" To his surprise, the sadhu told him that there was a person, Ramana Maharshi, who could show him God. Further, the sadhu provided detailed instructions on how to find Ramana Maharshi at Tiruvannamalai in southern India. At the soonest opportunity, Poonjaji travelled to Tiruvannamalai to meet the sage Ramana Maharshi at Ramanashramam at the famous mountain Arunachala. This happened in 1944, and Poonjaji was at this point thirty-one years old.
However upon meeting Ramana, rather than being given another vision of God, Ramana pointed him in the direction of his own self:
I cannot show you God or enable you to see God because God is not an object that can be seen. God is the subject. He is the seer. Don’t concern yourself with objects that can be seen. Find out who the seer is.[web 2]
Poonjaji had a deeply profound spiritual experience when he heard this, and under Ramana's gaze he became aware of the spiritual Heart, which he felt was opening and blooming. This did not deter him from continuing with his japa of Krishna's name and he was not impressed with the advice as such.
Continuing the devotional path 
At this point Poonjaji continued pursuing his devotional path, having many visions of Hindu Gods. He was not yet convinced of the value of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy which Ramana was known for but was attracted to him nonetheless. This came to an end when he had a vision of Ramana telling him that Krishna devotion was the only truth. Poonja felt compelled to return to Ramanasramam and ask Ramana if he had indeed appeared before him and conveyed the primacy of Krishna bhakti. Though Ramana would not respond to his question verbally, while Poonja was waiting for an answer, a group of devotees arrived and gave Ramana a picture of Krishna. Ramana, looking at Krishna, wept with such intense devotion for him that Poonja became convinced that Ramana was a secret bhakta himself.
After a lifetime of devotion, he found that he could no longer bring his mind to think of God, do japa or any other spiritual practice. Deeply concerned, he asked Ramana for help and was told that this was not a problem, that all his practice had carried him to this moment and it could be left behind now because it had served its purpose. When telling Ramana about the story of his search of the Self or Heart:
Then he looked at me intently. I could feel that my whole body and mind were being washed with waves of purity. They were being purified by his silent gaze. I could feel him looking intently into my Heart. Under that spellbinding gaze I felt every atom of my body being purified. It was as if a new body were being created for me. A process of transformation was going on—the old body was dying, atom by atom, and a new body was being created in its place. Then, suddenly, I understood. I knew that this man who had spoken to me was, in reality, what I already was, what I had always been. There was a sudden impact of recognition as I became aware of the Self.[web 3]
Poonja recognized this state as the same state he experienced when he was eight years old, but this time it was permanent.[web 3]
Teaching others 
After his transformation he stayed in southern India until 1947, when during the partition of India, despite Poonjaji's fierce longing to stay with his master, Ramana sent him to his old home in the Punjab (then in the new country of Pakistan) to bring his family to the safety of Lucknow, India. Ramana's last words to him were: “I am with you wherever you go.”
After his realization, Poonja met only two other man "who convinced me that they had attained full and complete Self-realisation.",[web 4] a Muslim Pir and an unknown sadhu whom he met by the side of a road in Karnataka.[web 4]
In the following years, Poonjaji earned money to support his family, meeting with seekers and sharing satsangs wherever he was. In 1953, he met his first Western disciple, Henri Le Saux, also known as Swami Abhishiktananda, who wrote many books on Advaita Vedanta and Christianity. In 1966 he retired and spent a lot of time in the Himalayan foothills.
Poonjaji later settled in Lucknow, where he received visitors from all around the world. Some well-known students are Mooji, and Andrew Cohen. The latter had an enlightenment-experience when meeting Poonja, but later distantiated himself from Poonja.
David Godman moved to Lucknow in 1992, and stayed with him till 1997, and soon became his biographer, in the following years edited and published a number of books on him, including, Papaji Interviews, an anthology of interviews, and Nothing Ever Happened, a three volume 1,200-page biography.
Poonja died on September 6, 1997.
Poonjaji refused to identify himself with any tradition. He was considered decidedly radical in the directness of his teaching.
Teaching through silence 
His teaching emphasizes again and again that words can only point to ultimate truth, but never are ultimate truth, and that intellectual understanding without directly realizing the truth through one's own investigation is not enough. Like Sri Ramana, he stressed that teaching through silence was more important than teaching through words.
The process 
Poonja mentions several events in his own life which "illustrate, in a general way, how the process of realisation comes about."[web 5]
- "here must be a desire for God, a love for Him, or a desire for liberation. Without that, nothing is possible."[web 5]
- "This desire for God or realisation is like an inner flame. One must kindle it and then fan it until it becomes a raging fire which consumes all one’s other desires and interests."[web 5]
- "If this inner fire rages for long enough, with sufficient intensity, it will finally consume that one, central, overwhelming desire for God or the Self."[web 5]
- The presence of the Master is the final ingredient: "When the Maharshi’s gaze met my vasana-free mind, the Self reached out and destroyed it in such a way that it could never rise or function again. Only Self remained."[web 5]
His message, like that of his teacher Sri Ramana, was always that the Self is already enlightened and free. Like Sri Ramana, he taught self-enquiry, which involved locating a person's sense of "I" and focusing on and investigating this directly.
He emphasized that there is ultimately no difference between guru and devotee, no teacher, no disciple and even no message. Poonja was quick to point out that devotional bhaktas such as Kabir, Ravidas, Sukdev and Mirabai were also awakened in the same state of freedom known as Sahaj Samadhi, which they called God.
While a powerful transmission of awareness, presence, grace, love, bliss or shaktipat was experienced by many who met him, often dropping them directly into an experience of the Self, he would at times emphatically reject the notion of transmission.
Nevertheless, Caplan criticises Poonja for too easily authorising students to teach:
One of the tragedies of Poonjaji's teaching ministry is that he either told, inferred, or allowed hundreds of individuals to believe they were fully enlightened simply because they'd had one, or many, powerful experiences of awakening. These "enlightened" teachers then proceeded to enlighten their own students in a similar way, and thus was born what is known as the "neo-Advaita", or "satsang" movement in western culture.
- Wake Up and Roar: Satsang With H. W. L. Poonja (two volumes), edited by Eli Jaxon-Bear
- The Fire of Freedom: Satsang with Papaji by David Godman, published by Avadhuta Foundation
- The Simplest Way by Madhukar, Editions India, 2nd edition, USA & India 2006 (contains Interview with H. W. L. Poonja)
Overview of teachings 
- This: Prose and Poetry of Dancing Emptiness (the essence of Papaji's teachings) Edited by Prashanti, published by VidyaSagar Publications and Weiserbooks.com
- The Truth Is (the essence of Papaji's teachings with dialogues) Edited by Prashanti, published by VidyaSagar Publications and Weiserbooks.com
- Papaji: Interviews (A collection of Interviews with Poonja) by David Godman, published 1993 by Avadhuta Foundation
- Papaji Interviews & Reflections (earlier Indian edition, essentially a different book), published 1992 by Pragati
- Nothing Ever Happened (A three volume biography). by David Godman, published by Avadhuta Foundation
- My Master is My Self, by Andrew Cohen and Murray Feldman, ( 1989 account of his relationship with H.W.L.Poonja before the schism)
See also 
Printed references 
- Caplan, Mariana (2009), Eyes Wide Open: Cultivating Discernment on the Spiritual Path, Sounds True
- Godman, David (1998), Nothing Ever Happened, Volume One