Moksha

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For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation).
"Mukti" redirects here. For other uses, see Mukti (disambiguation).
Two Hindu sadhus near Pashupatinath Temple in Kathmandu, Nepal. Usually sadhus live by themselves, on the fringes of society, and spend their days in their pursuit of moksha.

In Indian religions and Indian philosophy, Moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष mokṣa), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti,[1] means emancipation, liberation or release.[2] In soteriological and eschatological sense, it connotes freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth.[3] In epistemological and psychological sense, moksha connotes freedom, self-realization and self-knowledge.[4]

In Hindu traditions, Moksha is a central concept[5] and included as one of the four aspects and goals of human life; the other three goals are Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and Kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment).[6] Together, these four aims of life are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism.[7]

The concept of Moksha is found In Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana.[8] However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.[9] The term nirvana is more common in Buddhism,[10] while moksha is more prevalent in Hinduism.[11]

Etymology[edit]

Moksha is derived from the root mu(n)c (Sanskrit: मुच्), which means free, let go, release, liberate.[12][13] In Vedas and early Upanishads, the word mucyate (Sanskrit: मुच्यते)[12] appears, which means to be set free or release - such as of a horse from its harness.

Definition and meanings[edit]

The definition and meaning of Moksha varies between various schools of Indian religions.[14] Moksha means freedom, liberation; from what and how is where the schools differ.[15] Moksha is also a concept that means liberation from rebirth or saṃsāra.[3] This liberation can be attained while one is on earth (jivanmukti), or eschatologically (karmamukti,[3] videhamukti). Some Indian traditions have emphasized liberation on concrete, ethical action within the world. This liberation is an epistemological transformation that permits one to see the truth and reality behind the fog of ignorance.[web 1]

Moksha has been defined not merely as absence of suffering and release from bondage to saṃsāra, various schools of Hinduism also explain the concept as presence of the state of paripurna-brahmanubhava (oneness with Brahma, the One Supreme Self), a state of knowledge, peace and bliss.[16] For example, Vivekachudamani - an ancient book on moksha, explains one of many meditative steps on the path to moksha, as:

जाति नीति कुल गोत्र दूरगं
नाम रूप गुण दोष वर्जितम् |
देश काल विषया तिवर्ति यद्
ब्रह्म तत्त्वमसि भाव यात्मनि ||२५४||

Beyond caste, creed, family or lineage,
That which is without name and form, beyond merit and demerit,
That which is beyond space, time and sense-objects,
You are that, God himself; Meditate this within yourself. ||Verse 254||

—Vivekachudamani, 8th Century AD[17]

Moksha in eschatological sense[edit]

Moksha is a concept associated with saṃsāra (birth-rebirth cycle). Samsara originated with new religious movements in the first millennium BCE.[web 1] These new movements such as Buddhism, Jainism and new schools within Hinduism, saw human life as bondage to a repeated process of rebirth. This bondage to repeated rebirth and life, each life subject to injury, disease and aging, was seen as a cycle of suffering. By release from this cycle, the suffering involved in this cycle also ended. This release was called moksha, nirvana, kaivalya, mukti and other terms in various Indian religious traditions.[18]

Eschatological ideas evolved in Hinduism.[19] In earliest Vedic literature, heaven and hell sufficed soteriological curiosities. Over time, the ancient scholars observed that people vary in the quality of virtuous or sinful life they lead, and began questioning how differences in each person’s puṇya (merit, good deeds) or pāp (demerit, sin) as human beings affected their afterlife.[20] This question led to the conception of an afterlife where the person stayed in heaven or hell, in proportion to their merit or demerit, then returned to earth and were reborn, the cycle continuing indefinitely. The rebirth idea ultimately flowered into the ideas of saṃsāra, or transmigration - where one’s balance sheet of karma determined one’s rebirth. Along with this idea of saṃsāra, the ancient scholars developed the concept of moksha, as a state that released a person from the saṃsāra cycle. Moksha release in eschatological sense in these ancient literature of Hinduism, suggests van Buitenen,[21] comes from self-knowledge and consciousness of oneness of supreme soul.

Moksha in epistemological and psychological sense[edit]

The meaning of Moksha in epistemological and psychological sense has been variously explained by scholars. For example, according to Deutsche, moksha is transcendental consciousness, the perfect state of being, of self-realization, of freedom and of “realizing the whole universe as the Self”.[22]

Moksha in Hinduism, suggests Klaus Klostermaier,[23] implies a setting free of hitherto fettered faculties, a removing of obstacles to an unrestricted life, permitting a person to be more truly a person in the full sense; the concept presumes an unused human potential of creativity, compassion and understanding which had been blocked and shut out. Moksha is more than liberation from life-rebirth cycle of suffering (samsara); Vedantic school separates this into two: jivanmukti (liberation in this life) and videhamukti (liberation after death).[24] Moksha in this life includes psychological liberation from adhyasa (fears besetting one’s life) and avidya (ignorance or anything that is not true knowledge).[23]

Moksha as a state of perfection[edit]

Moksha is, in many schools of Hinduism according to Daniel Ingalls,[15] a state of perfection. The concept was seen as a natural goal beyond dharma. Moksha, in the Epics and ancient literature of Hinduism, is seen as achievable by the same techniques necessary to practice dharma. Self-discipline is the path to dharma, moksha is self-discipline that is so perfect that it becomes unconscious, second nature. Dharma is thus a means to Moksha.[25]

Samkhya school of Hinduism, for example, suggests one of the paths to Moksha is to magnify one’s sattvam[26][27] To magnify one’s sattvam, one must develop oneself where one’s sattvam becomes one’s instinctive nature. Dharma and moksha were thus understood, by many schools of Hinduism, as two points of a single journey of life, a journey for which the viaticum was discipline and self training.[27] Over time, these ideas about moksha were challenged.

Gajendra Moksha (pictured) is a symbolic tale in Vaishnavism. The elephant Gajendra enters a lake where a crocodile Huhu clutches his leg and becomes his suffering. Despite his pain, he constantly remembers God Vishnu. God liberates him. Gajendra symbolically represents man, Huhu represents sins and the lake is saṃsāra.

Nagarjuna’s challenge[edit]

Dharma and Moksha, suggested Nagarjuna in 2nd century, cannot be goals on the same journey.[28] He pointed to the differences between the world we live in, and the freedom implied in the concept of moksha. They are so different that Dharma and Moksha could not be intellectually related. Dharma requires worldly thought, moksha is unworldly understanding, a state of bliss. How can the worldly thought process lead to unworldly understanding, asked Nagarjuna?[28] Karl Potter explains the answer to this challenge as one of context and framework, the emergence of broader general principles of understanding from thought processes that are limited in one framework.[29]

Shankara’s challenge[edit]

Shankara in 8th century AD, like Nagarjuna earlier, examined the difference between the world one lives in and moksha, a state of freedom and release one hopes for.[30] Unlike Nagarjuna, Shankara considers the characteristics between the two. The world one lives in requires action as well as thought; our world, he suggests, is impossible without vyavahara (action and plurality). The world is interconnected, one object works on another, input is transformed into output, change is continuous and everywhere. Moksha, suggests Shankara,[23] is that final perfect, blissful state where there can be no change, where there can be no plurality of states. It has to be a state of thought and consciousness that excludes action.[30] How can action-oriented techniques by which we attain the first three goals of man (kama, artha and dharma) be useful to attain the last goal, namely moksha?

Scholars[31] suggest, Shankara’s challenge to the concept of moksha parallels those of Plotinus against the Gnostics, with one important difference:[30] Plotinus challenged Gnostics that they have exchanged anthropocentric set of virtues with a theocentric set in pursuit of salvation; Shankara challenged that the concept of moksha implied an exchange of anthropocentric set of virtues (dharma) with a blissful state that has no need for values. Shankara goes on to suggest that anthropocentric virtues suffice.

Vaisnavas challenge[edit]

Vaishnavism is one of the bhakti schools of Hinduism and devoted to the worship of God, that sings his name, anoints his image or idol, and has many sub-schools. Vaishnavas suggest that dharma and moksha cannot be two different or sequential goals or states of life.[32] Instead, they suggest God should be kept in mind constantly to simultaneously achieve dharma and moksha, so constantly that one comes to feel one cannot live without God’s loving presence. This school emphasized love and adoration of God as the path to salvation and release (moksha), rather than works and knowledge. Their focus became divine virtues, rather than anthropocentric virtues. Daniel Ingalls[32] calls Vaishnava’s position on moksha as similar to Christian position on salvation, and the school whose views on dharma, karma and moksha dominated the initial impressions and colonial era literature on Hinduism, through the works of Thibaut, Max Müller and others.

History[edit]

The concept of Moksha appears much later in ancient Indian literature than the concept of dharma. The proto-concept that first appears in the ancient Sanskrit verses and early Upanishads is mucyate, which means freed, released. It is the middle and later Upanishads, such as the Svetasvatara and Maitri, where the word moksha appears and begins becoming an important concept.[15][33]

Kathaka Upanishad,[34] a middle Upanishadic era script dated to be about 2500 years old, is among the earliest expositions about saṃsāra and moksha. In Book I, Section III, the legend of boy Naciketa querries Yama, the lord of death to explain what causes saṃsāra and what leads to liberation.[35] Naciketa inquires: what causes sorrow? Yama explains that suffering and saṃsāra results from a life that is lived absent mindedly, with impurity, with neither the use of intelligence nor self-examination, where neither mind nor senses are guided by one’s Atma (spirit). Liberation comes from a life lived with inner purity, alert mind, led by buddhi (reason, intelligence), realization of the Supreme Self (Purusha) who dwells in all beings. Kathaka Upanishad asserts knowledge liberates, knowledge is freedom.[36][37] Kathaka Upanishad also explains the role of yoga in personal liberation, moksha.

Svetasvatara Upanishad, another middle era Upanishad written after Kathaka Upanishad, begins with questions such as why is man born, what is the primal cause behind the universe, what causes joy and sorrow in life?[38] It then examines the various theories, that were then existing, about saṃsāra and release from bondage. Svetasvatara claims[39] bondage results from ignorance, illusion or delusion; deliverance comes from knowledge. The Supreme Being dwells in every being, he is the primal cause, he is the eternal law, he is the essence of everything, he is nature, he is not a separate entity. Liberation comes to those who know Supreme Being is present as the Universal Spirit and Principle, just as they know butter is present in milk. Such realization, claims Svetasvatara, come from self-knowledge and self-discipline; and this knowledge and realization is liberation from transmigration, the final goal of the Upanishad.[40]

In myths and temples of India and Bali Indonesia, Sarasvati appears with swan. Sarasvati is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, learning and creative arts, while swan is a symbol of spiritual perfection, liberation and moksa.[41] The symbolism of Sarasvati and the swan is that knowledge and moksa go together.

Starting with the middle Upanishad era, moksha - or equivalent terms such as mukti and kaivalya - is a major theme in many Upanishads. For example, Sarasvati Rahasya Upanishad, one of several Upanishads of the bhakti school of Hinduism, starts out with prayers to Goddess Sarasvati. She is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, learning and creative arts;[41] her name is a compound word of ‘‘sara’’[42] and ‘‘sva’’,[43] meaning “essence of self”. After the prayer verses, the Upanishad inquires about the secret to freedom and liberation (mukti). Sarasvati’s reply in the Upanishad is:

It was through me the Creator himself gained liberating knowledge,
I am being, consciousness, bliss, eternal freedom: unsullied, unlimited, unending.
My perfect consciousness shines your world, like a beautiful face in a soiled mirror,
Seeing that reflection I wish myself you, an individual soul, as if I could be finite!

A finite soul, an infinite Goddess - these are false concepts,
in the minds of those unacquainted with truth,
No space, my loving devotee, exists between your self and my self,
Know this and you are free. This is the secret wisdom.

—Sarasvati Rahasya Upanishad, Translated by Linda Johnsen[44]

Evolution in the concept of mokṣa[edit]

Moksha concept, according to Daniel Ingalls,[15] represented one of many expansions in Hindu Vedic ideas of life and afterlife. In the Vedas, there were three stages of life: studentship, householdship and retirement. During Upanishadic era, Hinduism expanded this to include a fourth stage of life: complete abandonment. In Vedic literature, there are three modes of experience: waking, dream and deep sleep. The Upanishadic era expanded it to include turiyam - the stage beyond deep sleep. The Vedas suggest three goals of man: kama, artha and dharma. To these, Upanishadic era added moksha.[15]

The acceptance of concept of moksha in Hinduism was slow. Several schools of Hinduism refused to recognize moksha for centuries, considered it irrelevant.[15] The Mimamsa school, for example, denied the goal and relevance of moksha well into the 8th century AD, till the arrival of Mimamsa scholar named Kumarila.[45] Instead of moksha, Mimamsa school of Hinduism considered the concept of heaven as sufficient to answer the question: what lay beyond this world after death. Other schools of Hinduism, over time, accepted the Moksha concept and refined it over time.[15]

It is unclear when core ideas of samsara and moksha were developed in ancient India. Patrick Olivelle suggests these ideas likely originated with new religious movements in the first millennium BCE.[web 1] Mukti and moksha ideas, suggests J. A. B. van Buitenen,[21] seem traceable to yogis in Hinduism, with long hairs, who chose to live on the fringes of society, given to self-induced states of intoxication and ecstasy, possibly accepted as medicine-men and “sadhus” by the ancient Indian society.[15] Moksha to these early concept developers, was the abandonment of the established order, not in favor of anarchy, but in favor of self-realization, to achieve release from this world.[46]

Mokṣa is a key concept in Yoga, where it is a state of “awakening”, liberation and freedom in this life.[47]

In its historical development, the concept of moksha appears in three forms: Vedic, yogic and bhakti forms. In Vedic period, moksha was ritualistic.[21] Mokṣa was claimed to result from properly completed rituals such as those before Agni - the fire deity. The significance of these rituals was to reproduce and recite the cosmic creation event described in the Vedas; the description of knowledge on different levels - adhilokam, adhibhutam, adhiyajnam, adhyatmam - helped the individual transcend to moksa. Knowledge was the means, the ritual its application. By middle to late Upanishadic period, the emphasis shifted to knowledge, and ritual activities were considered irrelevant to attainment of moksha.[48] Yogic moksha[21][49] replaced Vedic rituals with personal development and meditation, with hierarchical creation of the ultimate knowledge in self as the path to moksha. Yogic moksha principles were accepted in many other schools of Hinduism, albeit with differences. For example, Adi Shankara in his book on moksha suggests:

अर्थस्य निश्चयो दृष्टो विचारेण हितोक्तितः |
न स्नानेन न दानेन प्राणायमशतेन वा ||१३||

By reflection, reasoning and instructions of teachers, the truth is known,
Not by ablutions, not by making donations, nor by performing hundreds of breath control exercises. ||Verse 13||

Vivekachudamani, 8th Century AD[50]

Bhakti moksha created the third historical path, where neither rituals nor meditative self-development were the way, rather it was inspired by constant love and contemplation of God, where over time results a perfect union with God.[21] Some Bhakti schools evolved their ideas where God became the means and the end, transcending moksha; the fruit of bhakti is bhakti itself.[51] In the history of Indian religious traditions, additional ideas and paths to moksha beyond these three, appeared over time.[52]

Moksha, nirvana and kaivalya[edit]

The words moksha, nirvana and kaivalya are sometimes used synonymously,[53] because they all refer to the state that liberates a person from all causes of sorrow and suffering.[54][55] However, in modern era literature, these concepts have different premises in different religions.[9] Nirvana, a concept common in Buddhism, is the realization that there is no self nor consciousness; while moksha, a concept common in many schools of Hinduism, is acceptance of Self, realization of liberating knowledge, the consciousness of Oneness with all existence and understanding the whole universe as the Self.[56] Nirvana starts with the premise that there is no Self, moksha on the other hand, starts with the premise that everything is the Self; there is no consciousness in the state of nirvana, but everything is One unified consciousness in the state of moksha.[56]

Kaivalya, a concept akin to moksha, rather than nirvana, is found in some schools of Hinduism such as the Yoga school. Kaivalya is the realization of aloofness with liberating knowledge of one’s self and union with the spiritual universe. For example, Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra suggests:

तस्य हेतुरविद्या,
तदभावात्संयोगाभावो हानं तद् दृशेः कैवल्यम् |

After the dissolution of avidya (ignorance),
comes removal of communion with material world,
this is the path to Kaivalyam.

Yoga Sutra (Sadhana Pada), 2:24-25[57]

Hinduism[edit]

Ancient literature of different schools of Hinduism sometimes use different phrases for moksha. For example, Keval jnana or kaivalya ("state of Absolute"), Apavarga, Nihsreyasa, Paramapada, Brahmabhava, Brahmajnana and Brahmi sthiti. Modern literature additionally uses the Buddhist term nirvana interchangeably with moksha of Hinduism.[55][56] There is difference between these ideas, as explained elsewhere in this article, but they are all soteriological concepts of various Indian religious traditions.

The six major orthodox schools of Hinduism have had a historic debate, and disagree over whether moksha can be achieved in this life, or only after this life.[58] Many of the 108 Upanishads discuss amongst other things moksha. These discussions show the differences between the schools of Hinduism, a lack of consensus, with a few attempting to conflate the contrasting perspectives between various schools.[59] For example, freedom and deliverance from birth-rebirth, argues Maitrayana Upanishad, comes neither from the Vedanta school’s doctrine (the knowledge of one’s own Self as the Supreme Soul) nor from the Samkhya school’s doctrine (distinction of the Purusha from what one is not), but from Vedic studies, observance of the Svadharma (personal duties), sticking to Asramas (stages of life).[60]

The six major orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy offer the following views on moksha, each for their own reasons: the Nyaya, Vaisesika and Mimamsa schools of Hinduism consider moksha as possible only after death.[58][61] Samkhya and Yoga schools consider moksha as possible in this life. In Vedanta school, the Advaita sub-school concludes moksha is possible in this life,[58] while Dvaita and Visistadvaita sub-schools of Vedanta tradition believes that moksha is a continuous event, one assisted by loving devotion to God, that extends from this life to post-mortem. Beyond these six orthodox schools, the heterodox schools of Hindu tradition, such as Carvaka, deny there is a soul or after life moksha.[62]

Sāmkhya, Yoga and mokṣa[edit]

Both Sāmkhya and Yoga systems of religious thought are mokshaśāstras, suggests Knut Jacobsen, they are systems of salvific liberation and release.[63] Sāmkhya is a system of interpretation, primarily a theory about the world. Yoga is both a theory and a practice. Yoga gained wide acceptance in ancient India, its ideas and practices became part of many religious schools in Hinduism, including those that were very different from Sāmkhya. The eight limbs of yoga can be interpreted as a way to liberation (moksha).[63][64]

In Sāmkhya literature, liberation is commonly referred to as kaivalya. In this school, kaivalya means the realization of purusa, the principle of consciousness, as independent from mind and body, as different from prakrti. Like many schools of Hinduism, in Sāmkhya and Yoga schools, the emphasis is on the attainment of knowledge, vidyā or jñāna, as necessary for salvific liberation, moksha.[63][65] Yoga’s purpose is then seen as a means to remove the avidyā - that is, ignorance or misleading/incorrect knowledge about one self and the universe. It seeks to end ordinary reflexive awareness (cittavrtti nirodhah) with deeper, purer and holistic awareness (asamprājñāta samādhi).[64][66] Yoga, during the pursuit of moksha, encourages practice (abhyāsa) with detachment (vairāgya), which over time leads to deep concentration (samādhi). Detachment means withdrawal from outer world and calming of mind, while practice means the application of effort over time. Such steps are claimed by Yoga school as leading to samādhi, a state of deep awareness, release and bliss called kaivalya.[63][65]

Jñāna marga
Jñāna yoga
Bhakti marga
Bhakti yoga
Rāja yoga
Rāja marga
Three of four paths of spirituality in Hinduism. Each path suggests a different way to moksha.

Yoga, or mārga, in Hinduism is widely classified into four spiritual practices.[67] The first mārga is Jñāna Yoga, the way of knowledge. The second mārga is Bhakti Yoga, the way of loving devotion to God. The third mārga is Karma Yoga, the way of works. The fourth mārga is Rāja Yoga, the way of contemplation and meditation. These mārgas are part of different schools in Hinduism, and their definition and methods to moksha.[68] For example, the Advaita Vedanta school relies on Jñāna Yoga in its teachings of moksha.[69]

Vedanta and mokṣa[edit]

Main article: Vedanta

The three main sub-schools in Vedanta school of Hinduism - Advaita Vedanta, Vishistadvaita and Dvaita - each have their own views about moksha.

The Vedantic school of Hinduism suggests the first step towards mokṣa begins with mumuksutva, that is desire of liberation.[23] This takes the form of questions about self, what is true, why do things or events make us happy or cause suffering, and so on. This longing for liberating knowledge is assisted by, claims Adi Shankara of Advaita Vedanta,[70] guru (teacher), study of historical knowledge and viveka (critical thinking). Shankara cautions that the guru and historic knowledge may be distorted, so traditions and historical assumptions must be questioned by the individual seeking moksha. Those who are on their path to moksha (samnyasin), suggests Klaus Klostermaier, are quintessentially free individuals, without craving for anything in the worldly life, thus are neither dominated by, nor dominating anyone else.[23]

Vivekachudamani, which literally means “Crown Jewel of Discriminatory Reasoning”, is a book devoted to moksa in Vedanta philosophy. It explains what behaviors and pursuits lead to moksha, as well what actions and assumptions hinder moksha. The four essential conditions, according to Vivekachudamani, before one can commence on the path of moksha include (1) vivekah (discrimination, critical reasoning) between everlasting principles and fleeting world; (2) viragah (indifference, lack of craving) for material rewards; (3) samah (calmness of mind), and (4) damah (self restraint, temperance).[71] The Brahmasutrabhasya adds to the above four requirements, the following: uparati (lack of bias, dispassion), titiksa (endurance, patience), sraddha (faith) and samadhana (intentness, commitment).[69]

The Advaita tradition considers moksha achievable by removing avidya (ignorance). Moksha is seen as a final release from illusion, and through knowledge (anubhava) of one's own fundamental nature, which is Satcitananda.[72][note 1] Advaita holds there is no being/non-being distinction between Atman, Brahman, and Paramatman. The knowledge of Brahman leads to moksha,[75] where Brahman is described as that which is the origin and end of all things, the universal principle behind and at source of everything that exists, consciousness that pervades everything and everyone.[76] Advaita Vedanta emphasizes Jnana Yoga as the means of achieving moksha.[69] Bliss, claims this school, is the fruit of knowledge (vidya) and work (karma).[77]

The Dvaita (dualism) traditions define moksha as the loving, eternal union with God (Vishnu) and considered the highest perfection of existence. Dvaita schools suggest every soul encounters liberation differently.[78] Dualist schools (e.g. Vaishnava) see God as the object of love, for example, a personified monotheistic conception of Shiva or Vishnu. By immersing oneself in the love of God, one's karmas slough off, one's illusions decay, and truth is lived. Both the worshiped and worshiper gradually lose their illusory sense of separation and only One beyond all names remains. This is salvation to dualist schools of Hinduism. Dvaita Vedanta emphasizes Bhakti Yoga as the means of achieving moksha.[79]

The Vishistadvaita tradition, led by Ramanuja, defines avidya and moksha differently from the Advaita tradition. To Ramanuja, avidya is a focus on Self, vidya is focus on a loving God. Vishistadvaita school argues that other schools of Hinduism are creating a false sense of agency in individuals, which makes the individual think oneself as potential or self-realized God. Such ideas, claims Ramanuja, decay to materialism, hedonism and self worship. Individuals forget Ishvara (God). Mukti, to Vishistadvaita school, is release from such avidya, towards the intuition and eternal union with God (Vishnu).[80]

Mokṣa in this life[edit]

Among the Samkhya, Yoga and Vedanta schools of Hinduism, liberation and freedom reached within one’s life is referred to as jivanmukti, and the individual who has experienced this state is called jivanmukta (self-realized person).[81] Dozens of Upanishads, including those from middle Upanishadic period, mention or describe the state of liberation, jivanmukti.[82][83] Some contrast jivanmukti with videhamukti (moksha from samsara after death).[84] Jivanmukti is a state that transforms the nature, attributes and behaviors of an individual, claim these ancient texts of Hindu philosophy. For example, according to Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad, the liberated individual shows attributes such as:[85]

  • he is not bothered by disrespect and endures cruel words, treats others with respect regardless of how others treat him;
  • when confronted by an angry person he does not return anger, instead replies with soft and kind words;
  • even if tortured, he speaks and trusts the truth;
  • he does not crave for blessings or expect praise from others;
  • he never injures or harms any life or being (ahimsa), he is intent in the welfare of all beings;[86]
  • he is as comfortable being alone as in the presence of others;
  • he is as comfortable with a bowl, at the foot of a tree in tattered robe without help, as when he is in a mithuna (union of mendicants), grama (village) and nagara (city);
  • he doesn’t care about or wear sikha (tuft of hair on the back of head for religious reasons), nor the holy thread across his body. To him, knowledge is sikha, knowledge is the holy thread, knowledge alone is supreme. Outer appearances and rituals do not matter to him, only knowledge matters;
  • for him there is no invocation nor dismissal of deities, no mantra nor non-mantra, no prostrations nor worship of gods, goddess or ancestors, nothing other than knowledge of Self;
  • he is humble, high spirited, of clear and steady mind, straightforward, compassionate, patient, indifferent, courageous, speaks firmly and with sweet words.

Mokṣa in Balinese Hinduism[edit]

Balinese Hinduism incorporates moksha as one of five tattwas. The other four are: brahman (the one supreme god head, not to be confused with Brahmin), atma (soul or spirit), karma (actions and reciprocity, causality), samsara (principle of rebirth, reincarnation). Moksha, in Balinese Hindu belief, is the possibility of unity with the divine; it is sometimes referred to as nirwana.[87][88]

Buddhism[edit]

Main articles: Nirvana and Rebirth (Buddhism)

In Buddhism the concept of liberation is Nirvana. It is referred to as "the highest happiness" and is the goal of the Theravada-Buddhist path, while in the Mahayana it is seen as a secondary effect of becoming a fully enlightened Buddha (Samyaksambuddha).

Jainism[edit]

Main article: Moksha (Jainism)

In Jainism, moksa and nirvana are one and the same.[55][89] When a soul (atman) achieves moksa, it is released from the cycle of births and deaths, and achieves its pure self. It then becomes a siddha (literally means one who has accomplished his ultimate objective). Attaining Moksa requires annihilation of all karmas, good and bad, because if karma is left, it must bear fruit.

Sikhism[edit]

The Sikh concept of mukti (moksha) is essentially that of jivan mukti, the one attainable in one’s lifetime itself. Sikhism rejects the idea of considering renunciation as the vesture of a jivan mukta. Contrast with it, for example, the Jain view according to which “The liberated persons… have to lead a mendicant’s life, for, otherwise, they cannot keep themselves free from karma” (G. N. Joshi: Atman and Mokhsa. Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, 1965, p. 260).

Jivan mukti itself brings one to the brink of videha mukti (incorporeal emancipation) which is freedom not from the present body, but from any corporeal state hereafter. It spells for the mukta a final cessation of the weals and woes of the cycle of birth-death-birth (janam-maran). This ultimate mukti is a continuation of jivan mukti, going on after the shedding away of the corporeal frame to the final absorption into the One Absolute—the blending of light with Light (joti jot samana).

The Sikh mukti is positive concept in two important ways. First it stands for the realization of the ultimate Reality, a real enlightenment (jnana). The mukta is not just free from this or that, he is the master of sense and self, fearless (nirbhai) and devoid of rancor (nirvair), upright yet humble, treating all creatures as if they were he himself, wanting nothing, clinging to nothing.

In Sikhism, one rises from the life of do’s and don'ts to that of perfection — a state of "at-one-ment" with the All-self. Secondly, the mukta is not just a friend for all, he even strives for their freedom as well. He no longer lives for himself, he lives for others.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The description comprises the three Sanskrit words sat-chit-ananda:

References[edit]

Printed sources
  1. ^ The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, vimoksha
  2. ^ John Bowker, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0192139658, pp. 650
  3. ^ a b c Sharma 2000, p. 113.
  4. ^ See:
    • E. Deutsch, The self in Advaita Vedanta, in Roy Perrett (Editor), Indian philosophy: metaphysics, Volume 3, ISBN 0-8153-3608-X, Taylor and Francis, pp 343-360;
    • T. Chatterjea (2003), Knowledge and Freedom in Indian Philosophy, ISBN 978-0739106921, pp 89-102; Quote - "Moksa means freedom"; "Moksa is founded on atmajnana, which is the knowledge of the self.";
    • Jorge Ferrer, Transpersonal knowledge, in Transpersonal Knowing: Exploring the Horizon of Consciousness (editors: Hart et al.), ISBN 978-0791446157, State University of New York Press, Chapter 10
  5. ^ John Tomer (2002), Human well-being: a new approach based on overall and ordinary functionings, Review of Social Economy, 60(1), pp 23-45; Quote - "The ultimate aim of Hindus is self-liberation or self-realization (moksha)."
  6. ^ See:
  7. ^ See:
    • Gavin Flood (1996), The meaning and context of the Purusarthas, in Julius Lipner (Editor) - The Fruits of Our Desiring, ISBN 978-1896209302, pp 11-21;
    • Karl H. Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807792, pp. 1-29
  8. ^ The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism: "Vimoksha [解脱] (Skt.; Jpn. gedatsu). Emancipation, release, or liberation. The Sanskrit words vimukti, mukti, and moksha also have the same meaning. Vimoksha means release from the bonds of earthly desires, delusion, suffering, and transmigration. While Buddhism sets forth various kinds and stages of emancipation, or enlightenment, the supreme emancipation is nirvana, a state of perfect quietude, freedom, and deliverance. See The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, vimoksha
  9. ^ a b See:
    • Loy, David (1982), Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta: Are Nirvana and Moksha the Same?, International Philosophical Quarterly, 23 (1), pp 65–74;
    • T. Chatterjea (2003), Knowledge and Freedom in Indian Philosophy, ISBN 978-0739106921, pp 89; Quote - "In different philosophical systems moksa appears in different names, such as apavarga, nihsreyasa, nirvana, kaivalya, mukti, etc. These concepts differ from one another in detail."
  10. ^ Peter Harvey (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, ISBN 978-0521859424, Cambridge University Press
  11. ^ Knut Jacobsen, in The Continuum Companion to Hindu Studies (Editor: Jessica Frazier), ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0, pp 74-83
  12. ^ a b मुच Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary, Germany (2008)
  13. ^ Sten Rohde, Deliver us from Evil: studies on the Vedic ideas of salvation, Ejnar Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 25-35
  14. ^ M. Hiriyanna (2000), The essentials of Indian philosophy, ISBN 978-8120813304, pp 50-52
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksha, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 41-48
  16. ^ see:
    • S. R. Bhatt (1976), The Concept of Moksha--An Analysis, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Jun., 1976), pp. 564-570;
    • S.M.S. Chari (1994), Vaiṣṇavism: Its Philosophy, Theology, and Religious Discipline, ISBN 978-8120810983, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, pp 122-123
    • David White (1960), Moksa as value and experience, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 9, No. 3/4 (Oct., 1959 - Jan., 1960), pp. 145-161
  17. ^ Many verses from Vivekachudamani expound on “Tat tvam asi” phrase such as the verse above. For other verses, and translation, see:
  18. ^ R.C. Mishra, Moksha and the Hindu Worldview, Psychology & Developing Societies, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp 23, 27
  19. ^ N. Ross Reat (1990), The Origins of Indian Psychology, ISBN 0-89581-924-4, Asian Humanities Press, Chapter 2
  20. ^ See:
    • Simon Brodbeck (2011), Sanskrit Epics: The Ramayana, Mahabharata and Harivamsa, in Jessica Frazier (Editor) - The Continuum Companion to Hindu Studies, ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0, pp 83-100
    • J. A. B. Van Buitenen, Dharma and Moksa, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 33-40
  21. ^ a b c d e J. A. B. Van Buitenen, Dharma and Moksa, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 33-40
  22. ^ E. Deutsch, The self in Advaita Vedanta, in Roy Perrett (Editor), Indian philosophy: metaphysics, Volume 3, ISBN 0-8153-3608-X, Taylor and Francis, pp 343-360
  23. ^ a b c d e Klaus Klostermaier, Mokṣa and Critical Theory, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1985), pp. 61-71
  24. ^ see:
    • M. von Brück (1986), Imitation or Identification?, Indian Theological Studies, Vol. 23, Issue 2, pp 95-105
    • Klaus Klostermaier, Mokṣa and Critical Theory, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1985), pp. 61-71
  25. ^ see:
    • Karl Potter, Dharma and Mokṣa from a Conversational Point of View, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 8, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1958), pp. 49-63
    • Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksha, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 41-48
  26. ^ One of three qualities or habits of an individual; sattvam represents spiritual purity; sattvic people, claims Samkhya school, are those who see world’s welfare as a spiritual principle. See cited Ingalls reference.
  27. ^ a b Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksha, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 45-46
  28. ^ a b Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksha, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 46
  29. ^ Karl Potter, Dharma and Mokṣa from a Conversational Point of View, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 8, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1958), pp. 49-63
  30. ^ a b c Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksha, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 47
  31. ^ see:
    • Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksha, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp 41-48
    • R Sinari (1982), The concept of human estrangement in plotinism and Shankara Vedanta, in “Neoplatonism and Indian thought”, Ed: R.B. Harris, Albany, NY, pp 243-255
    • R.K. Tripathi (1982), Advaita Vedanta and Neoplatonism, in “Neoplatonism and Indian thought”, Ed: R.B. Harris, Albany, NY, pp 237; also see pp 294-297 by Albert Wolters
  32. ^ a b Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksha, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 48
  33. ^ see:
    • Klaus Klostermaier (1985), Mokṣa and Critical Theory, Philosophy East and West, 35 (1), pp 61-71
    • Roeser, R.W. (2005), An introduction to Hindu Indiaís contemplative psychological perspectives on motivation, self, and development, in M.L. Maehr & S. Karabenick (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Volume 14: Religion and Motivation. Elsevier, pp. 297-345
  34. ^ Sometimes called Katha Upanishad - for example, by Max Muller, Nakhilananda
  35. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1, ISBN 978-0842616454, pp 269-290
  36. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1, ISBN 978-0842616454, pp 283-289
  37. ^ S. Nikhilananda, The Principal Upanishads, Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0486427171, pp 63-84
  38. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1, ISBN 978-0842616454, pp 301-326
  39. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1, ISBN 978-0842616454, pp 316, 319-325
  40. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1, ISBN 978-0842616454, pp 305-306, 322-325
  41. ^ a b see:
    • John Bowker (1998), Picturing God, Series Editor: Jean Holm, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1855671010, pp 99-101;
    • Richard Leviton (2011), Hierophantic Landscapes, ISBN 978-1462054145, pp 543
  42. ^ सार Sanskrit English Dictionary, Germany
  43. ^ स्व Sanskrit English Dictionary, Germany
  44. ^ Linda Johnsen (2002), The Living Goddess: Reclaiming the Tradition of the Mother of the Universe, ISBN 978-0936663289, pp 51-52; for sanskrit original see: सरस्वतीरहस्योपनिषत् sarasvatIrahasya
  45. ^ see:
    • M. Hiriyanna (1952), The Quest After Perfection, Kavyalaya Publishers, pp 23-33
    • John Taber, The significance of Kumarila’s Philosophy, in Roy Perrett (Ed) - Theory of Value, Vol 5, ISBN 978-0815336129 pp. 113-161
    • Okita, K. (2008), Mīmāṃsā and Vedānta: Interaction and Continuity, The Journal of Hindu Studies, 1(1-2), pp 155-156
  46. ^ J.A.B. van Buitenen, in Roy Perrett (Editor) - Theory of Value, Volume 5, ISBN 0-8153-3612-8, Taylor & Francis, pp 25-32
  47. ^ see:
    • Mircea Eliade (1958, Reprinted: 2009), Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691142036, pp 33-34;
    • Sarah Strauss (2005), Positioning Yoga, Berg/Oxford International, ISBN 1-85973-739-0, pp 15
  48. ^ Angelika Malinar (2011), in Jessica Frazier (Editor), The Bloomsbury companion to Hindu studies, ISBN 978-1-4725-1151-5, Chapter 4
  49. ^ Knut Jacobson, in Jessica Frazier (Editor), Continuum companion to Hindu studies, ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0, pp 74-82
  50. ^ See:
  51. ^ Klaus Klostermaier (1986), Contemporary conceptions among North Indian Vaishnavas, in Ronald Neufeldt (Editor) - Karma and Rebirth Post Classical Developments, ISBN 978-0873959902, State University of New York Press, Chapter 5
  52. ^ D. Datta (1888), Moksha, or the Vedántic Release, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, New Series, Vol. 20, No. 4 (Oct., 1888), pp. 513-539
  53. ^ For example, the Adhyatma Upanishad uses all three words nirvana, kaivalya and moksha (Verses 12, 16, 69, 70); K.N. Aiyar (Transl. 1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Robart Library Archives, Canada, pp 55-60
  54. ^ A. Sharma, The realization of Kaivalya in the Poetry of Les A Murray: An Indian Perspective, Explorations in Australian Literature, ISBN 978-8176257091, Chapter 18, pp 187
  55. ^ a b c Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). Collected Papers on Jaina Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-1691-9. : "Moksa and Nirvana are synonymous in Jainism". p.168
  56. ^ a b c David Loy (1982), Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta: Are Nirvana and Moksha the Same?, International Philosophical Quarterly, 23(1), pp 65-74
  57. ^ For Sanskrit version: Sadasivendra Sarasvati (1912), Yoga Sutra; For English version: Charles Johnston (1912), yogasutrasofpata00pata Yoga Sutra of Patanjali; For secondary peer reviewed source, see: Jeffrey Gold, Plato in the Light of Yoga, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 46, No. 1 (Jan., 1996), pp. 17-32; A. Sharma, The Realization of Kaivalya, in Explorations in Australian Literature, ISBN 978-8176257091, Chapter 18
  58. ^ a b c A. Sharma (2000), Classical Hindu Thought: An Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195644418, pp 117
  59. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1, ISBN 978-81-208-1468-4
  60. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1, ISBN 978-81-208-1468-4, pp 342
  61. ^ Note: Each school has a different meaning for Moksha. For example, Mimamsa school considers moksha as release into svarga (heaven), it does not recognize samsara; while Nyaya school considers moksha as linked to samsara and a release from it; See: The Purva-Mimamsa Sutra of Jaimini, Transl: M.L. Sandal (1923), Chapter II, Pada I and Chapter VI, Pada I through VIII; Also see Klaus Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism, 3rd Edition, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, Chapter 26
  62. ^ see:
    • Miller, A. T. (2013), A review of “An Introduction to Indian Philosophy: Perspectives on Reality, Knowledge, and Freedom”, Religion, 43(1), 119-123.
    • Snell, M. M. (1894). Hinduism's Points of Contact with Christianity. IV. Salvation. The Biblical World, 4(2), pp 98-113
  63. ^ a b c d Knut Jacobson, in Jessica Frazier (Editor), Continuum companion to Hindu studies, ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0
  64. ^ a b Knut Jacobsen (2011), in Jessica Frazier (Editor), The Bloomsbury companion to Hindu studies, ISBN 978-1-4725-1151-5, pp 74-82
  65. ^ a b Jeffrey Gold, Plato in the Light of Yoga, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 46, No. 1 (Jan., 1996), pp. 20-27
  66. ^ R. Sinari, The way toward Moksa, in Murty et al. (Editors) - Freedom, Progress & Society, ISBN 81-208-0262-4, pp 45-60
  67. ^ See:
    • John Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, see articles on bhaktimārga, jnanamārga, karmamārga;
    • Bhagwad Gita (The Celestial Song), Chapters 2:56-57, 12, 13:1-28
    • Feuerstein, Georg (2003), The deeper dimension of yoga: Theory and practice, Shambhala, ISBN 1-57062-935-8;
    • D. Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality and Cultural Psychology, in Anthony Marsella (Series Editor), International and Cultural Psychology, Springer New York, ISBN 978-1-4419-8109-7, pp 93-140
  68. ^ H. Negendra (2008), Int Journal of Yoga, Jul-Dec, 1(2), pp 43–44
  69. ^ a b c Eliot Deutsch, Advaita Vedanta: A philosophical reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824802714, pp 104-106
  70. ^ Shankara, Sarva vedanta siddhantasara 230-239
  71. ^ D. Datta (1888), Moksha, or the Vedántic Release, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, New Series, Vol. 20, No. 4 (Oct., 1888), pp. 516
  72. ^ Brodd, Jefferey (2003). World Religions. Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5. 
  73. ^ Sugirtharajah 2003, p. 115.
  74. ^ a b c Sanskrit Dictionary, chit
  75. ^ Anantanand Rambachan, The limits of scripture: Vivekananda's reinterpretation of the Vedas University of Hawaii Press, 1994, pages 124-125
  76. ^ Karl Potter (2008), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta Up to Śaṃkara and His Pupils, Volume 3, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, pp 210-215
  77. ^ Karl Potter (2008), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta Up to Śaṃkara and His Pupils, Volume 3, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, pp 213
  78. ^ Betty, Stafford. "Dvaita, Advaita, And Viśiṣṭadvaita: Contrasting Views Of Mokṣa." Asian Philosophy 20.2 (2010): 215-224. Academic Search Elite. Web. 24 Sept. 2012.
  79. ^ N.S.S. Raman (2009), Ethics in Bhakti Philosophical Literature, in R. Prasad - A Historical-developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals, ISBN 978-8180695957, Chapter 19
  80. ^ Abha Singh (October 2001), Social Philosophy of Ramanuja: its modern relevance, Indian Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp 491-498
  81. ^ see:
    • Andrew Fort and Patricia Mumme (1996), Living Liberation in Hindu Thought, ISBN 978-0-7914-2706-4;
    • Norman E. Thomas (April 1988), Liberation for Life: A Hindu Liberation Philosophy, Missiology, Volume 16, Number 2, pp 149-160
  82. ^ See for example Muktika Upanishad, Varaha Upanishad, Adhyatma Upanishad, Sandilya Upanishad, Tejobindu Upanishad, etc.; in K.N. Aiyar (Transl. 1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Robart Library Archives, Canada
  83. ^ Paul Deussen, The philosophy of the Upanishads, Translated by A.S. Geden (1906), T&T Clark, Edinburgh
  84. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1 & 2, ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7
  85. ^ see: K.N. Aiyar (Transl. 1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Robart Library Archives, Canada, pp 140-147
    • S. Nikhilananda (1958), Hinduism : Its meaning for the liberation of the spirit, Harper, ISBN 978-0911206265, pp 53-79;
    • Andrew Fort (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-3904-6
  86. ^ see also Sandilya Upanishad for ahimsa and other virtues; Quote: “तत्र हिंसा नाम मनोवाक्कायकर्मभिः सर्वभूतेषु सर्वदा क्लेशजननम्”; Aiyar translates this as: He practices Ahimsa - no injury or harm to any living being at any time through actions of his body, his speech or in his mind; K.N. Aiyar (Transl. 1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Robart Library Archives, Canada, pp 173-174
  87. ^ Balinese Hindus spell words slightly differently from Indian Hindus; tattva in India is spelled tattwa in Bali, nirvana in India is spelled nirwana in Bali, etc.
  88. ^ Anna Nettheim (2011), Tattwa are the words of the world: Balinese narratives and creative transformation, Ph.D. Thesis, University of New South Wales, Australia
  89. ^ Michael Carrithers, Caroline Humphrey (1991) The Assembly of listeners: Jains in society Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521365058: "Nirvana: A synonym for liberation, release, moksa." p.297
Online sources

Sources[edit]

  • Sharma, Arvind (2000), Classical Hindu Thought: An Introduction, Oxford University Press