Kashmir Shaivism

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The trident (triśūlābija maṇḍalam), symbol and yantra of Parama Shiva, representing the triadic energies of parā, parā-aparā and aparā śakti

Kashmir Shaivism is a group of nondualist Tantric Shaiva traditions from Kashmir that originated in the second half of the first millennium.[1] The term is most often used to refer to the Anuttaratrikakula (the school of the highest "Trika" or Triad) philosophy also known as the Pratyabhijna ("Recognition") system expounded by Abhinavagupta (c. 975-1025 C.E.), but also includes the earlier schools of Kapalika and its subschools the Kaula and Krama schools. All these traditions accept the Shaiva Tantras (also called Agamas, c. 9th century CE) as their main scriptures.[2]

The goal of Kashmir Shaivism is to recognize one's already existing identity with Shiva, the deity who represents Universal Consciousness.[3][4] It is categorized by various scholars as monistic[5] idealism, absolute idealism, theistic monism,[6] realistic idealism,[7] transcendental physicalism or concrete monism.[7]

Moksha - Identity with Shiva[edit]

Kashmir Shaivism is a householder religion based on a strong monistic interpretation of the Bhairava Tantras and its subcategory the Kaula Tantras.[8][note 1] There was additionally a revelation of the Siva Sutras to Vasugupta.[8]

Kashmir Saivism claimed to supersede Shaiva Siddhanta, a dualistic tradition which scholars consider normative tantric Shaivism.[9] The Shaiva Siddhanta goal of becoming an ontologically distinct Shiva (through Shiva's grace)[10] was replaced by recognizing oneself as Shiva who, in Kashmir Saivism's monism, is the entirety of the universe.

Kashmir Shaivism describes the contraction (mala) of Consciousness (cit, Shiva) into phenomenal existence. Liberation (moksha) from mala can be achieved by sadhana, practice, for which Kashmir Shaivism gives four methods (upāya):

  1. Citi: Universal Consciousness (citi) is the fundamental stuff of the universe.[11] This Consciousness is one and includes the whole. It could also be called God or Shiva.
  2. Mala: Consciousness contracts itself. The one becomes many. Shiva becomes the individual (jīva). This contraction is called mala (impurity). There are three malas, the mala of individuation (Āṇava mala), the mala of the limited mind (māyīya mala), and the mala of the body (karma mala).[12][13]
  3. Upāya: An individual caught in the suffering of embodied existence, afflicted by the three malas, eventually yearns to return to his or her primordial state of Universal Consciousness.[14] To attain this, he or she undertakes sādhana or spiritual practice. Kashmir Shaivism describes four methods (upāya-s): āṇavopāya, the method of the body, śaktopāya, the method of the mind, śāmbhavopāya, the method of Consciousness, and anupāya the ‘methodless’ method.[15]
  4. Mokṣa: The fruit of the individual’s sādhana is the attainment of Self-realisation (mokṣa). In Kashmir Shaivism, the state of liberation (mukti) is called sahaja samādhi [16] and is characterised by the attainment of unwavering bliss-consciousness while living one’s ordinary life.[17][18]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Nondualist Kashmir Shaivism arose during the eighth[19] or ninth century CE,[20][21] in opposition to the dualism of Shaiva Siddhanta, which tried to stay within the orthodox Brahmanical fold.[22] In spite of this, Kashmir Shaiva views were still influenced by Shaiva Siddhanta philosophy, such as their view of the primacy of consciousness.[23]

Nondualist Kashmir Shaivism was also related to Kapalika Shaivism and the Kaulas,[22] which were rejected by Shaiva Siddhanta.[22][note 2] It was influential, both philosophical and theological, until the end of the twelfth century CE.[24]

The first nondualist Kashmiri Shaiva texts were written in the early ninth century CE.[25] The nondualist approach gained prominence with Vasugupta (c. 875-925)[26] and his student Kallata (fl. c. 850–900).[22] This was the beginning of the so called "Spanda" school, or "Doctrine of Vibration." As outlined in their main texts, the Shiva sutra and the "Spandakarika", the main tenet of this school is that by experiencing "Spanda", the creative and dynamic movement of world concsciousness, a yogi can realize his true nature as Shiva.[27]

It was further elaborated by Somananda (fl. c. 900–950)[22] and his pupil Utpaladeva, to find it's most significant expression in the writings of Abhinavagupta and his student Ksemaraja (fl. c. 1000–1050).[22]

Although several "schools" of nondual Kashmir Shaivism can be distinguished, they have all thoroughly influenced each other.[28]

Kapalika - Kaula sytem[edit]

The Hindu Goddess Kali and the fierce form of Shiva, Bhairava, in Union.

The Kāpālika tradition was a non-Puranic, tantric form of Shaivism in India,[29] whose members wrote the Bhairava Tantras, including the subdivision called the Kaula Tantras.[29][30] These groups are generally known as Kāpālikas, the "skull-men," so called because, like the Lākula Pāsupata, they carried a skull-topped staff (khatvanga) and cranium begging bowl.[29] Unlike the respectable Brahmin householder of the Shaiva Siddhanta, the Kāpālika ascetic imitated his ferocious deity, and covered himself in the ashes from the cremation ground, and propitated his gods with the impure substances of blood, meat, alcohol, and sexual fluids from intercourse unconstrained by caste restrictions.[29] The Kāpālikas thus flaunted impurity rules and went against Vedic injunctions.[29] The aim was power through evoking deities, especially goddesses.[29]

In the eleventh century, the Kaula cultus was also influenced by nondualist thought. Its veneration of Tripurasundarı, or Srıvidya, was taken over by the Trika school.[31]

Krama[edit]

Krama Shaivism is situated within the Kapalika culture, but assimilated Kaulism, which made it distinguished from Kapalika.[32]

The term krama means 'progression','gradation' or 'succession' respectively meaning 'spiritual progression'[33] or 'gradual refinement of the mental processes'(vikalpa),[34] or 'successive unfoldment taking place at the ultimate level', in the Supreme Consciousness (cit).[35]

Even if the Krama school is an integral part of Kashmir Shaivism, it is also an independent system both philosophically and historically.[36] Krama is significant as a synthesis of Tantra and Śākta traditions based on the monistic Śaivism.[37] As a Tantric and Śakti-oriented system[38] of a mystical flavor,[39] Krama is similar in some regards to Spanda as both center on the activity of Śakti, and also similar with Kula in their Tantric approach. Inside the family of Kashmir Shaivism, the Pratyabhijñā school is most different from Krama.[40]

The most distinctive feature of Krama is its monistic-dualistic (bhedābhedopāya) discipline in the stages precursory to spiritual realization.[39] Even if Kashmir Shaivism is an idealistic monism, there is still a place for dualistic aspects as precursory stages on the spiritual path. So it is said that in practice Krama employs the dualistic-cum-nondualistic methods, yet in the underlying philosophy it remains nondualistic.[39] Krama has a positive epistemic bias,[34] aimed at forming a synthesis of enjoyment(bhoga) and illumination(mokṣa).

Vasugupta - Spanda system and Shiva Sutras[edit]

A statue of Shiva as Nataraja, 'lord of the dance', at an Indian temple. The dance is symbolic of universal creation and destruction.

Vasugupta (c. 800 CE) wrote the Śiva Sutras,[note 3] Spanda Karika and Vijñāna Bhairava Tantra,[41] the most important texts of the Spanda system.

The Shiva Sutras,[note 4] a collection of aphorisms which belong to the agamas, expound a purely non-dual (advaita) metaphysics.[42] Traditionally, the Shiva Sutras are considered to have been revealed to Vasugupta by Shiva.[43][note 5]

The Spanda system is usually described as "vibration/movement of consciousness". Abhinavagupta uses the expression "some sort of movement" to imply the distinction from physical movement; it is rather a vibration or sound inside the Divine, a throb.[44] The essence of this vibration is the ecstatic self-recurrent consciousness.[45]

The central tenet of this system is "everything is Spanda", both the objective exterior reality and the subjective world.[46][47] Nothing exists without movement,[48] yet the ultimate movement takes place not in space or time, but inside the Supreme Consciousness(cit). So, it is a cycle of internalization and externalization of consciousness itself,[49] relating to the most elevated plane in creation (Śiva-Śakti Tattva).[46]

In order to describe the connotations of the Spanda concept, a series of equivalent concepts are enumerated, such as: self recurrent consciousness - vimarśa,[50] unimpeded will of the Supreme Consciousness (cit) - svātantrya, supreme creative energy - visarga, heart of the divine[45] - hṛdaya and ocean of light-consciousness[51] - cidānanda.

Utpaladeva - Pratyabhijña philosophy[edit]

Main article: Pratyabhijna

Pratyabhijña has been called the philosophical articulation of Kashmir Saivism.[52] The name of the system is derived from its most famous work, Isvara Pratyabhijna Karika by Utpaladeva.[53] Etymologically, Pratyabhijna is formed from prati – "something once known, now appearing as forgotten", abhi – "immediate" and jna – "to know". So, the meaning is direct knowledge of one's self, recognition.[54]

Pratyabhijña literally means "spontaneous recognition", as it does not have any upāyas (means), that is, there is nothing to practice; the only thing to do is recognize who you are. This "means" can actually be called anupāya, Sanskrit for "without means". Ksemaraja, the student of Abhinavagupta, uses a mirror analogy to explain Pratyabhijña.[55]

The central thesis of this philosophy is that everything is Shiva, absolute consciousness, and it is possible to re-cognize this fundamental reality and be freed from limitations, identified with Shiva and immersed in bliss.[56] Thus, the slave (pasu - the human condition) becomes the master (pati - the divine condition).[57]

Abhinavagupta - Trika system and Tantraloka text[edit]

Main article: Abhinavagupta

All the four branches of the Kashmiri Shaivism tradition were put together by the great philosopher Abhinavagupta (approx. 950-1020 AD[58]). Among his important works, the most important is the Tantrāloka ("The Divine Light of Tantra"), a work in verses which is a majestic synthesis of the whole tradition of monistic Shaivism. Abhinavagupta succeeded in smoothing out all the apparent differences and disparities that existed among the different branches and schools of Kashmir Shaivism before him. Thus he offers a unitary, coherent and complete vision of this system. Due to the exceptional length (5859 verses[59]) of Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta himself provided a shorter version in prose, called Tantrasāra ("The Essence of Tantra").

Although Trika was the most influential of the nondual Kashmir Shaivist schools, its origins may lay outside Kashmir.[60] Its earliest texts, from before 800 CE, do not mention Kali, which became a central element in the Trika school.[60] In its earliest phase it centered around the three (trika) godesses Para, Parapara, and Apara.[60] In the second phase of its development Kali was incorporated.[60] In its third phase, coinciding with Abhinavagupta, it had to compete with Shaiva Siddhanta for influence in mainstream kashmir Shaivism.[60]

Another important Kashmiri Shaivite, Jayaratha (1150-1200 AD,[61]), added his commentary to Tantrāloka, a task of great difficulty which was his lifelong pursuit.[62] He provided more context, numerous quotes and clarifications without which some passages from Tantrāloka would be impossible to elucidate today.

20th century revival - Lakshman Joo[edit]

Nondualist Kashmir Shaivism went underground for a number of centuries. While there may have been yogis and practitioners quietly following the teachings, there were no major writers or publications after perhaps the 14th century. In the 20th century Swami Lakshman Joo, himself a Kashmiri Brahmin, helped revive both the scholarly and yogic streams of Kashmir Shaivism.[63] His contribution is enormous. He inspired a generation of scholars who made Kashmir Shaivism a legitimate field of inquiry within the academy.[64][65]

Acharya Rameshwar Jha, a disciple of Swami Lakshmanjoo, is often credited with firmly establishing the roots of Kashmir Shaivism in the learned community of Varanasi. Rameshwar Jha with his extraordinary creativity, innate familiarity with the ancient texts and personal experiences was able to provide easy access to abstruse concepts of non dualistic Kashmir Shaivism to the layman and scholars alike. His original writings of Sanskrit verses have been compiled and published as books Purnta Pratyabhijna[66] and SamitSwatantram.[66]

Nor should the contribution of Swami Muktananda be overlooked.[67] While himself not belonging to the direct lineage of Kashmir Shaivism, Muktananda felt a great affinity for the teachings which were validated by his own direct experience.[68] He encouraged and endorsed Motilal Banarsidass to publish Jaideva Singh's translations of Shiva Sutras, Pratyabhijnahrdayam, Spanda Karikas and Vijnana Bhairava.[69][70] He also introduced Kashmir Shaivism to a wide audience of western meditators through his writings and lectures on the subject.[71][72]

The Vigyan Bhairav Tantra, a chapter from the Rudrayamala Tantra, was introduced to the west by Paul Reps, a student of Lakshman Joo. Reps brought the text to wider attention by including an English translation in his popular book Zen Flesh, Zen Bones. Cast as a discourse between the god Shiva and his consort Devi or Shakti, it briefly presents 112 meditation methods or centering techniques (dharanas).[73]

Practice[edit]

To attain moksha sādhana or spiritual practice is necessary. Kashmir Shaivism describes four methods (upāya-s):[74]

  1. āṇavopāya, the method of the body,
  2. śaktopāya, the method of the mind,
  3. śāmbhavopāya, the method of Consciousness,
  4. anupāya the ‘methodless’ method.

Āṇavopāya - purification of the body[edit]

While most other paths observe offering incense and external objects to the deity, this path takes on to offering breaths. The individual controls his heart and pulse by reducing it significantly. The final stage is renouncing consumption of food and water. As a result, he/she connects the state of the supreme in the form of Shiva which results in purification of the body and generation of ojas.[74]

Kaula[edit]

Main article: Kaula

Although domesticated into a householder tradition, Kashmir Saivism recommended a secret performance of Kaula practices in keeping with its heritage. This was to be done in seclusion from public eyes, therefore allowing one to maintain the appearance of a typical householder.[75]

Philosophy[edit]

A stone carving of Shiva and Parvati, associated with Shakti.

Non-dual Kashmir Shaivism was influenced by, and took over doctrines from, several orthodox and heterodox Indian religious and philosophical traditions.[76] These include Vedanta, Samkhya, Patanjali Yoga and Nyayas, and various Buddhist schools, including Yogacara and Madhyamika,[76] but also Tantra and the Nath-tradition.[77]

Anuttara, the Supreme[edit]

Anuttara is the ultimate principle in Kashmir Shaivism, and as such, it is the fundamental reality underneath the whole Universe. Among the multiple interpretations of anuttara are: "supreme", "above all" and "unsurpassed reality".[78] In the Sanskrit alphabet anuttara is associated to the first letter - "A" (in devanagari "अ"). As the ultimate principle, anuttara is identified with Śiva, Śakti (as Śakti is identical to Śiva), the supreme consciousness (cit), uncreated light (prakāśa), supreme subject (aham) and atemporal vibration (spanda). The practitioner who realizes anuttara through any means, whether by her own efforts or by direct transmission by the Grace of Shiva/shakti, is liberated and perceives absolutely no difference between herself and the body of the universe. Being and beings become one and the same by virtue of the "erotic friction," whereby subject perceives object and in that act of perception is filled with nondual being/consciousness/bliss. Anuttara is different from the notion of transcendence in that, even though it is above all, it does not imply a state of separation from the Universe.[79]

Kashmiri Shaivites use term Prakasa (luminous consciousness, primordial light consciousness) to describe the nature of the Absolute and vimarsa (reflexive awareness) is used to describe the activity of Shiva as universal consciousness. The term "Spanda" (vibration, movement, creativity) is also an important element of the Shaiva non-dual Absolute. Spanda is associated with Shakti and is seen as the energetic creative power of Shiva. The dynamic self-regenerating nature of Shiva in Kashmir Shaivism is explained as conscious activity (citikriya) and divine pulsing radiance (sphuratta).

Aham, the Heart of Śiva[edit]

Aham is the concept of supreme reality as heart. It is considered to be a non-dual interior space of Śiva, support for the entire manifestation,[80] supreme mantra[81] and identical to Śakti.[82]

Svatantrya, self-created free will[edit]

Main article: Svatantrya

The concept of free will plays a central role in Kashmir Shaivism. Known technically as svātantrya it is the cause of the creation of the universe - a primordial force that stirs up the absolute and manifests the world inside the supreme consciousness of Śiva.

In Svātantrya all conscious subjects are co-participant in various degrees to the divine sovereignty. Humans have a degree of free will limited by their level of consciousness. Ultimately, Kashmir Shaivism as a monistic idealist philosophical system views all subjects to be identical - "all are one" - and that one is Śiva, the supreme consciousness. Thus, all subjects have free will and are god/divine but can be ignorant of this. Ignorance too is a force projected by svātantrya itself upon the creation and can be removed by svātantrya and also by Self-knowledge.

One function of svātantrya is granting divine grace - śaktipāt. In this philosophical system, spiritual liberation IS accessible by mere effort, but can be guided by the will/grace of god (i.e. the liberated, the masters). Thus, if the disciple finds such a master, he need only surrender himself and await divine grace to eliminate the limitations that imprison his consciousness.

Causality in Kashmir Shaivism is considered to be created by Svātantrya along with the universe. Thus there can be no contradiction, limitation or rule to force Śiva to act one way or the other. Svātantrya always exists beyond the limiting shield of cosmic illusion, māyā.

Comparison with Advaita Vedanta[edit]

Kashmir Shaivism is philosophically similar to yet distinguished from Advaita: both are non-dual philosophies that give primacy to Universal Consciousness (Chit or Brahman).[83] However in Kashmir Shaivism, all things are a manifestation of this Consciousness[84] but the phenomenal world (Śakti) is real, existing and having its being in Consciousness (Chit),[85] while Advaita Vedanta holds that the supreme, Brahman, is inactive (niṣkriya) and that the phenomenal world is an illusion (māyā).[86] The reality and very divinity of every aspect of the phenomenal world is tied to the Tantric practices of Kashmir Shaivism.

Texts[edit]

As a monistic tantric system, Trika Shaivism, as it is also known, draws teachings from shrutis, such as the monistic Bhairava Tantras, Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta, and also a unique version of the Bhagavad Gita which has a commentary by Abhinavagupta, known as the Gitartha Samgraha. Teachings are also drawn from the Tantraloka of Abhinavagupta, prominent among a vast body of smritis employed by Kashmir Shaivism.

In general, the whole written tradition of Shaivism can be divided in three fundamental parts: Āgama Śāstra, Spanda Śāstra and Pratyabhijñā Śāstra.[87]

1. Āgama Śāstra are those writings that are considered as being a direct revelation from Siva. These writings were first communicated orally, from the master to the worthy disciple. They include essential works such as Mālinīvijaya Tantra, Svacchanda Tantra, Vijñānabhairava Tantra, Netra Tantra, Mṛgendra Tantra, Rudrayāmala Tantra, Śivasūtra and others. There are also numerous commentaries to these works, Śivasūtra having most of them.[88]

2. Spanda Śāstra, the main work of which is Spanda Kārikā of Bhatta Kallata, a disciple of Vasugupta, with its many commentaries. Out of them, two are of major importance: Spanda Sandoha (this commentary talks only about the first verses of Spanda Kārikā), and Spanda Nirṇaya (which is a commentary of the complete text).[88]

3. Pratyabhijñā Śāstra are those writings which have mainly a metaphysical content. Due to their extremely high spiritual and intellectual level, this part of the written tradition of Shaivism is the least accessible for the uninitiated. Nevertheless, this corpus of writings refer to the simplest and most direct modality of spiritual realization. Pratyabhijñā means "recognition" and refers to the spontaneous recognition of the divine nature hidden in each human being (atman). The most important works in this category are: Īśvara Pratyabhijñā, the fundamental work of Utpaladeva, and Pratyabhijñā Vimarśinī, a commentary to Īśvara Pratyabhijñā. Īśvara Pratyabhijñā means in fact the direct recognition of the Lord (Īśvara) as identical to one's Heart. Before Utpaladeva, his master Somānanda wrote Śiva Dṛṣṭi (The Vision of Siva), a devotional poem written on multiple levels of meaning.[89]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In contrast, the similar Advaita Vedanta is based on the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras.[90]
  2. ^ Sanderson: The Kashmirian Saiva Siddhanta sealed itself off from these "impure," visionary traditions. It sustained a "pure" cult of Siva, based on the twenty-eight Agamas, with a soteriology that subordinated gnosis to the ritual praxis of indissolubly individual agents, claiming, moreover, that this praxis was entirely compatible with orthodox Brahmanical duty and caste purity.[22]
  3. ^ For the Shiva Sutras as a foundational work and classification as agama, see: Tattwananda, p. 54.
  4. ^ Also known as the Shiva Upanishad Samgraha (Sanskrit: śivopaniṣad saṅgraha) or Shivarahasyagama Samgraha.[91]
  5. ^ According to myth, Vasugupta had a dream in which Shiva told him to go to the Mahādeva mountain in Kashmir. On this mountain he is said to have found verses inscribed on a rock, the Shiva Sutras, which outline the teachings of Shaiva monism..[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David Peter Lawrence, Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  2. ^ Dyczkowski, Mark; the doctrine of vibration An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, page 4.
  3. ^ Mishra, K. Kashmir Saivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism, , pp. 330-334
  4. ^ Vijnanabhairava verse 109, dh 85, trans. by Jaidev Singh, p.98
  5. ^ Kashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme, Swami Lakshman Jee, pp. 103
  6. ^ The Trika Śaivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit
  7. ^ a b The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, pp. 51
  8. ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 164-167.
  9. ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.61
  10. ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.122
  11. ^ Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda 77-78
  12. ^ Kashmir Shaivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism, Kamalakar Mishra p284
  13. ^ The Doctrine of Vibration, An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism Mark S.G.Dyczkowski p156
  14. ^ Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda 118
  15. ^ Kashmir Shaivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism, Kamalakar Mishra p339-350
  16. ^ Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda 98,150
  17. ^ Kashmir Shaivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism, Kamalakar Mishra p179
  18. ^ The Doctrine of Vibration, An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism Mark S.G.Dyczkowski p191
  19. ^ Kashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme, By Lakshman Jee
  20. ^ Basham, p. 110.
  21. ^ The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, pp. 4
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Sanderson 2005a, p. 8047.
  23. ^ The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, pp. 19
  24. ^ The Trika Śaivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pp. 1
  25. ^ Dyczkowski, p. 4.
  26. ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 167.
  27. ^ The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, pp. 21
  28. ^ Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 25-26.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Flood, Gavin. 2003. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden: Blackwell. pg. 212
  30. ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 1996. An Introduction to Hinduism. P.164-167
  31. ^ Sanderson 2005a, p. 8047-8048.
  32. ^ Anderson 20052, p. 8045.
  33. ^ The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page 6
  34. ^ a b The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page 7
  35. ^ The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page 12
  36. ^ The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page 2,3
  37. ^ The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page x
  38. ^ The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page 3
  39. ^ a b c The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page 5
  40. ^ The Krama Tantricism of Kashmir, Navijan Rastogi, page 4,5
  41. ^ Kashmir Shaivism, The Secret Supreme, Swami Lakshman Joo, page 137
  42. ^ Tattwananda, p. 54.
  43. ^ Tattwananda, p. 54.
  44. ^ Spanda-Kārikās, The Divine Creative Pulsation, Jaideva Singh, page XVI
  45. ^ a b Spanda-Kārikās, The Divine Creative Pulsation, Jaideva Singh, page XVIII
  46. ^ a b Spanda-Kārikās, The Divine Creative Pulsation, Jaideva Singh, page XVII
  47. ^ Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 118.
  48. ^ Kashmir Shaivism, The Secret Supreme, Swami Lakshman Joo, page 136
  49. ^ Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 120.
  50. ^ Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 119.
  51. ^ Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 146.
  52. ^ Flood 1996, p. 56,62.
  53. ^ The Philosophy of Saivism 1 – S. Kapoor, p. 254
  54. ^ Pratyabhijnahrdayam – J. Singh, p. 117
  55. ^ Flood 1996, p. 66.
  56. ^ The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism – S.Shankarananda, p. 45
  57. ^ The Philosophy of Saivism 1 - S. Kapoor, p. 254
  58. ^ Triadic Mysticism, Paul E. Murphy, page 12
  59. ^ Tantric Studies in Memory of Hélène Burnner, Alexis Sanderson, page 371
  60. ^ a b c d e Sanderson 2005b, p. 8046.
  61. ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navijan Rastogi, page 92
  62. ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navijan Rastogi, page 102
  63. ^ Kashmir Shaivism, The Secret Supreme, Revealed by Swami Lakshmanjoo
  64. ^ "Foreword", Lance E. Nelson in Self Realization in Kashmir Shaivism, John Hughes, pp.xxii-iv
  65. ^ Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda pp. 47-8
  66. ^ a b Pratyabhijna Press Varanasi, Publishers Arun Krishna Joshi, Vijay Krishna Joshi, Nichi bag Varanasi
  67. ^ Lal Ded: The great Kashmiri Saint-poetess, Proceedings of the National Seminar Conducted by Kashmir Education, Culture and Science Society. p12
  68. ^ Play of Consciousness – A Spiritual Autobiography, Swami Muktananda,p117
  69. ^ Swami Durgananda,‘To See the World Full of Saints’ in Meditation Revolution, Brooks, Durgananda et al, pp96-97
  70. ^ Siva Sutras – The Yoga of Supreme Identity, Jaideva Singh p iv
  71. ^ Swami Durgananda, ‘To See the World Full of Saints’ in Meditation Revolution, Brooks, Durgananda et al, pp.96-97
  72. ^ Secret of the Siddhas, Swami Muktananda, Chapters 9-37
  73. ^ Paul Reps, Zen Flesh, Zen Bones, A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings (ISBN 0-8048-0644-6)
  74. ^ a b Kashmir Shaivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism, Kamalakar Mishra p339-350
  75. ^ Flood, Gavin. D. 2006. The Tantric Body. P.14
  76. ^ a b Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 25.
  77. ^ Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 26.
  78. ^ Para-trisika Vivarana, Jaideva Singh, pages 20-27
  79. ^ Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 88.
  80. ^ Parā-trīśikā Vivaraṇa, Jaideva Singh, page 194
  81. ^ Parā-trīśikā Vivaraṇa, Jaideva Singh, page 180
  82. ^ Parā-trīśikā Vivaraṇa, Jaideva Singh, page 127
  83. ^ Pratyãbhijñahṛdayam, Jaideva Singh, Moltilal Banarsidass, 2008 p.24-26
  84. ^ The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, By Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, p.44
  85. ^ Ksemaraja, trans. by Jaidev Singh, Spanda Karikas: The Divine Creative Pulsation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.119
  86. ^ Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism, Swami Shankarananda pp. 56-59
  87. ^ The Trika Saivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pag. IX
  88. ^ a b The Trika Saivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pag. X
  89. ^ The Trika Saivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pag. XI
  90. ^ Deutsch, Eliot. Dalvi, Rohit. 2004. The Essential Vedanta. Bloomington: World Wisdom. pg. 97
  91. ^ Tattwananda, p. 54.

Sources[edit]

  • Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43878-0 
  • Muller-Ortega, Paul E. (2010), Triadic Heart of Siva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-Dual Shaivism of Kashmir, Suny press 
  • Sanderson, Alexis (2005a), "Saivism:Saivism in Kasmir", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.12: Rnying Ma Pa School - Soul, MacMillan 
  • Sanderson, Alexis (2005b), "Saivism:Trika Saivism", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.12: Rnying Ma Pa School - Soul, MacMillan 
  • Sanderson, Alexis (2005e), "Saivism: Krama Saivism", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.12: Rnying Ma Pa School - Soul, MacMillan 

Further reading[edit]

  • Basham, A. L.; Zysk, Kenneth (Editor) (1989). The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507349-5. 
  • Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. (1987). The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-88706-432-9. 
  • Lakshmanjoo, Swami (2003). Kashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme. 1st Books Library. ISBN 1-58721-505-5. 
  • Muller-Ortega, Paul E. (2010), Triadic Heart of Siva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-Dual Shaivism of Kashmir, Suny press 
  • Mishra, Kamalakar (1999). Kashmir Saivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism. Sri Satguru Publications. ISBN 81-7030-632-9. 
  • Shankarananda, Swami (2003). Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism. Shaktipat Press. ISBN 0-9750995-0-7. 
  • Hughes, John. Self Realization in Kashmir Shaivism. ISBN 0-7914-2179-1. 
  • Toshkani, (Proceedings Edited by) SS (2002). Lal Ded: The great Kashmiri Saint-poetess, Proceedings of the National Seminar Conducted by Kashmir Education, Culture and Science Society, November 12, 2000. B-36 Pamposh Enclave, New Delhi-110048: APH Publishing Corporation. ISBN 81-7648-381-8. 
  • Muktananda, Swami (2000). Play of Consciousness – A Spiritual Autobiography. SYDA Foundation. ISBN 0-911307-81-8. 
  • Muktananda, Swami (1980). Secret of the Siddhas. SYDA Foundation. ISBN 81-86693-07-6. 
  • Durgananda, Swami; Brooks et al. (1997). Meditation Revolution. Agama Press. ISBN 0-9654096-1-9. 
  • Singh, Jaideva (2000). Śiva Sutras – The Yoga of Supreme Identity. Delhi: Moltilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0406-6. 
  • Singh, Jaideva (2005). Spanda-Kārikas - The Divine Creative Pulsation. Delhi: Moltilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0821-5. 
  • Singh, Jaideva (2008). Pratyãbhijñahṛdayam - The Secret of Self-Recognition. Delhi: Moltilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0323-7. 

External links[edit]