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Temporal range: Miocene-Pleistocene
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Order: Testudines
Suborder: Cryptodira
Family: Testudinidae
Genus: Hesperotestudo
Williams, 1950

Hesperotestudo is an extinct genus of turtle that lived from the Miocene to the Pleistocene. Its remains are known from North America, Central America and Bermuda.[3][14] Further specimens identifiable only to genus have been found in El Salvadore (TEWG, 2015).[15]


Species list is based on Rhodin et al. 2015[15]

Hesperotestudo Williams 1950[1][edit]

  • Eupachemys Leidy 1877 (nomen oblitum)
  • Hesperotestudo Williams 1950:25
    • Caudochelys Auffenberg 1963:69

Hesperotestudo annae (Hay 1923)[2][edit]

  • Testudo annae Hay 1923:114 (Early Pleistocene, Irvingtonian, USA (Texas))
    • Testudo francisi Hay 1923:116 [Early Pleistocene, USA (Texas)]

Hesperotestudo bermudae Meylan and Sterrer 2000[3][edit]

  • Hesperotestudo bermudae Meylan and Sterrer 2000:51 [Middle Pleistocene, Bermuda], ca. 310,000 ybp - Size: CL ca. 50 cm

Hesperotestudo campester (Hay 1908)[4][edit]

  • Testudo campester Hay 1908:455 [Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, Blancan, USA (Texas)] - Size: CL ca. > 100 cm
    • Testudo rexroadensis Oelrich 1952:301 [Late Pliocene, Early Blancan, USA (Kansas)]

Hesperotestudo crassiscutata (Leidy 1889)[5][edit]

  • Eupachemys obtusus Leidy 1877:232 (Pleistocene, USA (South Carolina)) (nomen oblitum) - Size: CL ca. 120–125 cm
  • Eupachemys rugosus Leidy 1889:29 (Late Pleistocene– Early Holocene, Rancholabrean, USA (Florida)) (ex errore for Eupachemys obtusus)
  • Testudo crassiscutata Leidy 1889b:31 [Late Pleistocene– Early Holocene, Rancholabrean, USA (Florida)], 14C age: 12,030 ± 200 ybp, calibrated age*: 12,896–11,465 ybp (10,946 BC–9515 BC)
    • Testudo ocalana Hay 1916:45 (Late Pleistocene, USA (Florida))
    • Testudo distans Hay 1916:48 (Late Pleistocene, USA (Florida))[7]
    • Testudo sellardsi Hay 1916:49 (Late Pleistocene, USA (Florida))[7]
    • Testudo luciae Hay 1916:52 (Late Pleistocene, USA (Florida))[7]

Hesperotestudo equicomes (Hay 1917) [6][edit]

  • Testudo equicomes Hay 1917:41 (Late Pleistocene, Rancholabrean, Sangamonian, USA (Kansas)) - Size: CL ca. 34 cm

Hesperotestudo incisa (Hay 1916)[7][edit]

  • Testudo incisa Hay 1916:46 (Late Pleistocene, Rancholabrean, Sangamonian, USA (Florida)) - Size: CL ca. 29 cm

Hesperotestudo johnstoni (Auffenberg 1962)[8][edit]

  • Geochelone johnstoni Auffenberg 1962:627 (Early Pleistocene, Late Blancan, Pre-Nebraskan glaciation, USA (Texas)) - Size: CL ca. 24 cm

Hesperotestudo mlynarskii (Auffenberg 1988)[9][edit]

  • Geochelone mlynarskii Auffenberg 1988:592 (Middle Pleistocene, Late Irvingtonian, USA (Florida)) - Size: CL ca. 20 cm

Hesperotestudo oelrichi (Holman 1972)[10][edit]

  • Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) oelrichi Holman 1972:59 (Pleistocene, Long Pine and Keim Formations, Pre-Nebraskan glaciation, USA (Nebraska)) - Size: CL ca. 28 cm

Hesperotestudo percrassa (Cope 1899)[11][edit]

  • Clemmys percrassus Cope 1899:194 [Middle Pleistocene, Late Irvingtonian, USA (Pennsylvania: Port Kennedy)] - Size: “not large”

Hesperotestudo turgida (Cope 1892)[12][edit]

  • Testudo turgida Cope 1892:127 (Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, Blancan, USA, Texas), (Early Pleistocene) - Size: CL ca. 23 cm

Hesperotestudo wilsoni (Milstead 1956)[13][edit]

  • Testudo wilsoni Milstead 1956:168 (Late Pleistocene, Late Wisconsinan, USA (Texas)], 14C age: ca. 11,040 ybp, 9090 BC,(Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene, until ca. 9050 BC, ca. 11,000 ybp) -

Size: CL ca. 23 cm


  1. ^ a b Williams , E.E. 1950. Testudo cubensis and the evolution of Western Hemisphere tortoises. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 95:1–36.
  2. ^ a b Hay, O.P. 1923. Characteristics of sundry fossil vertebrates. Pan-American Geologist 39:114–120.
  3. ^ a b c Meylan, P. A.; Sterrer, W. (January 2000). "Herperotestudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) from the Pleistocene of Bermuda, with comments on the phylogenetic position of the genus". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128 (1): 51–76. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2000.tb00649.x. 
  4. ^ a b Hay, O.P. 1908. The Fossil Turtles of North America. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 75:1–568.
  5. ^ a b Leidy, J. 1889. Description of vertebrate remains from Peace Creek, Florida. Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia 2:19–31.
  6. ^ a b Hay, O.P. 1917. On a collection of fossil vertebrates made by Dr. F.W. Dragin in the Equus beds of Kansas. Kansas University Science Bulletin 10:39–51.
  7. ^ a b c d e Hay, O.P. 1916. Descriptions of some Floridian fossil vertebrates, belonging mostly to the Pleistocene. Annual Report of the Florida State Geological Survey 8:39–76.
  8. ^ a b Auffenberg, W. 1962. A new species of Geochelone from the Pleistocene of Texas. Copeia 1962(3):627–636.
  9. ^ a b Auffenberg, W. 1988. A new species of Geochelone (Testudinata: Testudinidae) from the Pleistocene of Florida (U.S.A.). Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 31:591–604.
  10. ^ a b Holman, J.A. 1972. Amphibians and reptiles. In: Skinner, M.F. and Hibbard, C.W. (Eds.). Early Pleistocene pre-glacial and glacial rocks and faunas of north-central Nebraska. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 148(1):55–148.
  11. ^ a b Vertebrate remains from Port Kennedy bone deposit. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (2)11:193–267.
  12. ^ a b Cope, E.D. 1892. A contribution to the vertebrate palaeontology of Texas. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 30:123–131.
  13. ^ a b Milstead , W.W. 1956. Fossil turtles of Friesenhahn Cave, Texas, with the description of a new species of Testudo. Copeia 1956(3):162–171.
  14. ^ Olson, S. L.; Meylan, P. A. (December 2009). "A Second Specimen of the Pleistocene Bermuda Tortoise, Hesperotestudo bermudae Meylan and Sterrer". Chelonian Conservation and Biology 8 (2): 211–212. doi:10.2744/CCB-0766.1. Retrieved 2012-04-12. 
  15. ^ a b Turtle Extinctions Working Group (Rhodin, A.G.J., Thomson, S., Georgalis, G., Karl, H.-V., Danilov, I.G., Takahashi, A., de la Fuente, M.S., Bourque, J.R., Delfino, M., Bour, R., Iverson, J.B., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P.). 2015. Turtles and tortoises of the world during the rise and global spread of humanity: first checklist and review of extinct Pleistocene and Holocene chelonians. Chelonian Research Monographs. 5(8):000e.1–66.