1 March 1921|
|Died||26 February 1995
|Years active||1936 - 1992|
|Spouse(s)||Christine Norden (1947-1953) (divorced)
Haya Harareet (?-1995) (his death)
Katherine Kath (?-?) (divorced)
Jack Clayton (1 March 1921 – 26 February 1995) was a British film director, who specialised in bringing literary works to the screen.
Born in Brighton, Clayton started his career as a child actor on the 1929 film Dark Red Roses. He joined Alexander Korda's Denham Film Studios at the age of 14, and rose from tea boy to assistant director to film editor.
While in service with the Royal Air Force during World War II, Clayton shot his first film, the documentary Naples is a Battlefield (1944), representing the problems in the reconstruction of Naples, the first great city liberated in World War II, ruined after Allied bombing and destruction caused by the retreating Nazis. After the war Clayton became an associate producer working on several of the John and James Woolf's Romulus film productions, then directed the Oscar winning short The Bespoke Overcoat (1956) for their company. Based on Wolf Mankowitz's theatrical version (1953) of Nikolai Gogol's short story The Overcoat (1842), in this film, Gogol's story is re-located to a clothing warehouse in the East End of London and the ghostly protagonist is a poor Jew.
His first feature was the internationally acclaimed Room at the Top (1959), a harsh indictment of the British class system that has been credited with spearheading Britain's movement toward realism in films; in fact it inaugurated a series of realist films known as the British New Wave, which featured, for that time, unusually sincere treatments of sexual mores and introduced a new maturity into British cinema. It won two Oscars, and Clayton received a Best Director nomination.
He directed The Pumpkin Eater (1964), and Our Mother's House (1967), for which Steven Spielberg has expressed great admiration. Both films featured scores by noted French composer Georges Delerue, with whom Clayton would collaborate on two later films. In the next phase of his career several projects had to be abandoned, on some occasions when plans were well advanced. The one completed project of this period, his high-profile American production of F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1974), did not fare well with the critics. However Tennessee Williams, in his book 'Memoirs' (p. 178), wrote: “It seems to me that quite a few of my stories, as well as my one acts, would provide interesting and profitable material for the contemporary cinema, if committed to ... such cinematic masters of direction as Jack Clayton, who made of The Great Gatsby a film that even surpassed, I think, the novel by Scott Fitzgerald.” Clayton had a stroke in 1978 which deprived him of speech for a time. He did not commit to another assignment for almost a decade.
Clayton's next feature was another cherished project he had began much earlier, but was unable to realise for many years. His film version of Ray Bradbury's Something Wicked This Way Comes (1983), which was eventually made for the Disney studios, saw Clayton return to the themes he had explored in earlier films - the supernatural, and the exposure of children to evil. The production was fraught with problems, however, and was held back for over a year by Disney, who spent a reported $5 million on fine-tuning the film, making numerous cuts and adding new scenes to make it more 'family-friendly'. At Disney's insistence, Clayton was obliged to remove some scenes, including the pioneering computer-generated animation sequence that originally opened the film, and which would have been the first significant use of the new technology in a major Hollywood movie. Extra scenes, a new narration and new special effects were added, and Clayton and Bradbury reportedly fell out after the director brought in British writer John Mortimer to do an uncredited rewrite of Bradbury's original screenplay. The finished product was a compromise between Disney's insistence on a more commercial version and the original, darker vision of the director. Although well received by critics, it was another disappointment for both Clayton, and his musical collaborator, Georges Delerue, whose original score (which Disney considered 'too dark') was replaced at the studio's insistence with music by American composer James Horner.
His last feature film was the British-made The Lonely Passion of Judith Hearne (1987), again with a score by Georges Delerue. It featured Maggie Smith as a spinster who struggles with the emptiness of her life; it won Clayton critical plaudits for the first time in many years. He worked with Smith and Delerue again in 1992 for his final screen project, a feature-length BBC television adaptation of Memento Mori, based on the novel by Muriel Spark, for which he also co-wrote the screenplay and which (like "Something Wicked'), was a project he had begun many years earlier. Like previous ones, that film expressed quietly moving meditations on disappointment and ageing. The telemovie aired in April 1992, just a month after Georges Delerue died in Hollywood, aged 67.
When asked his religion, he replied: "ex-Catholic". He was married to the Israeli actress Haya Harareet until his death.
- Clayton, Jack (1921–1995), BFI screenonline
- "Synopses: Dark Red Roses". British Film Institute.
- Brian McFarlane (ed.) The Encyclopedia of British Film, London: Methuen/BFI, 2003, p.125
- Williams, Tennessee (1975). Memoirs. Doubleday & Co.
- Sinyard, Neil (2000). Jack Clayton. UK: Manchester University Press. p. 289. ISBN 0-7190-5505-9.
- World Film Directors, Volume Two, 1945–1985. ed. J. Wakeman. pp 224–227. New York: The H.W. Wilson Company, 1988.
- Jack Clayton biography and credits at the British Film Institute's Screenonline
- Literature on Jack Clayton
- Jack Clayton at the Internet Movie Database