Deborah Kerr

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr in colour Allan Warren.jpg
Kerr in 1973, by Allan Warren
Born Deborah Jane Kerr-Trimmer
(1921-09-30)30 September 1921
Glasgow, Scotland, UK
Died 16 October 2007(2007-10-16) (aged 86)
Botesdale, Suffolk, England, UK
Resting place
St Mary's Church, Redgrave
Occupation Actress
Years active 1940–1986
Spouse(s)
  • Anthony Bartley (married 1945, divorced 1959)
  • Peter Viertel (married 1960–2007; her death)
Children
  • Melanie Jane Bartley (born 1947)
  • Francesca Ann Bartley (born 1951)
  • Christine Viertel (stepdaughter)

Deborah Kerr CBE (/kɑr/; born Deborah Jane Kerr-Trimmer; 30 September 1921 – 16 October 2007) was a Scottish-born film, theatre and television actress. During her career, she won a Golden Globe for her performance as Anna Leonowens in the motion picture The King and I and the Sarah Siddons Award for her performance as "Laura Reynolds" in the play Tea and Sympathy (in Chicago, after her original performances on Broadway). She was also a three-time winner of the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress.

Kerr was nominated six times for the Academy Award for Best Actress, but never won. In 1994, however, having already received honorary awards from the Cannes Film Festival and BAFTA, she received an Academy Honorary Award with a citation recognising her as "an artist of impeccable grace and beauty, a dedicated actress whose motion picture career has always stood for perfection, discipline and elegance".[1] As well as The King and I, her films include An Affair to Remember, From Here to Eternity, Quo Vadis, The Innocents, Black Narcissus, Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison, The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp and Separate Tables.

Early life[edit]

Deborah Jane Kerr-Trimmer was born in a private nursing home (hospital) in Glasgow,[2][3] the only daughter of Kathleen Rose (née Smale) and Capt. Arthur Charles Kerr-Trimmer, a World War I veteran who lost a leg at the Battle of the Somme and later became a naval architect and civil engineer.[4] She spent the first three years of her life in the nearby town of Helensburgh, where her parents lived with Deborah's grandparents in a house on West King Street. Kerr had a younger brother, Edmund ("Teddy"), who became a journalist. He was killed in a road rage incident in 2004.[5][6]

Kerr was educated at the independent Northumberland House School, Henleaze, Bristol (the school was demolished in 1937), and at Rossholme School, Weston-super-Mare. Kerr originally trained as a ballet dancer, first appearing on stage at Sadler's Wells in 1938. After changing careers, she soon found success as an actress. Her first acting teacher was her aunt, Phyllis Smale, who ran the Hicks-Smale Drama School in Bristol.[7][8] She adopted the name Deborah Kerr on becoming a film actress ("Kerr" was a family name going back to the maternal grandmother of her grandfather Arthur Kerr-Trimmer).[9]

Career[edit]

Theatre[edit]

Kerr's first stage appearance was at Weston-super-Mare in 1937, as "Harlequin" in the mime play Harlequin and Columbine. She then went to the Sadler's Wells ballet school and in 1938 made her début in the corps de ballet in Prometheus. After various walk-on parts in Shakespeare productions at the Open-Air Theatre in Regent's Park, London, she joined the Oxford Playhouse repertory company in 1940, playing, inter alia, "Margaret" in Dear Brutus and "Patty Moss" in The Two Bouquets.[7]

In 1943, aged 21, Kerr made her West End début as "Ellie Dunn" in a revival of Heartbreak House at the Cambridge Theatre, stealing attention from stalwarts such as Edith Evans and Isabel Jeans. "She has the rare gift", wrote critic Beverley Baxter, "of thinking her lines, not merely remembering them. The process of development from a romantic, silly girl to a hard, disillusioned woman in three hours was moving and convincing".[7]

It was to be 29 years before Deborah Kerr returned to the London stage, and then in such unremarkable and occasional productions as an old-fashioned weepie, The Day After the Fair (Lyric, 1972), a Peter Ustinov comedy, Overheard (Haymarket, 1981) and a revival of Emlyn Williams's The Corn is Green.[7] After her first London success in 1943, she toured England and Scotland in Heartbreak House. Near the end of the Second World War she also toured Holland, France and Belgium for Ensa as "Mrs Manningham" in Angel Street, and Britain (with Stewart Granger) in Gaslight.

Having established herself as a film actress in the meantime, she made her Broadway debut in 1953, appearing in Robert Anderson's Tea and Sympathy, for which she received a Tony Award nomination. Kerr repeated her role along with her stage partner John Kerr (no relation) in Vincente Minnelli's film adaptation of the drama. In 1955, Kerr won the Sarah Siddons Award for her performance in Chicago during a national tour of the play. After her Broadway début in 1953, she toured the United States with Tea and Sympathy. In 1975, she returned to Broadway, creating the role of Nancy in Edward Albee's Pulitzer Prize-winning play Seascape.

The theatre, despite her success in films, was always to remain Kerr's first love, even though going on stage filled her with trepidation:

I do it because it's exactly like dressing up for the grown ups. I don't mean to belittle acting but I'm like a child when I'm out there performing—shocking the grownups, enchanting them, making them laugh or cry. It's an unbelievable terror, a kind of masochistic madness. The older you get, the easier it should be but it isn't.[7]

Films[edit]

Kerr in Young Bess (1953)
Kerr in An Affair to Remember (1957)
Deborah Kerr in The Sundowners (1960)

Kerr's first film role was in the British film Contraband in 1940 but her scenes were left on the cutting room floor. With her next two British films – Major Barbara and Love on the Dole (both 1941) – her screen future seemed assured and her performance, said James Agate of Love on the Dole, "is not within a mile of Wendy Hiller's in the theatre, but it is a charming piece of work by a very pretty and promising beginner, so pretty and so promising that there is the usual yapping about a new star".[7] She went on to make Hatter's Castle (1942), in which she starred opposite Robert Newton and James Mason, and then played a Norwegian resistance fighter in The Day Will Dawn (1942). She was an immediate hit with the public: British exhibitors voted her the most popular local female star at the box office.[10]

In 1943, she played three women in Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger's The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp. During the filming, according to Powell's autobiography, she and Powell became lovers:[11] "I realised that Deborah was both the ideal and the flesh-and-blood woman whom I had been searching for".[11] Kerr made clear that her surname should be pronounced the same as "car". To avoid confusion over pronunciation, Louis B. Mayer of MGM billed her as "Kerr rhymes with Star!"[12]

Although the British Army refused to co-operate with the producers – and Winston Churchill thought the film would ruin wartime morale – Kerr's next film, Colonel Blimp, confounded critics when it proved to be an artistic and commercial success.[11] Powell hoped to reunite Kerr and lead actor Roger Livesey in his next film, A Canterbury Tale (1944), but her agent had sold her contract to MGM. According to Powell, his affair with Kerr ended when she made it clear to him that she would accept an offer to go to Hollywood if one were made.[11]

Her role as a troubled nun in Black Narcissus in 1947 brought her to the attention of Hollywood producers. The film was a hit in the US as well as the UK and Kerr won the New York Film Critics' Award as Actress of the Year. British exhibitors voted her the eighth most-popular local star at the box office.[13]

In Hollywood, Kerr's British accent and manner led to a succession of roles portraying refined, reserved and "proper" English ladies. Kerr nevertheless used any opportunity to discard her cool exterior. She starred in the 1950 adventure film King Solomon's Mines, shot on location in Africa with Stewart Granger and Richard Carlson. This was immediately followed by her appearance in the religious epic Quo Vadis? (1951), shot at Cinecittà in Rome, in which she played the indomitable "Lygia", a first-century Christian. She then played the very royal "Princess Flavia" in a remake of The Prisoner of Zenda (1952). In 1953, Kerr "showed her theatrical mettle" as "Portia" in Joseph Mankiewicz's Julius Caesar (1953).[7] She then departed from typecasting with a performance that brought out her sensuality, as "Karen Holmes", the embittered military wife in Fred Zinnemann's From Here to Eternity (1953), for which she received an Oscar nomination for Best Actress. The American Film Institute acknowledged the iconic status of the scene from that film in which she and Burt Lancaster romped illicitly and passionately amidst crashing waves on a Hawaii beach. The organisation ranked it twentieth in its list of the 100 most romantic films of all time.[citation needed]

Thereafter, Kerr's career choices would make her known in Hollywood for her versatility as an actress.[12][14] She played the repressed wife in The End of the Affair (1955), with Van Johnson; a nun in Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison (1957) opposite her long-time friend Robert Mitchum; a mama's girl in Separate Tables (1956) opposite David Niven; and a governess in both The Chalk Garden and The Innocents (1961). She also portrayed an earthy Australian sheep-herder's wife in The Sundowners and appeared as lustful and beautiful screen enchantresses in both Beloved Infidel and Bonjour Tristesse. She made two comedies: The Grass Is Greener and Marriage on the Rocks.

Among her most famous roles were Anna Leonowens in the film version of the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical The King and I (1956); and opposite Cary Grant in An Affair to Remember (1957). In 1966, the producers of Carry On Screaming! offered her a fee comparable to that paid to the rest of the cast combined, but she turned it down in favour of appearing in an aborted stage version of Flowers for Algernon.

In 1967, Kerr starred in Casino Royale, achieving the distinction of being, at 46, the oldest "Bond Girl" in any James Bond film. In 1969, the pressure of competition from younger actresses made her agree to appear nude in John Frankenheimer's The Gypsy Moths, the only nude scene in her career. Concern about the parts being offered to her, as well as the increasing amount of nudity included in films, led her to abandon the medium at the end of the 1960s in favour of television and theatre work.[9]

Television[edit]

Kerr experienced a career resurgence on television in the early 1980s when she played the role of the nurse – played by Elsa Lanchester in the 1957 movie – in Witness for the Prosecution. Later, Kerr rejoined screen partner Robert Mitchum in Reunion at Fairborough. She also took on the role of the older Emma Harte, a tycoon, in the adaptation of Barbara Taylor Bradford's A Woman of Substance. For this performance, Kerr was nominated for an Emmy Award.

Personal life[edit]

Kerr's first marriage was to Royal Air Force Squadron Leader Anthony Bartley on 29 November 1945. They had two daughters, Melanie Jane (born 27 December 1947) and Francesca Ann (born 20 December 1951 and subsequently married to the actor John Shrapnel). The marriage was troubled, owing to Bartley's jealousy of his wife's fame and financial success[9] and because her career often took her away from home. They divorced in 1959.

Her second marriage was to author Peter Viertel on 23 July 1960. In marrying Viertel, she became stepmother to Viertel's daughter, Christine Viertel. Although she long resided in Klosters, Switzerland and Marbella, Spain, she moved back to Britain to be closer to her own children as her health began to deteriorate. Her husband, however, continued to live in Marbella.[citation needed]

Death[edit]

Kerr died on 16 October 2007 in Botesdale, a village in Suffolk, England, from the effects of Parkinson's disease. She was 86.[15][16][17] Less than three weeks later, on 4 November, Peter Viertel died of cancer.[18] At the time of Viertel's death, director Michael Scheingraber was filming the documentary Peter Viertel: Between the Lines which he has stated will include reminiscences about events concerning Kerr and the American Academy Awards. The film is as yet (2010) unreleased.[19]

Honours[edit]

Deborah Kerr's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1709 Vine Street

Deborah Kerr was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1998, but was unable to accept the honour in person because of ill health.[20] She was also honoured in Hollywood, where, for her contributions to the motion picture industry, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1709 Vine Street.

Kerr won a Golden Globe Award for "Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy" for The King and I in 1957 and a Henrietta Award for "World Film Favorite – Female". She was the first performer to win the New York Film Critics Circle Award for "Best Actress" three times (1947, 1957 and 1960).

Although she never won a BAFTA, Oscar or Cannes Film Festival award in a competitive category, all three organisations gave Kerr honorary awards: a Cannes Film Festival Tribute in 1984;[21] a BAFTA Special Award in 1991;[7] and an Academy Honorary Award in 1994.[1]

In September and October 2010, Josephine Botting of the British Film Institute curated the "Deborah Kerr Season", which included around twenty of her feature films and an exhibition of posters, memorabilia and personal items loaned by her family.

Biographies of Kerr have been published by Eric Braun and, in 2010, by the entertainment journalist Michelangelo Capua, but she has yet to receive an in-depth study of her filmography, artistry or life.

Award nominations[edit]

Deborah Kerr was nominated six times for the Academy Award for Best Actress: Edward, My Son (1949), From Here to Eternity (1953), The King and I (1956), Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison (1957), Separate Tables (1958) and The Sundowners (1960).

She was also nominated four times for the BAFTA Award for Best British Actress: The End of the Affair (1955), Tea and Sympathy (1956), The Sundowners (1961) and The Chalk Garden (1964).

She received one Emmy Award nomination in 1985 for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series or a Special for A Woman of Substance. She was also nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama for Edward, My Son (1949), Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison (1957) and Separate Tables (1958).

Filmography[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1940 Contraband Bit (scenes deleted) UK release
1941 Major Barbara Jenny Hill UK release
Love on the Dole Sally UK release
1942 Penn of Pennsylvania Gulielma Maria Springett US title: Courageous Mr. Penn
Hatter's Castle Mary Brodie
The Day Will Dawn Kari Alstad US title: The Avengers
A Battle for a Bottle Linda (voice) Animated short
1943 The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp Edith Hunter
Barbara Wynne
Johnny Cannon
UK release
1945 Perfect Strangers Catherine Wilson US title: Vacation From Marriage
1946 I See a Dark Stranger Bridie Quilty US title: The Adventuress
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress (and Black Narcissus)
1947 Black Narcissus Sister Clodagh UK release
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress (and I See a Dark Stranger)
The Hucksters Kay Dorrance
If Winter Comes Nona Tybar
1949 Edward, My Son Evelyn Boult Nominated for Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated for Golden Globe Award – Best Actress (Drama)
1950 Please Believe Me Alison Kirbe
King Solomon's Mines Elizabeth Curtis
1951 Quo Vadis Lygia
1952 The Prisoner of Zenda Princess Flavia
Thunder in the East Joan Willoughby
1953 Young Bess Catherine Parr
Julius Caesar Portia
Dream Wife Effie
From Here to Eternity Karen Holmes Nominated for Academy Award for Best Actress
1955 The End of the Affair Sarah Miles Nominated for BAFTA Award – Best Actress (British)
1956 The Proud and Profane Lee Ashley
The King and I Anna Leonowens Singing dubbed by Marni Nixon
Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
Nominated for Academy Award for Best Actress
Tea and Sympathy Laura Reynolds Nominated for BAFTA Award – Best Actress (British)
1957 Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison Sister Angela Nominated for Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated for Golden Globe Award – Best Actress (Drama)
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress
An Affair to Remember Terry McKay
Kiss Them for Me Gwinneth Livingston Uncredited (dubbed voice of Suzy Parker in a few scenes)
1958 Bonjour Tristesse Anne Larsen
Separate Tables Sibyl Railton-Bell Nominated for Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated for Golden Globe Award – Best Actress (Drama)
1959 The Journey Diana Ashmore
Count Your Blessings Grace Allingham
Beloved Infidel Sheilah Graham
1960 The Sundowners Ida Carmody Nominated for Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated for BAFTA Award – Best Actress (British)
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress
The Grass Is Greener Lady Hilary Rhyall
1961 The Naked Edge Martha Radcliffe UK release
The Innocents Miss Giddens UK release
1964 On the Trail of the Iguana Herself UK promotional short
The Chalk Garden Miss Madrigal Nominated for BAFTA Award – Best Actress (British)
The Night of the Iguana Hannah Jelkes
1965 Marriage on the Rocks Valerie Edwards UK release
1966 Eye of the Devil Catherine de Montfaucon UK release
1967 Casino Royale Agent Mimi
Lady Fiona McTarry
1968 Prudence and the Pill Prudence Hardcastle UK release
1969 The Gypsy Moths Elizabeth Brandon US release
The Arrangement Florence Anderson US release
1982 "A Song at Twilight" Carlotta Gray BBC2 Playhouse episode (TV)
Witness for the Prosecution Nurse Plimsoll
1984 A Woman of Substance Emma Harte UK TV mini-series
Nominated for Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series or Special
1985 The Assam Garden Helen UK release
Reunion at Farnborough Sally Wells Grant UK television film
1986 Hold the Dream Emma Harte UK TV mini-series

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "British actress Kerr dies at 86". BBC News. 18 October 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2010. 
  2. ^ The Herald. "Deborah Kerr profile". Retrieved 19 October 2007. 
  3. ^ Donald Fullarton. "Deborah Kerr and Helensburgh". Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  4. ^ Filmreference.com. "Deborah Kerr biography (1921–2007)". Retrieved 29 October 2007. 
  5. ^ "'Road rage' killer's appeal win". BBC News. 30 March 2006. 
  6. ^ "Killer's term cut". Worcester News. 5 April 2006. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Deborah Kerr profile in". The Daily Telegraph (London). 19 October 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2007. 
  8. ^ Sater, Richard (2000). "Deborah Kerr profile". International Dictionary of Film and Filmmakers (FindArticles.com). 
  9. ^ a b c Braun, Eric. Deborah Kerr. St. Martin's Press, 1978. ISBN 0-312-18895-1.
  10. ^ "FILM NOTES.". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 – 1954) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 7 December 1945. p. 13. Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c d Powell, Michael (1986). A Life in Movies. Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-59945-X. 
  12. ^ a b New York Times (19 October 2007). "Deborah Kerr, Actress Known for Genteel Grace and a Sexy Beach Kiss, Dies at 86". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2007. 
  13. ^ 'Bing's Lucky Number: Pa Crosby Dons 4th B.O. Crown', The Washington Post (1923–1954) [Washington, D.C] 3 January 1948: 12.
  14. ^ "Deborah Kerr, versatile British actress, dies at 86." International Herald Tribune, 18 October 2007. Retrieved on 11 November 2007.
  15. ^ Clark, Mike. "Actress Deborah Kerr dies at age 86". USA Today. 18 October 2007.
  16. ^ "From Here to Eternity actress Kerr dies." CNN. 18 October 2007
  17. ^ "Actress Deborah Kerr has died". Detroit Free Press. 18 October 2007. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2007. 
  18. ^ "Peter Viertel, writer and scriptwriter, passed away yesterday in Marbella at 86 years." La Tribuna de Marbella. (c/o — Erik E. Weems — translated and paraphrased from Spanish). 6 November 2007. Retrieved: 19 November 2007.
  19. ^ "Between The Lines A film by Michael Scheingraber". eeweems.com. Retrieved 10 May 2010. 
  20. ^ Baxter, Brian (18 October 2007). "Deborah Kerr" (obituary). London: Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 10 May 2010. 
  21. ^ Festival International de Cannes. "Cannes Film Festival Tribute" (in French). Retrieved 24 November 2007. 

Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]