James Crichton-Browne

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
James Crichton-Browne
James Crichton-Browne.jpg
Born 29 November 1840
Edinburgh, Scotland
Died 31 January 1938 (aged 97)
Dumfries, Scotland
Fields psychiatry, public health, medical psychology
Institutions Royal Medical Society, West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Court of Chancery, Medico-Psychological Association, Royal Institution, Royal Society
Alma mater Edinburgh University
Known for Functional specialization (brain), cerebral asymmetry, biological psychiatry, Scottish medical history, photography, memoirist
Influences George Combe, Thomas Carlyle, Andrew Combe, Robert Chambers, William A.F. Browne, Duchenne de Boulogne, Hugh Welch Diamond, Charles Darwin, Thomas Laycock, Paul Broca, Henry Maudsley

Sir James Crichton-Browne MD FRS[1] (29 November 1840 – 31 January 1938) was a leading British psychiatrist and medical psychologist. He is known for studies on the relationship of mental illness to brain injury and for the development of public health policies in relation to mental health. Crichton-Browne was the second son of the phrenologist Dr. William A.F. Browne.

Crichton-Browne was an author and orator, editor of the highly influential West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports (six volumes, 1871 to 1876), one of Charles Darwin's correspondents and collaborators – on The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) – and – like Duchenne de Boulogne and Hugh Welch Diamond – a pioneer of neuropsychiatric photography. Crichton-Browne was based at the West Riding Asylum in Wakefield from 1866 to 1875, and there he set up a unique asylum laboratory, establishing instruction in psychiatry for students from the nearby Leeds School of Medicine. In 1895, he delivered his celebrated Cavendish Lecture On Dreamy Mental States which attracted the disapproval of the American psychologist William James. In 1920, after forty-five years as Lord Chancellor's Medical Visitor, Crichton-Browne delivered the first Maudsley Lecture to the Medico-Psychological Association in the course of which he outlined his memories of Henry Maudsley. In the last fifteen years of his life, he also published seven volumes of reminiscences.

Throughout his career, Crichton-Browne warned of the dangers of subjecting children to emotional stress during their education; emphasised the asymmetrical character of the human brain and behaviour; and also, like Emil Kraepelin and Alois Alzheimer, made some remarkable predictions about the neurological changes associated with severe psychiatric disorder.

Family background and education[edit]

Crichton-Browne was born in Edinburgh at the family home of his mother, Magdalene Howden Balfour. She was the daughter of Dr Andrew Balfour and belonged to one of Scotland's foremost scientific families – the home (at St John's Hill near Salisbury Crags) had been built in 1770 for the unmarried geologist James Hutton (1726–1797).[2][3][4]

Crichton-Browne's father, the asylum reformer William A.F. Browne (1805–1885), was a prominent phrenologist.[5][6] Crichton-Browne's younger brother, John Hutton Balfour-Browne K.C. (1845–1921), wrote a classic work on the legal relations of insanity[7] and his first cousin, Sir Isaac Bayley Balfour (1853–1922), was Sherardian Professor at Oxford and, later, Professor of Botany at Edinburgh.

Crichton-Browne spent much of his childhood at The Crichton, the royal asylum in Dumfries where his father was the first medical superintendent from 1838 to 1857.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] William A.F. Browne was a pioneering Victorian psychiatrist and an exponent of moral treatment[16][17][18][19] with an interest in the psychological lives of his patients as illustrated by their group activities, symptoms, dreams and art-works. During his twenty years at the Crichton Royal, W.A.F. Browne hoarded a huge collection of patient art[20] and this interest found a parallel in Crichton-Browne's later asylum photography. In his childhood, Crichton-Browne lost two siblings: an older brother, William (aged 11 years) in 1846 and a sister, Jessie (aged 10 years) in 1852. He went to school at Dumfries Academy and then, in line with his mother's episcopalian outlook, to Trinity College, Glenalmond. Shortly before his death, Crichton-Browne wrote a valuable account of his Dumfries childhood, including a description of the visit of the American asylum reformer Dorothea Lynde Dix, and this was published as a Foreword to Charles Easterbrook's Chronicle of the Crichton Royal in 1940.[21]

Darwin, Ferrier and the Wakefield Reports 1866–1875[edit]

Crichton-Browne studied medicine at Edinburgh University, where his uncle was Dean of the Faculty of Medicine; he qualified MRCS in 1861, and MD in 1862 with a thesis on hallucinations. Among his teachers was his father's friend Thomas Laycock (1812–1876) whose "magnum opus" Mind and Brain[22] is an extended speculative essay on neurology and psychological life.[23] Crichton-Browne also drew on the writings of the physicians Sir Andrew Halliday[24] and Sir Henry Holland. Like his father, Crichton-Browne was elected one of the undergraduate Presidents of the Royal Medical Society[25] and, in this capacity, he argued for the place of psychology in the medical curriculum. After working as assistant physician at asylums in Exeter (with John Charles Bucknill), Warwick and Derby, and a brief period on Tyneside, Crichton-Browne was appointed Physician-Superintendent of the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum at Wakefield in 1866; this was the year in which his father served as the President of the reconstituted Medico-Psychological Association (now the Royal College of Psychiatrists); and, in his Presidential address delivered at the Royal Society of Edinburgh, W. A. F. Browne gave a rather laborious account of the principles of medical psychology,[26] and recorded the deaths of John Conolly (1794–1866) and Sir Alexander Morison (1779–1866).

Crichton-Browne spent ten years at the West Riding Asylum.[27] He believed that the asylum should be an educational as well as a therapeutic institution and set about a major research programme, bringing biological insights to bear on the causes of insanity. He supervised hundreds of post-mortem examinations of the brain and took a special interest in the clinical features of neurosyphilis. In 1872, Crichton-Browne invited the Scottish neurologist David Ferrier (1843–1928) to direct the asylum laboratories and to conduct electrical studies on the cortical localization of cerebral functions, a research initiative which echoed Duchenne de Boulogne's revival of Galvani's experiments[28][29][30] and which developed the phrenological theories of Crichton-Browne's father. (In 1832–1834, William A.F. Browne had published a serial paper in the Phrenological Journal on the relationship of mental disorder to a neurological disturbance of language[31] and in some of his later writings there is a reiterated emphasis on the relationships of brain injury, psychosis and language).[32] On the more general confluence of Crichton-Browne's thinking with his father's phrenology, see the papers by Walmsley, 1993[33] and 2003.[34] Ferrier summarised his scientific work at the Wakefield asylum in his neurological classic The Functions of the Brain (1876).[35]

At the instigation of Henry Maudsley[36][37] (1835–1918), Crichton-Browne corresponded with Charles Darwin (1809–1882) from May 1869 until December 1875.[38][39][40][41][42] The bulk of the correspondence occurred during the preparation of Crichton-Browne's famous West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports and also of Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.[43][44] On 8 June 1869, Darwin sent Crichton-Browne his copy of Duchenne's Mechanism of Human Facial Expression, asking for his comments. Crichton-Browne seems to have mislaid the book for about a year at the Wakefield asylum; but, on 6 June 1870, he returned it (with some embarrassment) to Darwin, along with an illustration of a woman with occasionally erected hair from the Southern Counties Asylum at Dumfries. Darwin explored a huge range of subjects with Crichton-Browne, including references to Maudsley's Body and Mind,[45] the psychology of blushing, the functions of the platysma muscle (Darwin's "bête noire"), and the clinical phenomena of bereavement and grief. Darwin's mysterious symptoms which included vomiting, sweating, sighing, and weeping, particularly troublesome in the early months of 1872, seem to have largely resolved around the time that he completed his work on the explanation of the human emotions.[46]

"April 20th 1882 – Charles Darwin has passed away, and with him I have lost a friend, illustrious and kind. Recalling my delightful intercourse with him, I pick out of a sheaf of letters one showing, as indeed they all do, the scrupulous care with which his inquiries were conducted, his marvellous suggestiveness, and his generous acknowledgement of any help given to him." James Crichton-Browne (published in) What the Doctor Thought (1930), page 61.

Building on the early psychiatric photography of Hugh Welch Diamond (1809 -1886)[47] at Brookwood Hospital (Surrey's second County Asylum), Crichton-Browne sent about forty photographs of patients to Charles Darwin during the composition of his The Expression of the Emotions;[48] however, Darwin used only one of these in the book (Figure 19) and this (Darwin Correspondence Project Letter 7220) was of the patient (with occasional erection of her hair "like wire") (photographer unknown) – under the care of Dr James Gilchrist at the Southern Counties Asylum, the public wing of (Crichton Royal) at Dumfries. The complete correspondence between Crichton-Browne and Charles Darwin forms a remarkable contribution to the beginnings of behavioural science. Nevertheless, Crichton-Browne attached greater importance to his six volumes of West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports (1871–1876) (Jellinek, 2005)[49] – sending Darwin a copy of Volume One on 18 August 1871 – and to the neurological journal Brain which developed from them, in which he was assisted by John Hughlings Jackson (1835–1911),[50][51][52] David Ferrier (1843–1928) and John Charles Bucknill (1817–1897) . Interestingly, Crichton-Browne declined Henry Maudsley's invitation to review The Descent of Man for The Journal of Mental Science; and it is notable that Charles Darwin did not make a contribution to Crichton-Browne's Asylum Reports, nor did he visit the West Riding asylum when invited by Crichton-Browne in 1873.

In 1875, Crichton-Browne ridiculed the classification of mental disorders produced by the Edinburgh psychiatrist David Skae[53] (1814–1873) which had been promoted by Skae's pupil Thomas Clouston[54] (1840–1915); Skae had sought to associate specific kinds of mental disorder with variously abnormal states of bodily organs. Crichton-Browne characterised it as

philosophically unsound, scientifically inaccurate and practically useless.[55]

In 1879, Crichton-Browne published his own considerations of the neuropathology of insanity[56] making some exact predictions about the morbid anatomy of the human brain in cases of severe psychiatric disorder: he proposed that in the insane the weight of the brain was reduced, that the lateral ventricles were enlarged and that the burden of damage fell on the left cerebral hemisphere. This involved an evolutionary view of cerebral localisation with an emphasis on the asymmetry of cerebral functions which he derived from the clinical research of the French neurologist Paul Broca (1824–1880)[57][58] on language centres in the brain – originally published in 1861 – and presented by Broca to the British Association for the Advancement of Science at its 1868 meeting in Norwich[59] (chaired by Joseph Dalton Hooker). The question of asymmetrical cerebral functions had been raised many years earlier by the phrenologist Hewett Cottrell Watson in the Phrenological Journal.[60][61][62][63] Crichton-Browne summarised his own views on psychosis and cerebral asymmetry in his most important scientific paper: On The Weight of the Brain (1879); and the best achieved appraisals of this paper are by Crow, 1995[64] and Compston, 2007.[56]

Lord Chancellor's Visitor in Lunacy 1875 – 1922[edit]

In 1875, Crichton-Browne was appointed as Lord Chancellor's Visitor in Lunacy, a position which involved the regular examination of wealthy Chancery patients throughout England and Wales.[65] He held this post until his retirement in 1922 and he combined it with the development of an extensive London consulting practice, becoming a familiar figure on the metropolitan medical scene.[66] In 1878, he followed his father as President of the Medico-Psychological Association; in 1883, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society; and he served as Treasurer and Vice-President of the Royal Institution from 1889 till 1926. Crichton-Browne also made friendships in the literary world with the idiosyncratic historian Thomas Carlyle (1795–1881) whose marital reputation he defended against the allegations of James Anthony Froude;[67] and, less controversially, with his exact contemporary, the novelist Thomas Hardy (1840–1928) who consulted Crichton-Browne about the anatomical peculiarities of the female brain. Crichton-Browne informed Hardy that the brain/body ratio was much the same in women as in men; but it is not clear that he drew Hardy's attention to the greater symmetry of female nervous structure. In 1898, Hardy presented Crichton-Browne with an inscribed copy of his Wessex Poems.

Crichton-Browne was a notable stylist and orator and he often combined this with a kind of couthy vernacular evocative of the Dumfries of his childhood. He was proud to have served as President of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society from 1892 to 1896 and, on 24 January 1895, he gave a remarkable and light-hearted Presidential lecture[68] – in Dumfries – On Emotional Expression – in which he discussed some reservations about Darwin's views and touched on the role of the motor cortex in expression, on the relations of gender to expressive asymmetry and on the relationship of language to the physical expression of the emotions. A few months later, on 30 June 1895 in London, Crichton-Browne delivered his famous Cavendish Lecture On Dreamy Mental States,[69] in which he explored the relationship of trauma in the uniquely vulnerable temporal lobes to déjà vu, hallucinatory and supernatural experiences; this caught the attention of William James (1842–1910) who referred – rather dismissively – to Crichton-Browne in his Gifford lectures on The Varieties of Religious Experience (delivered in Edinburgh in 1901–1902). In the early years of the twentieth century, Crichton-Browne delivered a number of lectures on the asymmetry of the human brain, publishing his conclusions in 1907.[70]

"Sir James Crichton-Browne has given the technical name of "dreamy states" to these sudden invasions of vaguely reminiscent consciousness. They bring a sense of mystery and of the metaphysical duality of things, and the feeling of an enlargement of perception which seems imminent, but which never completes itself. In Dr Crichton-Browne's opinion they connect themselves with the perplexed and scared disturbances of self-consciousness which occasionally precede epileptic attacks. I think that this learned alienist takes a rather absurdly alarmist view of an intrinsically insignificant phenomenon. He follows it along the downward ladder, to insanity..." William James (1902) The Varieties of Religious Experience – The Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion: Lecture 16: Mysticism.

President of the Sanitary Inspectors Association 1901 - 1921[edit]

Crichton-Browne was elected and re-elected as President of the Association on an unprecedented 20 occasions. Like his predecessors in that office, Sir Edwin Chadwick and Sir Benjamin Ward Richardson, he took a close interest in the affairs of the Association and gave much assistance in its negotiations with the Local Government Board (predecessor of the Ministry of Health) and its attempts to secure security of tenure, superannuation and improved education, training and qualifications of sanitary inspectors; this in the face of opposition from some sectors of the medical profession that saw the rise of the sanitary inspector as a threat to the professional aspirations of the Medical Officers of Health, and who tried to keep the inspectors 'in their place'. He was viewed with much affection and respect by the sanitary inspectors and he was a frequent invited speaker at their conferences and dinners - even if his speeches could sometimes go on and on!

In 1914, on being re-elected for a further term as President, he responded

" I am an old man; I feel I ought to make way for a someone who might be more energetic -' (cries of 'NO,NO!' from the Conference) '- one who might better represent your interests.' ('NO, NO!') But I am somewhat reconciled to holding office a little longer by discovering that Lord Fisher, who has just become First Lord of the Admiralty, is exactly the same age that I am. If he is capable of directing the energies of our Fleets, then I think I am capable of presiding over you. (Loud Cheers)" The Sanitary Journal, Nov 1914, Vol.10, No. 6, p107

Elder Statesman of Mental Science 1920 – 1938[edit]

In the early Summer of 1920, Crichton-Browne delivered the first Maudsley Lecture to the Royal Medico-Psychological Association[71] at the Royal Society of Medicine in London, giving a generous tribute to Henry Maudsley whose enthusiasm and energy in the 1860s had been a source of inspiration and encouragement to him.

Four years later, on 29 February 1924, Crichton-Browne gave the Ramsay Henderson Bequest Lecture in Edinburgh, The Story of the Brain.[72] In this, he delivered a tribute to members of the Edinburgh Phrenological Society – to George Combe (1788–1858), author of The Constitution of Man (1828), to Andrew Combe (1797–1847) author of Observations on Mental Derangement (1831) – and to Robert Chambers (1802–1871) who had sought to combine phrenology with evolutionary Lamarckism in his Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation[73][74][75] – written in St Andrews as Chambers recuperated from a depressive illness, published in 1844 – and inverting Hutton's aphorism "no vestige of a beginning". However, Crichton-Browne did not mention that his Henderson lecture was delivered a century (almost to the day) after his father had joined the Edinburgh Phrenological Society.

With increasing age, with the death of his first wife, and with the loss of two grandsons in the first world war, Crichton-Browne's rhetoric took on a more strident tone and this compromised his reputation in the last two decades of his life.

Legacy[edit]

Crichton-Browne usually described himself as a medical psychologist – but, in spite of the pervasive influence of his medical psychology, he remains a rather neglected figure in the history of British mental science.[76][77] His raffish – almost louche – demeanour, strangely snobbish social attitudes and idiosyncratic political views – and his elegant, but convoluted, Victorian prose – have doubtless contributed to this. However, his unusual longevity, taken together with his father's distinguished psychiatric career, brought the world of the Edinburgh phrenologists – George Combe, Robert Chambers, Hewett Watson and William Ballantyne Hodgson – into contact with developing neuroscience in the course of the twentieth century – and he did not ignore the mediating influences of French neurology – Duchenne de Boulogne and Pierre Paul Broca. To the medical world, he held out the promise of a continuum of neurological and psychiatric illness and in the narrower world of psychiatry he demonstrated a public role for the specialist in mental disorder. The phrenologists' concept of the brain was of a genetically determined, dynamic organ vulnerable to environmental stress. Crichton-Browne's psychiatric thinking contained a remarkable blend of social and neurological concerns and his considerations of the cerebral basis of psychotic disorder were well ahead of their time.

Very early in his career – a week after the publication of On the Origin of Species – Crichton-Browne stressed the importance of psychiatric disorders in childhood[78] and, much later, he was to emphasise the distinction between organic and functional illness in the elderly.[79][80][81] He was considered an expert in many aspects of psychological medicine, public health and social reform. He supported a campaign for the open-air treatment of tuberculosis, housing and sanitary reform for the working-classes, and a practical approach to sexually transmitted diseases. He condemned the corporal punishment of children. He stressed the importance of the asymmetric lateralization of brain function in the development of language and deplored the fads relating to ambidexterity advocated by (among others) Robert Baden-Powell. He was critical of public education systems for their repetitive and fact-bound character, warning of mental exhaustion in otherwise happy and healthy children. He was openly – even offensively – sceptical concerning the claims of psychic investigators (including Frederic William Henry Myers[82]) and spiritualists[83][84][85] (see The Times articles of 1897/1899 concerning the Ballechin House controversy) and of dietary faddists and vegetarians. He argued that the benefits of Freudian psychotherapy had been assessed with insufficient rigour. He advocated (in 1892) the fluoridation of human dietary intake[86] and he worried about the consequences of mass transportation by motor vehicles.

In the last years of his life, from retirement at his home "Crindau" in the Nunholm district of Dumfries, Sir James published a notable study of Robert Burns' medical problems and physical decline[87] based on some articles he had contributed to the Glasgow Herald, and seven volumes of memoirs selected from his commonplace books, consisting of fragmentary essays ranging widely over medical, psychological, biographical and Scottish themes.[88][89][90][91][92][93][94]

Crichton-Browne was twice married and, like his mother, cherished a lifelong affection for the traditions of the Anglican liturgy; he was a loyal member of the congregation at the Church of St John the Evangelist, Dumfries. Through family connections he became friendly with the painter Hannah Gluckstein ("Gluck") (1895–1978) who executed an arresting portrait of Sir James in 1928, now in the National Portrait Gallery. (Another portrait – by Sir Oswald Birley, painted in 1934 – is in the Crichton Royal Collection in Dumfries). Crichton-Browne was elected a Fellow of The Royal Society in 1883 (with posthumous support from Charles Darwin) and he was knighted in 1886. He was a vigorous opponent of teetotalism, stating that "no writer has done much without alcohol". When he died on 31 January 1938, at the age of 97, Crichton-Browne – like Robert Burns, Thomas Carlyle and James Clerk Maxwell – was acclaimed as one of the greatest sons of South-West Scotland; one of the last men in Britain to sport Dundreary whiskers – and as one of the last Victorians.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Holmes, G. M. (1939). "Sir James Crichton-Browne. 1840-1938". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 2 (7): 518–526. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1939.0012.  edit
  2. ^ Repcheck, Jack (2003) The Man Who Found Time: James Hutton and the Discovery of the Earth's Antiquity London and New York: Pocket Books (Simon and Schuster). ISBN 073820692X. pp. 124–125
  3. ^ Buchan, James (2003) Capital of the Mind: How Edinburgh Changed The World London: John Murray. ISBN 1841586390. pp. 272–299
  4. ^ Herman, Arthur (2003) The Scottish Enlightenment: The Scots' Invention of the Modern World London: Fourth Estate, a division of Harper Collins. ISBN 0609809997. pp. 313–314
  5. ^ Kaufman, Matthew H. (2005) Edinburgh Phrenological Society: A History Edinburgh: The William Ramsay Henderson Trust
  6. ^ Jenkinson, Jacqueline (1993) Scottish Medical Societies 1731 – 1939: Their History and Records Edinburgh University Press, pp. 72–77
  7. ^ Balfour Browne, J.H. (1871) The Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity London: J. & A. Churchill; San Francisco: S. Whitney & Co.
  8. ^ McDowall, William (1873) History of the Burgh of Dumfries with notices of Nithsdale, Annandale and the Western Border, 2nd Edition, Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, pp 732–734
  9. ^ Comrie, John D. (1932) History of Scottish Medicine, 2 vols, London: Baillière, Tindall and Cox, for The Wellcome Historical Medical Museum, see pp. 464–471
  10. ^ Henderson, D.K. (1964) The Evolution of Psychiatry in Scotland Edinburgh and London: Livingstone, pp. 72–74
  11. ^ Scull, Andrew (1991) The Asylum as Utopia: W.A.F. Browne and the Mid-Nineteenth Century Consolidation of Psychiatry London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge (includes a reprint of Browne, William A. F. (1837) What Asylums Were, Are, and Ought To Be Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black)
  12. ^ Scull, Andrew, MacKenzie, Charlotte and Hervey, Nicholas (1996) Masters of Bedlam: The Transformation of the Mad-Doctoring Trade Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691002517. pp. 84–122
  13. ^ Walmsley, Tom (1991) Psychiatry in Scotland (in) 150 Years of British Psychiatry 1841–1991, edited by Berrios G.E. and Freeman, Hugh, London: Gaskell/ The Royal College of Psychiatrists, pp. 294–305
  14. ^ Porter, Roy (editor) (1991) The Faber Book of Madness London and Boston: Faber and Faber, pp. 352–353
  15. ^ Browne, W. A. F. (1864). "The Moral Treatment of the Insane; a Lecture". The British Journal of Psychiatry 10 (51): 309. doi:10.1192/bjp.10.51.309.  edit
  16. ^ Cormack, Alexander Allan (1966) Susan Carnegie 1744–1821: Her Life of Service Aberdeen University Press for Dr Cormack, pp. 297–305
  17. ^ Prichard, James Cowles (1835) A Treatise on Insanity and Other Disorders Affecting the Mind London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper
  18. ^ Walk, A. (1954). "Some Aspects of the "Moral Treatment" of the Insane up to 1854". The British Journal of Psychiatry 100 (421): 807. doi:10.1192/bjp.100.421.807.  edit
  19. ^ Jones, Kathleen (1993) Asylums and After London: The Athlone Press, pp. 69–70
  20. ^ Park, Maureen (2010) Art in Madness: Dr W.A.F. Browne's Collection of Patient Art at Crichton Royal Institution, Dumfries Dumfries and Galloway Health Board
  21. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1940) Some Early Crichton Memories (in) The Chronicle of Crichton Royal 1833–1936 (edited by C.C. Easterbrook) Dumfries: Courier Press, pp 1–6
  22. ^ Laycock, Thomas (1860) Mind and Brain: or, The Correlations of Consciousness and Organization, 2 vols, Edinburgh: Sutherland and Knox; 2nd edn (1869) London: Simpkin and Marshall.
  23. ^ Beveridge, Allan (1996) On The Origins of Psychiatric Thought: the contribution of Edinburgh, 1730–1850, (in) 150 Years of Psychiatry, Vol. 2. The Aftermath, edited by Freeman, Hugh and Berrios, German E., London: The Athlone Press, pp. 339–366
  24. ^ Halliday, Sir Andrew (1828) A general view of the present state of lunatics, and lunatic asylums, in Great Britain and Ireland, and in some other kingdoms London: Underwood
  25. ^ Gray, James (1952) History of the Royal Medical Society 1737–1937 Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
  26. ^ Browne, W. A. F. (1866). "Address; on Medico-Psychology". The British Journal of Psychiatry 12 (59): 309. doi:10.1192/bjp.12.59.309.  edit
  27. ^ Todd, John and Ashworth, Lawrence E. (1991) The West Riding Asylum and James Crichton-Browne, 1818–1876, (in) 150 Years of British Psychiatry 1841–1991 edited by Berrios, G.E., and Freeman, Hugh, London: Gaskell/ The Royal College of Psychiatrists, pp. 389–418
  28. ^ Hustvedt, Asti (2011) Medical Muses: Hysteria in Nineteenth Century Paris London: Bloomsbury, pp. 155–159
  29. ^ Duchenne (de Boulogne), Guillaume-Benjamin Amand (1990) The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression, edited and translated by R. Andrew Cuthbertson, Cambridge University Press and Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, originally published (1862) as Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine Paris: Jules Renouard, Libraire
  30. ^ Didi-Huberman, Georges (1982) Invention de l'hystérie: Charcot et l'iconographie photographique de la Salpêtrière Paris: Éditions Macula, english translation (2003) (by Alice Hartz) Invention of Hysteria Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press
  31. ^ Browne, W.A.F. (1832–1834) On Morbid Manifestations of the Organ of Language, as connected with insanity The Phrenological Journal and Miscellany, 8, pp. 250–260, 308–316 and 414–423
  32. ^ Browne, W.A.F. (1872) Impairment of Language, the Result of Cerebral Disease West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports, 2, 278–301
  33. ^ Walmsley, T. (1993). "Psychiatry in descent: Darwin and the Brownes". Psychiatric Bulletin 17 (12): 748. doi:10.1192/pb.17.12.748.  edit
  34. ^ Walmsley, T. (2003). "Crichton-Browne's biological psychiatry". Psychiatric Bulletin 27: 20. doi:10.1192/pb.27.1.20.  edit
  35. ^ Ferrier, David (1876) The Functions of The Brain London: Smith, Elder
  36. ^ Collie, Michael (1988) Henry Maudsley: Victorian Psychiatrist: A Bibliographical Study Winchester: St Pauls Bibliographies pp. 25–26
  37. ^ Pick, Daniel (1989) Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c.1848 – c.1918 Cambridge University Press, pp. 203–216
  38. ^ Pearn, A. M. (2010). "'This excellent observer ...': The correspondence between Charles Darwin and James Crichton-Browne, 1869-75". History of psychiatry 21 (82 Pt 2): 160–75. doi:10.1177/0957154X10363961. PMID 21877370.  edit
  39. ^ Browne, E. Janet (1985) Darwin and the Face of Madness (in) The Anatomy of Madness: Essays in the History of Psychiatry, Vol 1, People and Ideas, edited by Bynum, W.F., Porter, Roy and Shepherd, Michael, London: Tavistock, pp. 151–165
  40. ^ Gilman, Sander L. (1982) Seeing the Insane Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press and reprinted (1996) New York: Bison Books, pp. 179–191
  41. ^ Appignanesi, Lisa (2008) Mad, Bad and Sad: A History of Women and the Mind Doctors from 1800 to the Present London: Virago Press, especially page 110
  42. ^ Prodger, Phillip (2009) Darwin's Camera: Art and Photography in the Theory of Evolution Oxford University Press, pp. 92–101
  43. ^ Darwin, Charles R. (1872) The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals London: John Murray
  44. ^ Darwin, Charles, Ekman, Paul, and Prodger, Phillip (1998) The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, 3rd edn, London: Harper Collins
  45. ^ Maudsley, Henry (1870) Body and Mind: The Gulstonian Lectures for 1870 London: Macmillan and Co.
  46. ^ Colp, Ralph (1977) To Be an Invalid: The Illness of Charles Darwin Chicago and London: Chicago University Press
  47. ^ Gilman, Sander L. (1976) The Face of Madness: Hugh W. Diamond and the Origin of Psychiatric Photography New York: Brunner Mazel
  48. ^ Smith, Jonathan (2006) Charles Darwin and Victorian Visual Culture Cambridge University Press
  49. ^ Jellinek, E. H. (2005). "Sir James Crichton-Browne (1840-1938): Pioneer neurologist and scientific drop-out". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 98 (9): 428–30. doi:10.1258/jrsm.98.9.428. PMC 1199644. PMID 16140860.  edit
  50. ^ Rose, F. Clifford (1999) A Short History of Neurology: The British Contribution 1660 – 1910 Oxford, Auckland: Butterworth, Heinemann, pp. 151–164
  51. ^ Critchley, Macdonald (1998) John Hughlings Jackson: Father of English Neurology Oxford University Press ISBN 0195123395
  52. ^ "Croonian Lectures ON THE EVOLUTION AND DISSOLUTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM". The Lancet 123 (3165): 739. 1884. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)23422-4.  edit Reprinted (1931) in Selected Writings, vol. II, pp. 45–75 London: Hodder and Stoughton
  53. ^ Fish, F (1965). "David Skae, M.d., F.r.c.s., Founder of the Edinburgh School of Psychiatry". Medical history 9: 36–53. PMC 1033441. PMID 14252326.  edit
  54. ^ Beveridge, Allan (1991) Thomas Clouston and the Edinburgh School of Psychiatry (in) 150 Years of British Psychiatry, 1841 – 1991, edited by Berrios, G.E. and Freeman, Hugh, London: Gaskell/The Royal College of Psychiatrists, pp. 359–388
  55. ^ Browne, J. C. (1875). "Skae's Classification of Mental Diseases: A Critique". The British Journal of Psychiatry 21 (95): 339. doi:10.1192/bjp.21.95.339.  edit
  56. ^ a b Compston, A. (2007). "On the weight of the brain and its component parts in the insane. By J. Crichton-Browne, MD, FRSE, Lord Chancellor's Visitor. Brain 1879: 1; 514-518 and 1879: 2; 42-67". Brain 130 (3): 599. doi:10.1093/brain/awm020.  edit
  57. ^ Broca, Pierre Paul (1861) Remarques sur le Siège de la Faculté de Langage Articulé; suivis d'une observation d'aphémie (perte de la parole) Bulletin de la Societé de l'Anatomie de Paris, 36, pp. 330–357
  58. ^ McManus, Chris (2002) Right Hand, Left Hand: The Origins of Asymmetry in Brains, Bodies, Atoms and Cultures London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson
  59. ^ "Reports of Societies". BMJ 2 (401): 259. 1868. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.401.259.  edit
  60. ^ Watson, Hewett Cottrell (1836) What is the Use of the Double Brain? The Phrenological Journal and Miscellany, 9, 608–611
  61. ^ Holland, Sir Henry (1840) On the Brain as a Double Organ. In Chapters on Mental Physiology London: Longmans et al
  62. ^ Wigan, Arthur Ladbroke (1844) A New View of Insanity: The Duality of Mind proved by the structure, functions, and diseases of the brain, and by the phenomena of mental derangement London: Longmans et al
  63. ^ Harrington, Anne (1987) Medicine, Mind, and the Double Brain: a study in nineteenth century thought Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press
  64. ^ Crow, T. J. (1995). "A Darwinian approach to the origins of psychosis". The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science 167 (1): 12–25. doi:10.1192/bjp.167.1.12. PMID 7551604.  edit
  65. ^ Neve, M; Turner, T (1995). "What the doctor thought and did: Sir James Crichton-Browne (1840-1938)". Medical history 39 (4): 399–432. doi:10.1017/S002572730006035X. PMC 1037028. PMID 8558991.  edit
  66. ^ Oppenheim, Janet (1991) Shattered Nerves: Doctors, Patients and Depression in Victorian England London and New York: Oxford University Press, especially Chapter 2, pp. 54–78
  67. ^ Crichton-Browne, James with Alexander Carlyle (1903) The Nemesis of Froude: A Rejoinder to J.A.Froude's "My Relations with Carlyle" London and New York: John Lane, The Bodley Head
  68. ^ [Crichton-Browne, James] (1895) Conversazione – and the Presidential Address: "On Emotional Expression" Transactions and the Journal of Proceedings of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society, Series II, 11, 72–77, Dumfries: the Courier and Herald Offices
  69. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1895) Dreamy Mental States (reprinted in) Stray Leaves from a Physician's Portfolio (1927) London: Hodder and Stoughton, pp. 1–42
  70. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1907) Dexterity and the Bend Sinister Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, 18, 623–652
  71. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1920) The First Maudsley Lecture The Journal of Mental Science, 66, 199–225
  72. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1924) The Story of the Brain Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd
  73. ^ [Chambers, Robert] (1844) Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation London: John Churchill, published anonymously, and reprinted (1994) (edited by James A. Secord) Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press
  74. ^ Secord, James A. (2000) Victorian Sensation: The Extraordinary Publication, Reception and Secret Authorship of "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation" Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press
  75. ^ Crawford, Robert (2011) The Beginning and the End of the World: St Andrews, Scandal and the Birth of Photography Edinburgh: Birlinn
  76. ^ Bourne Taylor, Jenny (2007) Psychology at the fin-de-siècle (in) The Cambridge Companion to the Fin-de-Siècle (edited by Gail Marshall) Cambridge University Press
  77. ^ Clarke, Edwin and Jacyna, L.S. (1987) Nineteenth Century Origins of Neuroscientific Concepts Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press
  78. ^ Browne, J. C. (1860). "Psychical Diseases of Early Life". The British Journal of Psychiatry 6 (33): 284. doi:10.1192/bjp.6.33.284.  edit
  79. ^ Browne, J. C. (1874). "Clinical Lectures on Mental and Cerebral Diseases". BMJ 1 (697): 601–3. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.697.601. PMC 2302956. PMID 20747492.  edit
  80. ^ Browne, J. C. (1874). "Clinical Lectures on Mental and Cerebral Diseases". BMJ 1 (698): 640–3. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.698.640. PMC 2302875. PMID 20747502.  edit
  81. ^ Berrios, German E. (1996) The History of Mental Symptoms: descriptive psychopathology since the nineteenth century Cambridge University Press, page 183
  82. ^ Myers, F.W.H. (1903) Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death London: Longmans, Green & Co
  83. ^ Luckhurst, Roger (2004) Knowledge, Belief and the Supernatural at the Imperial Margin (in) The Victorian Supernatural (edited by Nicola Bown, Carolyn Burdett and Pamela Thurschwell) Cambridge University Press, pp 197–216
  84. ^ Campbell, John L. and Hall, Trevor H. (2006) Strange Things: The Story of Fr Allan McDonald, Ada Goodrich Freer and the Society for Psychical Research's Enquiry into Highland Second Sight Edinburgh: Birlinn, pp. 185–188
  85. ^ Warner, Marina (2006) Phantasmagoria: Spirit Visions, Metaphors and Media into the Twenty-first Century Oxford University Press, pp. 237–249
  86. ^ Ring, Malvine E. (2007) A Scottish Physician Ahead of His Times: The Story of Sir James Crichton-Browne Dental History Magazine, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, 1, 1, pp. 9–11
  87. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1925) Burns from a New Point of View London:Hodder and Stoughton
  88. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1926) Victorian Jottings London: Etchells and Macdonald
  89. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1927) Stray Leaves from a Physician's Portfolio London: Hodder and Stoughton
  90. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1930) What the Doctor Thought London: Ernest Benn
  91. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1931) The Doctor's Second Thoughts London: Ernest Benn
  92. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1932) The Doctor's After Thoughts London: Ernest Benn
  93. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1937) From The Doctor's Notebook London: Duckworth
  94. ^ Crichton-Browne, James (1938) The Doctor Remembers London: Duckworth

External links[edit]