John Brown University

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John Brown University
John Brown University stacked logo.png
Motto Christ Over All
Established 1919
Type Private
Endowment $86.7 million[1]
President Charles Pollard
Academic staff 133
Students 2,183
Undergraduates 1715
Postgraduates 468
Location Siloam Springs, Arkansas, USA
Campus 200 acres (0.81 km2), Small Town
Colors Royal blue, gold
Nickname Golden Eagles
Affiliations Council for Christian Colleges and Universities
Website http://www.jbu.edu

John Brown University (JBU) is a private, interdenominational, Christian liberal arts college in Siloam Springs, in the U.S. state of Arkansas. Founded in 1919, JBU also has regional educational centers in Rogers, Little Rock and Fort Smith, Arkansas.

The 200-acre (0.81 km2) main campus in northwest Arkansas has been the site of the university since it was founded in 1919. JBU has 2,183 students as of the 2011-2012 school year, 1,279 of which are traditional undergraduates. Of these, 878 live on campus. The Graduate School has 468 students. JBU is home to students from 41 states and 44 countries.[2]

JBU is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.[3] JBU competes athletically in the Sooner Athletic Conference. In 2011 (for the 2012 publication), US News & World Report ranked JBU first among regional baccalaureate colleges in the Southern region.[4]

History[edit]

John E. Brown: Background[edit]

John E. Brown (1879–1957) had not the opportunity to pursue much education, as his family's financial difficulties forced him to begin working at the age of 11.[5] As a teenaged laborer in Arkansas, Brown encountered the Salvation Army and underwent a conversion experience. After his conversion, he became an itinerant Methodist evangelist, with his travels taking him across Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas and the Indian Territory.

When he had become a well-known young evangelist, Brown accepted a position as president of Scarrit Collegiate Institute in Neosho. His two years as president were instrumental in developing his plan to establish his own college. However, Brown felt that the strong emphasis of that school on education without the benefit of life training was actually harmful to the students. As he said in 1903, "It might be my privilege to have a part in the building of school that would turn the minds of youth back from this exaggerated concept of the value of book knowledge, to the realization that all this is valuable only as it becomes a background for, or the foundation under, the real things of life."[6]

While Brown sought to provide simultaneous education and life training to young working-class adults, the founding of the school was based in part on his segregationist views. An admirer of Booker T. Washington's Tuskegee Institute for black Americans, Brown wanted to found a school for specifically white students, saying it should be "a school that will house thousands of these wonderful descendants of pure Anglo-Saxon stock." The student body was intentionally all white for its first twenty years, nonwhite students appearing around the 1940s.[7]

Early years: The Presidency of John E. Brown Sr. 1919-1948[edit]

Maintaining this goal of establishing a college that would provide an interdenominational, Christian education for needy students, who like himself, might not have had a chance at receiving an education, Brown laid the foundation in 1919 for the institution that would later be called John Brown University, John E. Brown College. To pay for the institution's free tuition, Brown developed it as a fundamentalist Christian vocational college. Students worked jobs such as carpentry and helped to build the buildings on campus. The typical work-day was four hours in addition to class time.[8]

Apparently seeking to expand the reach of the growing college, John Brown announced in 1934 that the school was to be changed into a four-year university. The new university was divided into three colleges: the academic, vocational, and Bible colleges, fitting John Brown's stated vision of educating "head, heart, and hand."[9] Spreading the new university's fields of study into new technology, Brown soon purchased a local radio station from which to broadcast Christian programming and his own sermons. Brown had used radio extensively before, but was eager to get resources of radio into the hands of the university.[10] The expanded facilities, such as the distinctive Cathedral Group, which took root in the 1930s and 1940s, caused expenses for which the university had to pay. JBU began charging tuition in 1939, albeit a very small amount, and John Brown began to realize that financially, the vocational aspect of the school was more costly than anticipated. The university relied heavily on outside donations to break even financially.[11]

The shift away from fundamentalism[edit]

As the university grew, Brown continued to preach throughout the country and on the radio. He was well known for his attacks on liquor, gambling, dancing, and other Christian fundamentalist issues of the time.[12] This brought him into close proximity with Bob Jones, Sr. founder of Bob Jones University, who presented Brown with an honorary doctorate in 1937. In fact, the whole existence of the university was a part of the larger American fundamentalist reaction against the influences of moderate/mainstream Christian or secular universities.

In the 1940s, the close ties between JBU and the Christian fundamentalist movement began to wane, as the university took an unexpected turn away from fundamentalism. John Brown himself was always a proponent of interdenominationalism, and by aligning himself with Youth for Christ and other evangelical organizations after World War II, JBU was making a statement. John Brown's description of the school in 1948 as "interdenominational and definitely evangelical"[13] is very telling in this regard.

The Presidency of John E. Brown Jr. 1948-1979[edit]

When John Brown Sr. relinquished control of the university (at least in name, since he remained as Chairman of the Board) in 1948, he began a period of much-needed consolidation. During World War II the student body had dropped to barely over a hundred, and the high echelons of the school's leadership were being run almost exclusively by the Brown family.[14] Under the second Brown, professors and administrators were hired who had more advanced degrees, the Board of Trustees began to develop as a more independent body, and the students elected representatives to an independent council. All of this was beginning to occur by the end of the 1940s.[15] Also, the university began construction on its Cathedral Group, composed of the chapel sanctuary, known as the Cathedral of the Ozarks, the Science building, and the Library, supposedly symbolizing in building form the idea of educating "head, heart, and hand." As much as JBU grew during this period, it still lacked accreditation and its student body continued to hover at around 300 during the 1950s. After the founder's death in 1957, John Brown Jr. worked to improve the quality of the education JBU provided. One crucial step was the abolition of the university's vocational college. Citing the shifting makeup of the workforce in the 1960s, the president did away with the vocational requirement, with the understanding that each department would provide practical career training as part of its curriculum.[16] As a result of these reforms and others, JBU was finally nationally accredited by North Central Association.

During the turbulent years of the Vietnam War and the peace movement, JBU was relatively undisturbed. The school nurtured at that time a strong Christian Americanist vision of the world, tying American patriotism and political conservatism to conservative Christian faith. Instead of joining the anti-war movement, many JBU students joined organizations like Campus Crusade for Christ and traveled to other campuses to save souls. When those turbulent times had come and gone, JBU faced the 1970s with uncertainty. Academic standards were low and classes were not challenging. The university recognized the need to improve its quality, so it brought in Elton Trueblood, professor of philosophy at Earlham College, who had written The Idea of A College which argued that colleges should focus on liberal arts over career preparation. Trueblood's visits in the mid-1970s inspired JBU to look for ideas in Arthur Holmes' Idea of a Christian College in which a Christian college seeks to integrate faith and learning.

The Presidency of John Brown III 1979-1993[edit]

When John Brown Jr. stepped down as president, the job fell to his son, John Brown III, who immediately sought to improve the academic quality of the university. He visited Wheaton College (Illinois) and heralded its commitment to an integration of academic quality and Christian faith. To accompany his praise of Wheaton, he announced that the first consideration of JBU in selecting prospective students would be academic quality, and raising the entrance requirements. As expected, this began to attract more academically gifted students.[17] Also, in the 1980s, an Honors Program was established. However, the third Brown made sure to maintain JBU's historic emphasis on career training, through its non-liberal arts programs such as Engineering, Construction Management, and Graphic Design. As well as academic programs, John Brown III instituted new building programs and a scholarship for Latin American students paid for by Sam Walton. Satisfied with his work, John Brown III stepped down as president, succeeded as president briefly by George Ford (former Vice President of Roberts Wesleyan College), who left after less than a year because of internal difficulties with the university. During Ford's brief presidency, the university began offering an undergraduate degree completion program ("The Advance Program") in various locations in Northwest Arkansas.[18]

The Presidency of Lee Balzer 1994-2004[edit]

The former president of Tabor College in Kansas, Lee Balzer, took office after the Ford controversy with a plan to expand the university's reach. He extended the Advance Program for non-traditional students in other cities by establishing branch centers in Fort Smith, Arkansas and Little Rock, Arkansas. During his presidency, JBU offered it first graduate degrees; initially in school counseling, later offering master's degrees in marriage and family therapy, leadership and ethics, business (MBA) and Christian ministry. The Center for Marriage and Family Studies was established duirng Balzer's presidency. Under President Balzer, JBU also founded the Soderquist Center for Business Leadership and Ethics to promote ethical principles in the business world. In addition, JBU's financial campaign at the end of the 1990s raised more than 39 million dollars to build Walker Student Center, Bell Science Hall, North Hall, and the Soderquist Business Center, all in the span of barely more than five years[19]

The Presidency of Dr. Charles Pollard 2004-Present[edit]

In 2004, President Balzer retired. JBU selected Dr. Charles Pollard, then professor of English at Calvin College, to take the office of president for the institution.. Since taking office, Pollard has overseen an interior and exterior renovation of the Cathedral Group, the expansion of North Hall, growth in the student body to over 2000 students, and general consolidation after the rapid expansion of the past decade. Dr. Pollard's most notable legacy will likely be his extremely successful expansion of the JBU endowment, upgrade of the facilities and successfully growing the school's enrollment. Under the leadership of Pollard, JBU has seen significant growth through a number of sizable financial gifts.

It was announced in early 2010, after receipt of an $8 million anonymous donation, that JBU would construct a new engineering and construction management building. The building was completed in 2011 and named the Balzer Technology Building in honor of the school's former president. Later that year, a JBU engineering student turned successful alumnus and businessman, Mr. Barry provided the financial gift for the Berry Performing Arts Center which was completed in 2011. In 2012 it was announced that the Simmons family, owners of privately held [Simmons Foods] located in Siloam Springs, would make a financial gift providing JBU with a new dining and gathering facility. The Simmons Great Hall was completed mid 2013.

Lifestyle standards and controversy[edit]

In the tradition of other private Christian universities, John Brown University maintains a conservative set of lifestyle choices. Students sign a community covenant stating they will abstain from profanity, pornography, extramarital sexual activity, harassment, tobacco use, alcohol use, and gambling.[20] Staff and faculty, however, are not required to sign this covenant.

John Brown University made national news when it changed its long historically held position not to endorse dancing. In December 2006, the school sponsored its own swing-themed dance on campus.[21]

JBU made national news in early 2013 as it has become famous for its yearly TP basketball game. ESPN did a special highlighting "The greatest technical foul in all of sports."

Campus[edit]

Campus Entrance

John Brown University's main campus is located on 200 acres (0.81 km2) in Siloam Springs, Arkansas. The university's most recognizable building, the Cathedral of the Ozarks, was completed in 1957 and, along with the two Art Buildings composes the Cathedral group. The Cathedral contains a sanctuary for chapel and other assemblies, and the back portion is a three-floor academic building housing the music department and the humanities and social sciences. The entire Cathedral group was recently renovated on the inside and resurfaced with white limestone on the exterior.

Between the Cathedral group and Walker Student Center is the campus' main quad, which is used for recreation and relaxation by students. The student center itself houses a cafe, an open area for studying, the post office, and classrooms on the second floor. Attached to the student center is the Walker co-ed residence hall. There are three other residence halls on campus as well: J. Alvin Brown, an all-male dormitory and the oldest building on campus; Mayfield, an all-female hall, and Hutcheson, a co-ed residence hall. Also available are campus townhouses, Broadhurst duplexes and Northslope Apartments.

Other buildings on campus are the Bill George Arena, Soderquist Business Center, Bell Science Hall, Mabee Learning Resource Center, Chapman Administrative Building, Blood Memorial (Admissions) Building, Berry Performing Arts Center, Balzer Technology Center, CARE Clinic, Simmons Great Hall and the Walton Lifetime Health Complex.

Academics[edit]

John Brown University currently offers 47 undergraduate majors, with the most popular being Engineering, Digital Media Arts, Biology, and Family and Human Services.[22] As a liberal arts college, JBU requires all students to take a core curriculum of classes, which include several Bible classes, English, a foreign language requirement, science credit, the history of Western civilization, a math requirement, wellness, psychology, government, and philosophy. In the period from 2003 to 2007, JBU rose from 8th to 4th in US News and World Report rankings for the Baccalaureate Colleges in the Southern region. JBU's Business department won 1st and 2nd place at the Arkansas Governor's Cup Business Plan competition in 2007 and then in 2011 swept the Governor's Cup receiving 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. Its student newspaper, the Threefold Advocate, was named the best student newspaper in Arkansas in 2008 and 2010.[23] The University Honors Program has 200 student members, and is designed to allow students to take Honors versions of the necessary core classes, which are supposed to be more challenging and more encouraging of independent student research. JBU is one of the few small Christian colleges to offer comprehensive degrees in Graphic Design, Photography, and Digital Media. The libraries on campus house 120,000 volumes, and offer Interlibrary loan and tutoring assistance.

Associated centers[edit]

John Brown University has two endowed, associated centers: The Center for Relationship Enrichment and The Soderquist Center for Leadership and Ethics.

Athletics[edit]

John Brown University (JBU) teams, nicknamed athletically as the Golden Eagles, are part of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), primarily competing in the Sooner Athletic Conference (SAC). Men's sports include basketball, cheerleading, cross country, golf, soccer and tennis; while women's sports include basketball, cheerleading, cross country, soccer, tennis and volleyball.

Basketball[edit]

On March 22, 2005,[24] the JBU men's basketball team won the 2005 NAIA Division I National Championship. John Brown defeated Azusa Pacific University 65-55 at Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, Missouri.[25]

Golf[edit]

The JBU varsity men's golf team was originally formed in 1966. The team lasted until 1973, at which time it was cut from the athletic program. The school restarted its men's varsity golf team in the fall of 2008.[26]

Cheerleading[edit]

JBU began a cheer squad in the fall of 2010. JBU had cheerleading many years ago, but it only counted as a club then.

Club teams and intramurals[edit]

The university has three club sports teams: baseball, rugby union, and ultimate. These clubs compete against clubs from other universities. To house its club teams, JBU has a rugby pitch and baseball field on campus. JBU students also participate in a number of intramural sports, from soccer to volleyball to flag football to dodgeball, among others. Many of these events take place on the intramural fields or in the Walton Lifetime Health Complex.

Notable alumni[edit]

List of notable faculty[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ As of January 23, 2014. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2012 to FY 2013" (PDF). 2013 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. Retrieved May 16, 2013. 
  2. ^ "JBU Facts: 2011-2012." Retrieved on 11-30-11
  3. ^ Higher Learning Commission "John Brown University"
  4. ^ Baccalaureate Colleges (South) Rankings-Best Colleges-Education-US News and World Report
  5. ^ John Brown University Archives, "JBU's Founding Family: John Brown Sr"
  6. ^ [Kennedy, Ralph C., Thomas Rothrock. John Brown of Arkansas John Brown University Press, 1999, p.25]
  7. ^ [Ostrander, Rick. Head, Heart, and Hand: John Brown University and Modern Evangelical Higher Education. University of Arkansas Press, 2003, p. 79]
  8. ^ JBU Archives October 2007 Newsletter
  9. ^ [Kennedy, Ralph C., Thomas Rothrock. John Brown of Arkansas John Brown University Press, 1999,p.54]
  10. ^ [Kennedy, Ralph C., Thomas Rothrock. John Brown of Arkansas John Brown University Press, 1999,p.55]
  11. ^ Ostrander, Rick. Head, Heart, and Hand: John Brown University and Modern Evangelical Higher Education. University of Arkansas Press, 2003,101)
  12. ^ [Ostrander, Rick. Head, Heart, and Hand: John Brown University and Modern Evangelical Higher Education. University of Arkansas Press, 2003, p. 20]
  13. ^ [Ostrander, Rick. Head, Heart, and Hand: John Brown University and Modern Evangelical Higher Education. University of Arkansas Press, 2003,117]
  14. ^ Ostrander, Rick. Head, Heart, and Hand: John Brown University and Modern Evangelical Higher Education. University of Arkansas Press, 2003,99
  15. ^ Ostrander, Rick. Head, Heart, and Hand: John Brown University and Modern Evangelical Higher Education. University of Arkansas Press, 2003, 109
  16. ^ Ostrander, Rick. Head, Heart, and Hand: John Brown University and Modern Evangelical Higher Education. University of Arkansas Press, 2003, 141
  17. ^ Ostrander, Rick. Head, Heart, and Hand: John Brown University and Modern Evangelical Higher Education. University of Arkansas Press, 2003, 196-197
  18. ^ "Advance Program to Help Working Adults," Brown Bulletin (Fall 1993), John Brown University
  19. ^ Ostrander, Rick. Head, Heart, and Hand: John Brown University and Modern Evangelical Higher Education. University of Arkansas Press, 2003, 222
  20. ^ "JBU Student Handbook, 2005-2006" Retrieved on 05-20-08
  21. ^ Oppenheimer, Mark. "The First Dance", The New York Times Magazine, January 28, 2007. Accessed May 19, 2008
  22. ^ "JBU Facts, 2009-2010" Retrieved on 03-29-10
  23. ^ JBU Degree Info Sheet phutto@jbu.edu
  24. ^ 2005 Bracket
  25. ^ "NAIA DI Men's Basketball 2005-06 Archives," Retrieved on 2008-2-15
  26. ^ Press Release: "JBU Revives Men's Golf Program," February 12, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-2-15
  27. ^ "Rodney 'Pete' Anderson's Biography". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  28. ^ "10 Things You Didn't Know About Janet Huckabee". US News. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  29. ^ "Jim Winn Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Jimmie Driftwood". CMT. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Tim C. Hutchinson (partner)". rmpllp.com. Retrieved September 8, 2013. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°11′24″N 94°33′31″W / 36.19000°N 94.55861°W / 36.19000; -94.55861