Kenyan parliamentary election, 2007

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Kenyan parliamentary election, 2007
Kenya
2002 ←
27 December 2007
→ 2013

207 (of the 224) seats to the National Assembly of Kenya
  First party Second party
  Raila Amolo Odinga - World Economic Forum on Africa 2008.jpg Mwai Kibaki, October 2003.jpg
Leader Raila Odinga Mwai Kibaki
Party ODM PNU
Leader's seat Langata Othaya
Last election New party 132 seats1[1]
Seats won 99 43
Seat change Increase 99 Decrease 89

Prime Minister before election

Abolished

Prime Minister-designate

Raila Odinga
ODM

Coat of arms of Kenya.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Kenya
Foreign relations

Parliamentary elections in Kenya were held as part of the Kenyan general election on 27 December 2007; presidential elections were held on the same date.[2]

These parliamentary elections were held to be free and generally fair as opposed to the contested presidential elections. They were remarkable for a number of changes. Amongst these were:

  • Out of 190 outgoing MPs defending their seats only 71 were re-elected.
  • 20 ministers defending their seats were defeated
  • KANU the official opposition party of 2002 which later joined the government was reduced from 62 to 14 seats.
  • 15 female candidates were elected which is the highest number ever in Kenyan history (2002: 9)[3]

Preparations[edit]

Election process[edit]

The 9th Parliament of Kenya was dissolved on Monday 22 October 2007 [4] The date was announced on 26 October 2007 by the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK), stating the elections will be held on Thursday 27 December 2007. This made it possible for the Speaker to issue writs to the seating MPs thereby declaring the 210 MP positions vacant. The ECK then declared the date on which the general elections would be held. Contenders are required to gain nominations on any of the 144 registered parties[5] to qualify to be on the ballot. A simple majority is required to win a parliamentary election. The winners will be elect-MPs until the swearing-in ceremony for the 10th Parliament.

Nominations timeline[edit]

The Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) had initially set a deadline of 19 November 2007 for submitting the list of contenders to prevent losers from defecting after losing in their parties. The ECK later retracted and allowed losers to defect to minor parties.[6] ODM, PNU and ODM-K held their nomination elections on 16 November 2007. The final list of successful nominees were formally submitted to the ECK on 23 November 2007 and 24 November 2007.

Primaries[edit]

Former interior minister Chris Murungaru and Nobel laureate Wangari Maathai failed to win ruling party nomination in Kenya's parliamentary primaries. Maathai lost Party of National Unity nomination and decided to defect to a smaller party. Murungaru, a close ally of Kibaki, lost out to a little-known trader.[7]

The primaries of all the three main parties (ODM, ODM-K and PNU) were termed as chaotic and were marred by irregularities and violence. Numerous candidates defected to smaller parties after failing to get candidature by their respective parties.[8]

Campaign issues[edit]

Statistics[edit]

A record number of 2,548 candidates converted a parliamentary seat, compared to 1,033 candidates at the previous parliamentary elections in 2002. This despite the number of constituencies (210) has remaining the same.[9][10] There was a record number of women candidates, 269.[9]

ODM had the highest number of candidates (190), followed by KENDA (170), PNU (135), ODM-Kenya (135), Kaddu (97) KANU (91), Safina (88), NARC (73), DP (86) and Narc-Kenya (59). A total of 108 parties fielded parliamentary candidates, another record.[9] For the first time in Kenyan general elections, no party fielded a candidate in every constituency. In ever previous election, KANU had, fielded candidates in all constituencies.[9] Kitutu Masaba Constituency had the highest number of candidates (33), all of them contesting for a single parliamentary seat and each representing different parties respectively. All 210 constituencies had at least two candidates. Thus, unlike previous general elections, there were no constituencies with a single candidate.[10]

All nine presidential candidates contested for a parliamentary seat as required by Kenyan law. The presidential election winner needed to also win a parliamentary seat to be named president.[10] There were 14,296,180 registered voters. A portion of 68.8% of the electorate are aged between 18–40, with the remaining 31.2 being older people.[10]

Results[edit]

Preliminary results showed that Vice-President Moody Awori and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Wangari Maathai lost their parliamentary seats. Other notable politicians with the same fate included Mutahi Kagwe, Musikari Kombo, Simeon Nyachae, Nicholas Biwott, Chris Murungaru, Mukhisa Kituyi, Raphael Tuju, Kipruto Kirwa, Njenga Karume and Gideon Moi, the son of former president Daniel arap Moi.[11][12][13][14]

Parliamentary election results were cancelled in Kamukunji, Kilgoris and Wajir North and were to be repeated some time in future.[15]


e • d Summary of the 27 December 2007 Kenyan parliamentary election results
Parties Seats
Orange Democratic Movement 99
Party of National Unity 43
Orange Democratic Movement–Kenya 16
Kenya African National Union 14
Safina 5
National Rainbow Coalition–Kenya 4
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy–People 3
National Rainbow Coalition 3
Chama Cha Uzalendo 2
Democratic Party 2
New Forum for the Restoration of Democracy–Kenya 2
Party of Independent Candidates of Kenya 2
Sisi Kwa Sisi 2
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy–Asili 1
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy–Kenya 1
Kenya African Democratic Development Union 1
Kenya African Democratic Union–Asili 1
Kenya National Democratic Alliance 1
Mazingira Green Party of Kenya 1
National Labour Party 1
People's Democratic Party 1
People's Party of Kenya 1
United Democratic Movement 1
Total 207
Source: ECK

Post-election violence[edit]

There was a fire at a church in Kiambaa on 1 January 2008 after the election.[16]

The Waki Commission report stated in 2009 that "the incident which captured the attention of both Kenyans and the world was the deliberate burning alive of mostly Kikuyu women and children huddled together in a church" in Kiambaa on 1 January 2008.

By-elections[edit]

Changes in makeup of 10th Parliament[edit]

Party Total Vacant
ODM NARC
ODM-affiliated
PNU PNU-affiliated
KANU
PNU-affiliated
ODM-Kenya Unaffiliated
Begin 99 3 43 21 14 16 11 207 3
15 January 2008 98 206 4
29 January 2008 97 205 5
31 January 2008 96 204 6
11 March 2008 102 46 15 18 216
10 June 2008 100 214 8
17 June 2008 103 48 219 3
7 October 2008 105 49 222 0
18 March 2009 20 221 1
4 May 2009 104 220 2
1 September 2009 106 222 0
15 January 2010 105 221 1
25 February 2010 48 220 2
29 April 2010 47 219 3
14 May 2010 46 218 4
16 June 2010 21 219 3
20 July 2010 47 220 2
13 August 2010 104 14 218 4
28 September 2010 105 23 221 1
19 October 2010 19 222 0
24 November 2010 22 221 1
22 February 2011 48 222 0
24 February 2011 47 221 1
14 March 2011 21 220 2
31 May 2011 22 221 1
23 August 2011 48 222 0
1 September 2011 10 221 1
6 December 2011 49 222 0
20 July 2012 104 47 219 3
20 September 2012 105 24 222 0
Last voting share 48.6% 46.8% 4.5%
PNU-affiliated: Sisi Kwa Sisi, Safina, NARC-Kenya, FORD-Kenya, Ford-People, New Ford-K, Mazingira Party, Ford-Asili, DP, TNA
Unaffiliated: PDP, PPK, NLP, KADDU, UDM, PICK, CCU, Kenda

Nation 31-12-2007(Source) Nation 09-01-2008

June 2008[edit]

Following the election, two ODM MPs—Mugabe Were[17] and David Kimutai Too[18]—were killed during the post-election crisis, which was the result of a dispute over the results of the presidential election. As a result, by-elections were needed in their constituencies. In addition, by-elections had to be held in two constituencies in the Rift Valley where results were never announced due to violence. Kenneth Marende was elected as Speaker of Parliament following the election, leaving his seat vacant and requiring another by-election to be held in his constituency.[19] The ODM was left with 96 seats at this point.

These five by-elections were held on 11 June 2008.[20] On 10 June, two ministers—Minister of Roads Kipkalya Kones and Assistant Minister of Home Affairs Lorna Laboso, both from ODM—were killed in a plane crash, leaving another two seats vacant[19] (and reducing ODM to 94 MPs).[citation needed] They had been going to the Rift Valley for the by-elections at the time of the accident.[19]

Three of the five by-elections were won by the ODM and two by the PNU. The ODM kept its seats in Emuhaya and Ainamoi constituencies; however, it lost the seat in Nairobi's Embakasi Constituency to the PNU. Counting allied parties and MPs, ODM now has 103 MPs and PNU 104 MPs.[20]

September 2008[edit]

By-elections were held in Bomet and Sotik constituencies on 25 September and were won by Beatrice Kones and Joyce Laboso respectively. Both seats were retained by ODM and were won by close relatives of their immediate predecessors, who died in an aviation accident in June: Beatrice Kones is the widow of Kipkalya Kones and Joyce Laboso is the sister of Lorna Laboso.[21]

August 2009[edit]

In May 2009, Parliament approved the formation of a new Electoral body, The Interim Independent Electoral Commission (IIEC), paving the way for by-elections in the constituencies of Shinyalu and Bomachoge, which were held on 27 August 2009. Shinyalu fell vacant when its sitting MP Charles Lugano of ODM died. ODM retained the seat, after Justus Kizito won it at the by-elections. The Bomachoge seat was vacated after the 2007 Elections at the constituency were nullified due to irregularities. The seat was won in 2007 by Joel Onyancha of Ford-People. At the 2007 by-elections Simon Ogari of ODM narrowly beat Onyancha, who was now representing PNU.[22] For the first time in Kenya, the ballot boxes were transparent.[23]

June 2010[edit]

in December 2009 the High court of Kenya declared the South Mugirango parliamentary seat vacant due to irregularities in the election process, although James Omingo Magara of ODM, who had won the election, was not found guilty of any rigging.[24] Subsequent South Mugirango by-election was held on 10 June 2010. Magara decamped to the little-known People's Democratic Party (PDP) after being not favoured by the ODM leader Raila Odinga. The by-election was won by Manson Nyamweya of Ford-People, who beat Magara and Ibrahim Ochoi of ODM.[25]

July 2010[edit]

As of 5 February 2010, the Matuga Constituency MP Chirau Ali Mwakwere (PNU) lost his cabinet and parliamentary seat. This was due to a petition filed by a voter, Mr Ayub Juma Mwakesi, who wanted the election of Mr Mwakwere nullified citing that the entire election process was marred by irregularities. The ruling that nullified Mr Mwakwere's election in the 2007 election was made by High Court Judge, Justice Mohamed Ibrahim.[26] A subsequent by-election was held on 12 July 2010. Mwakwere retained the seat by beating his closest rival, Hassan Mwanyoha of ODM [27]

September 2010[edit]

Three parliamentary by-elections were held on 20 September 2011. Margaret Wanjiru (ODM) retained her Starehe Constituency seat beating Maina Kamanda (PNU). The by-election was held after vote recount held in April 2010 indicated that the poll was actually won by Maina Kamanda.

William Kabogo Gitau (NARC-Kenya) won the Juja Constituency seat. Alice Wambui of Kenya National Congress was distant second, while the previous MP, George Thuo of PNU was left third. Theo had lost the seat due to irregularities at the 2007 election.

The Makadara Constituency seat was taken up by Gideon Mbuvi Kioko of NARC-Kenya followed by former MP Reuben Ndolo of ODM while Dick Wathika (PNU) was left third. Wathika was the previous MP, but had lost the seat due to irregularities at the 2007 election.[28][29]

February 2011[edit]

John Ngata Kariuki of Ford-Asili lost his Kirinyaga Central Constituency seat after a court petition filed by the previous Kirinyaga Central MP Daniel Karaba (Narc-Kenya) on 22 October 2010.[30] Kariuki decided not to defend his seat at the subsequent by-election.[31] The by-election was held on 16 February 2011. The PNU candidate Joseph Gitari won the poll leaving Karaba to second place.[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Party of National Unity (PNU) contested as part of the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) in 2002.
  2. ^ ECK sets poll date as Raila maintains lead The Standard, 26 October 2007
  3. ^ http://eastandard.net/news/?id=1143980366&cid=15 Election had its bright side despite the gloom EA Standard 14 January 2008
  4. ^ "Curtain falls on Ninth Parliament", The Standard, 23 October 2007.
  5. ^ Electoral Commission of Kenya, 25 September 2007: List of registered political parties
  6. ^ ECK and parties in nominations deal Daily Nation, 6 November 2007
  7. ^ Upset in Kenyan primaries News24
  8. ^ BBC News, 20 November 2007: Chaos mars Kenyan party primaries
  9. ^ a b c d Daily Nation, 29 November 2007: 2,600 candidates in battle for MPs’ seats
  10. ^ a b c d The Standard, 29 November 2007: The ECK final list
  11. ^ Kenya Broadcasting corporation, 28 December 2007: Parliamentary preliminary results
  12. ^ The Standard, 28 December 2007: VP, Ministers lose parliamentary seats
  13. ^ Kenya London News, 28 December 2007: 'Rattler' John Michuki Survives in Kangema but Newton Kulundu falls in Western
  14. ^ The Standard, 29 December 2007: President’s powerful lieutenants lose seats
  15. ^ Changing standing orders should top agenda as Parliament convenes Daily Nation 9 January 2008
  16. ^ Ruto explains Kiambaa The Star
  17. ^ "Annan begs for calm in Kenya after lawmaker's killing", CNN, 29 January 2008.
  18. ^ Jeffrey Gettleman, "Second Lawmaker Is Killed as Kenya's Riots Intensify", The New York Times, 1 February 2008.
  19. ^ a b c "Two Kenyan government ministers die", Sapa-AFP (IOL), 10 June 2008.
  20. ^ a b "ODM wins three Kenya by-elections", BBC News, 12 June 2008.
  21. ^ The Standard, 26 September 2008: ODM wins in Bomet and Sotik
  22. ^ ODM triumphs in Shinyalu, Bomachoge by-elections
  23. ^ Daily Nation, 27 August 2009: Low turnout in by-elections
  24. ^ Daily Nation, 17 December 2009: Magara loses South Mugirango seat
  25. ^ Daily Nation, 11 June 2010: Nyamweya wins South Mugirango poll
  26. ^ Mwakwere out of Parliament, Cabinet Daily Nation
  27. ^ The Standard, 13 July 2010: Mwakwere re-elected Matuga MP
  28. ^ Daily Nation, 20 September 2010: PNU trounced in Juja as ODM wins Starehe
  29. ^ Daily Nation, 20 September 2010: Seats fell vacant after election petitions
  30. ^ Daily Nation, 22 October 2010: Kenya MP loses seat in poll petition
  31. ^ Daily Nation, 23 January 2011: Former MP ‘won’t defend the seat’
  32. ^ Daily Nation, 16 February 2011: PNU’s Gitari wins Kirinyaga poll

Wajir South Byelection October 2010 Sirat- New Wajir South MP! Mr Mahamud Sirat garnered almost 10,000 votes while his rival and former MP Abdirahman Hassan had 6,294 in 65 out of the 68 polling stations. Mr Sirat popularly known as Dayow was elected after one of the major Clans in wajir south- the Maqaabul decided to support him.

External links[edit]