Khana Ratsadon (Thai: คณะราษฎร; meaning "People's Party"), was a Siamese group of military and civil officers, and later a political party, which staged a bloodless coup against King Prajadhipok and transited the country's absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy on 24 June 1932.
In 1927, the Kingdom of Siam was under the absolutist rule of the House of Chakri, under King Prajadhipok, Rama VII. Under his reign, the nation experienced troubles stemming from an archaic government confronted with serious economic problems and threats from abroad, British Empire and French Empire. The country was also experiencing a dramatic social change as the urban and middle classes of Bangkok were starting to grow, slowly demanding more rights from their government, criticizing it as ineffective. These changes were mostly led by men, civilians and military, who had graduated or travelled abroad; they wanted to transform Siam into a modern country along the lines of a western constitutional system.
- 1. Lieutenant Prayoon Pamornmontri (Thai: ร.ท. ประยูร ภมรมนตรี), Army Officer, formerly of King Vajiravudh's Royal Guards
- 2. Lieutenant Plaek Khittasangkha (Thai: ร.ท. แปลก ขีตตะสังคะ), later Luang Phibulsonggram, Army Officer, Student of the School of Applied Artillery of France
- 3. Lieutenant Thatsanai Mitphakdi (Thai: ร.ต. ทัศนัย มิตรภักดี), Army Officer, Student of the French Cavalry Academy
- 4. Tua Lophanukrom (Thai: ตั้ว ลพานุกรม), Scientist studying in Switzerland
- 5. Luang Siriratchamaitri (Thai: หลวงสิริราชไมตรี), Diplomat, Officer at the Siamese Embassy in Paris
- 6. Naep Phahonyothin (Thai: แนบ พหลโยธิน), Law Student, Studying in England
- 7. Pridi Panomyong (Thai: ปรีดี พนมยงค์), Law Student, Studying at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris)
The revolutionaries made Pridi Panomyong their President and termed themselves the "Promoters" (Thai: ผู้ก่อการ; RTGS: Phu Ko Kan). The Party determined a sixfold objective which was later called the "Six Principles" (Thai: หลักหกประการ; RTGS: Lak Hok Prakan), as follows:,
- 1. To maintain the supreme power of the Thai people.
- 2. To maintain national security.
- 3. To maintain the economic welfare of the Thai people in accordance to the National Economic Project.
- 4. To protect the equality of the Thai people.
- 5. To maintain the people's rights and liberties, insofar as they are not inconsistent with any of the above-mentioned principles.
- 6. To provide public education for all citizens.
To achieve these goals, the Party determined that they must overthrow, using force if necessary, the present government and the system of absolute monarchy and turn the tiny Asian Kingdom into a modern constitutional monarchy. Most of the members were students educated abroad mostly in the United Kingdom and France.
When the group returned to Siam, they found many members from among the Army, Navy, Merchants, Civil Servants and many others. Their membership eventually reached 102, separated into four main branches. These include the Civilians, led by Pridi Phanomyong; the Navy, led by Luang Sinthusongkhramchai; the junior Army Officers, led by Major Phibulsonggram; and finally the Senior Officers, led by Colonel Phot Phahonyothin
The Party was eventually successful in their goal of revolution by the bloodless coup, and change. By 1933 they had turned Siam into a single Party state. However the party itself was short lived, this was due to infighting because the party had too many factions, conflicting interests and political beliefs. The party eventually divided into two factions. Pridi Bhanomyong, the leader of civilian faction, and Marshal Pibulsongkram, head of military faction.
They would however dominate Thai politics for the next two decades, producing six Prime Ministers of Thailand from their ranks. The party became in decline at about the time the Second World War ended.
Members of Khana Ratsadon
The members of Khana Ratsadon were from both the military branch and the civil branch of the country. All of them are now dead. The last deceased was Lieutenant Krachang Tularak who peacefully departed on June 24, 2009 at the age of 98.
- Colonel Phahon Phonphayuhasena (Phot Phahonyothin), as the Head of the Military Faction and the Leader of Khana Ratsadon
- Major Luang Phibulsonggram (Plaek Khittasangkha)
- Group Commander Luang Sinthusongkhramchai (Sin Kamalanavin)
- Captain Luang Chamnanyutthasin (Choei Rayanan)
- Captain Luang Katsongkhram (Thian Kengradomying)
- Captain Luang Kriangsakphichit (Khuan Chittakhun)
- Captain Luang Chansongkhram (Phan Chalichan)
- Captain Luang Chawengsaksongkhram (Chuang Khwanchoet)
- Captain Luang Thatsanainiyomsuek (Thatsanai Mittraphakdi)
- Captain Luang Phrommayothi (Mangkon Phonchiwin)
- Captain Luang Ronnasitthiphichai (Chuea Kanchanaphinthu)
- Captain Luang Sawatronnarong (Sawat Darasawat)
- Captain Luang Seriroengrit (Charun Rattanakun)
- Captain Luang Adundetcharat (Bat Phuengphrakhun)
- Lieutenant Khun Sucharitronnakan (Phong Nakhanut)
- Lieutenant Khun Chamnongphummiwet (Chamnong Siwaphaet)
- Lieutenant Khun Nirandonchai (Sawek Nilanchai)
- Lieutenant Khun Phiphatsorakan (Theng Phatthanasiri)
- Lieutenant Khun Plotporapak (Plot Phanusawa)
- Lieutenant Khun Rueangwirayut (Bunrueang Wirahong)
- Lieutenant Khun Wimonsorakit (Wimon Kengrian)
- Lieutenant Khun Sisarakon (Chalo Sithanakon)
- Lieutenant Chai Prathipasen
- Lieutenant Thuan Wichaikhatthakha
- Lieutenant Nom Ketunuti
- Minor Lieutenant Charun Chittralak
- Minor Lieutenant Saman Thephatsadin Na Ayutthaya
- Minor Lieutenant Udom Phutthikasetarin
- Lieutenant Commander Luang Supphachalasai (Bung Supphachalasai)
- Major Luang Wichakkonlayut (Sian Susin)
- Senior Lieutenant Luang Thamrongnawasawat (Thawan Tharisawat)
- Senior Lieutenant Luang Nawawichit (Phan Amphaiwan)
- Senior Lieutenant Luang Nithetkonlakit (Klang Rotchanasena)
- Senior Lieutenant Luang Sangworayutthakit (Sangson Suwannachip)
- Senior Lieutenant Sa-ngop Charunphon
- Senior Lieutenant Chalit Kunkamthon
- Senior Lieutenant Sa-nguan Ruchirapha
- Junior Lieutenant Chip Siriphaibun
- Junior Lieutenant Thonglo Khamhiran
- Junior Lieutenant Prasoet Suksamai
- Junior Lieutenant Wan Ruyuphon
- Ensign Chan Ratsamithat
- Ensign Thongdi Ra-ngapphai
- Mr. Chamrat Suwannachip.
- Major Minister Luang Praditmanutham (Pridi Phanomyong), as the Head of the Civil Faction and the Vice Leader of Khana Ratsadon
- Major Minister Luang Sirirajmaitree (Charun Singhaseni)
- Deputy First-grade Minister Luang Kowit-aphaiwong (Khuang Aphaiwong)
- Major Court Official Luang Naruebetmanit (Sa-nguan Chuthatemi)
- Deputy High Minister Luang Chamnanitikaset (Uthai Saengmani)
- Deputy High Minister Luang Atthasanraprasit (Thongyen Lilamia)
- Deputy High Minister Luang Atthakitikamchon (Klueng Phahomyonh)
- Deputy High Minister Luang Sunthonthephatsadin (Saphrang Thephatsadin Na Ayutthaya)
- Deputy High Minister Luang Dechatiwongwarawat (M.L. Kri Dechatiwong)
- Deputy High Minister Tua Laphanukrom
- Deputy High Minister Prachuap Bunnak
- Deputy High Minister M.L. Udom Sanitwong
- Mr. Naep Phahonlayothin
- Deputy Minor Minister Tawee Boonyaket
- Junior Lieutenant Prayun Phamonmontri
- Mr. Wilat Osathanon
- Deputy Minor Minister Charun Suepsaeng
- Mr. Leng Sisonwong
- Mr. Direk Jayanama
- Mr. Wichian Suwannathat
- Deputy Minor Minister Chun Pinthanon
- Mr. Sawat Sotthithat
- Mr. Chittasen Pancha
- Mr. Yong Phonlabun
- Mr. Ek Supphapodok
- Mr. Surin Chinothai
- Mr. Siri Chatinan
- Mr. Chaliao Pathummarot
- Mr. Banchong Sicharun
- Mr. Prasoet Sicharun
- Mr. Chaeng Muttafa
- Mr. Karim Sicharun
- Mr. Sa-nguan Tularak
- Mr. Sim Wirawaithaya
- Mr. Nguan Thongprasoet
- Mr. Pramot Phuengsunthon
- Mr. Charoen Pantharo
- Mr. Thongpleo Chonlaphum
- Mr. Phadoem Angsuwat
- Mr. Chup Salayachiwin
- Mr. Klin Thephatsadin Na Ayutthaya
- Mr. Son Bunchung
- Mr. Yon Samananon
- Mr. Yin Samananon
- Police Lieutenant Choei Kalanchai
- Police Lieutenant Thiang Chaloemsak.
- Siamese coup d'état of 1932
- Siamese coup d'état of 1933
- History of Thailand (1932-1973)
- List of Prime Ministers of Thailand
- Prachathai, the Last Member of Khana Ratsadon dead, 2009, June 24.
- Sombat Thamrongthanyawong. (2006) Kan mueang kan pok khrong thai phoso 1762-2500. (Fourth publication). Sematham Publishing House : Bangkok.