Kythrea

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Kythrea
Κυθραία/Κυθρεα(Greek) Değirmenlik (Turkish)
Kythrea is located in Cyprus
Kythrea
Kythrea
Location in Cyprus
Coordinates: 35°15′0″N 33°29′0″E / 35.25000°N 33.48333°E / 35.25000; 33.48333Coordinates: 35°15′0″N 33°29′0″E / 35.25000°N 33.48333°E / 35.25000; 33.48333
Country De jure  Cyprus
De facto  North Cyprus
District De jure Nicosia District
De facto Lefkoşa District
Government
 • Mayor Osman Isisal
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 11.895
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website Turkish Cypriot municipality:
degirmenlikbelediyesi.org

Kythrea (Greek: Κυθραία, Κυθρεα; Turkish: Değirmenlik) is a small town on the island of Cyprus. It is under the de facto control of the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus", an entity recognized only by Turkey.

Displaced inhabitants of Kythrea, now located at Nicosia and other locations in and outside Cyprus, maintain a refugee municipality though it has no control of the city itself. It shares premises with the similarly displaced municipality of Lapithos at 37 Ammochostou Street, Nicosia.

History[edit]

Kythrea, a small town 10 km northeast of the capital Nicosia, is situated near the ancient kingdom of Chytroi which was founded by Chytros, grandson of the Athenian King Akamas. Chytroi was one of the ten city-kingdoms of Cyprus in antiquity. According to one tradition the name Kythrea came from Chytroi (Χυτροι-Χυτρεα-Κυθρεα). According to another tradition the name Kythrea is derived from the name of the Greek Ionian island Kythera from where millstones were transferred to Kythrea's watermills. The small town was watered for millennia by the Kefalovrysos spring. However, shortly after the Turkish intervention of Cyprus the water stopped flowing.

Other forms of the name include Chytri, Cythraia, Cythereia, Cythroi, Chytrides,[2] Chytros, Chytria.[3]

With the spread of Christianity in Cyprus, Chytroi became a bishopric. The first bishop whose name is known is Pappus, who is mentioned in the Life of Epiphanius of Salamis as having been bishop for 58 years of the "miserable town of Chytria" and as having died a martyr at some unspecified date, which must have been under either the pagan emperors Licinius or Maximinus II, or the Arian Constantius II. The acts of the Council of Chalcedon (451) show that Bishop Photinus was represented there by his deacon Dionysius, and those of the Second Council of Nicaea in 767 that Bishop Spyridon attended in person.[3][4]

Contemporary documents are lacking concerning Demetrianus, whom Henri Grégoire described as perhaps the most obscure of the local saints of Cyprus. The medieval Leontios Machairas is the earliest writer to make even a brief mention of his name. According to the oldest Life of Demetrianos, published in the 18th century, he became bishop in around 885, was captured by Arabs and taken to Egypt with many of his faithful, but by his prayers obtained the liberation of all.[5]

No longer a residential bishopric, Chytri is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[6]

Kythrea is a remarkable archaeological area. One outstanding statue discovered in the area is the magnificent bronze statue of Roman Emperor Sepimius Severus, exhibited in the archaeological museum of Nicosia. The Kythrea municipality was established in 1915.[7]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Kythrea is twinned with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ KKTC 2011 Nüfus ve Konut Sayımı [TRNC 2011 Population and Housing Census], TRNC State Planning Organization, 6 August 2013, p. 17 
  2. ^ Sophrone Pétridès, "Chytri" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1908)
  3. ^ a b Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 1067-1070
  4. ^ Raymond Janin, v. Chytri, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, col. 820
  5. ^ Henri Grégoire, Saint Démétrianos, évêque de Chytri, in Byzantinische Zeitschrift 16 (1907), pp. 204–240
  6. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 868
  7. ^ N. G. L. Hammond, C. J. Gadd, I. E. S. Edwards (1970). The Cambridge ancient history (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 540. ISBN 0-521-07051-1. 
  8. ^ "Gebze - Twin Towns". © Gebze-City.sk. Retrieved 2013-10-19.