|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2009)|
Athinon Avenue and "Foinikoudes" promenade
|• Mayor||Andreas Louroutziatis|
|Elevation||0 ft (0 m)|
|The urban population includes that of the municipalities of Aradippou and Livadia.|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code(s)||+357 24|
Larnaca (Greek: Λάρνακα; Turkish: Larnaka or İskele) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus, the third largest after Nicosia and Limassol, with an urban population of 77,902 (2011), and capital of the eponymous district. The island's largest airport, Larnaca International Airport, is located on the outskirts of the city to the south. The port of Larnaca and the marina are two of the four official entry points by sea to Cyprus. The city is known for its palm tree seafront, foinikoudes (Cypriot Greek: φοινικούδες).
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Landmarks
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Culture
- 8 Neighborhoods
- 9 Transport
- 10 International relations
- 11 Notable residents
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
"The great number of sarcophagoi (larnakes) found at Larnaca may have given to the modern city its name." Sophocles Hadjisavvas (a government archaeologist in Cyprus) said in 2012 that the city's U.S. "consul of the last quarter of the 19th century, claimed to have explored more than 3,000 tombs in the area of Larnaca, so-called after the immense number of sarcophagi found in the modern town".
The former kingdom-city of Kition (in present-day Larnaca) was originally established in the 13th century BC. New cultural elements appearing between 1200 BC and 1000 BC (personal objects, pottery, new architectural forms and ideas) are interpreted as indications of significant political changes and the arrival of the Achaeans, the first Greek colonists of Kition. Around the same time Phoenicians settled the area.
At the archaeological sites of Kiteon, remains that date from the 13th century BC have been found. Around 1000 BC, Kition was rebuilt by Phoenicians and it subsequently became a center of Phoenician culture. The remains of the sites include cyclopean walls and a complex of five temples and a naval port.
It was conquered in the first millennium BC by a series of great powers of the region. First by the Assyrian Empire, then by Egypt. Like most Cypriot cities, Kition belonged to the Persian or Achaemenid Empire. In 450 BC, the Athenian general Cimon died at sea, while militarily supporting the revolt against Persia's rule over Cyprus. On his deathbed, he urged his officers to conceal his death from both their allies and the Persians.
Strong earthquakes hit the city in 76 AD and the year after.
Earthquakes of 322 AD and 342 "caused the destruction not only of Kition but also of Salamis and Pafos". Kition's harbor silted up, and the population moved to the seafront farther south, sometime after this. (Contributing factors to the silting are thought to have been earthquakes, deforestation and overgrazing.)
The commercial port was located at Skala, during the Ottoman Period. (Skala is the name of the seashore immediately south of the Larnaca castle—and its neighborhood. The city is sometimes colloquially referred to as "Skala" (Greek: Σκάλα) meaning "ladder" or "landing stage", referring to the historical port.)
The Salt Lake fills with water during the winter season and is visited by flocks of flamingoes who stay here from November until the end of March. It usually dries up in the summer. In the past,[when?] it yielded good quality of salt which was scraped from the dried surface. The salt from the lake is now considered unsuitable for consumption.
|Climate data for Larnaca|
|Average high °C (°F)||16.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.1
|Average low °C (°F)||7.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||77.6
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||7.9||5.7||4.5||3.1||0.7||0.3||0.1||0.1||0.5||2.1||4.7||8.0||37.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||195.3||208.8||238.7||267.0||331.7||378.0||387.5||365.8||312.0||275.9||216.0||179.8||3,356.5|
|Source: Meteorological Service (Cyprus)|
The Armenian Genocide Memorial stands on Athinon Avenue.
Larnaca's economy has been growing since 1975, after the loss of the Port of Famagusta, which handled 80% of general cargo, and the closure of Nicosia International Airport, meant that Larnaca's airport and seaport had increasingly important roles in the economy of the island.
A €650m upgrade of Larnaca Airport has been completed.
Many travel and tour operators and other travel-related companies have their head offices in Larnaca.
The service sector, including tourism, employs three-quarters of Larnaca's labor force.
Larnaca has a theatre and an art gallery, which are operated by the municipality. The Cornaro Institute is a cultural centre in Old Town and which stages contemporary art exhibitions and other cultural events.
Local institutions include the Municipal Wind Orchestra.
International competitions held in the city, include the Shooting Shotgun European Championships in 2012, the FIVB Beach Volleyball SWATCH Youth World Championship in 2012, the European Under-19 Football Championship final in 1998 and the European Under-17 Football Championship final in 1992.
Larnaca attracts windsurfers from around the world especially in autumn. Mackenzie Beach hosts windsurfing centre together with an extreme sports centre.
Much of the activity is centered around the city promenade during the major festivals. The most important of these is Kataklysmos or the Festival of the Flood, celebrated in early summer with a series of cultural events. The festival used to last for about a week, but, in recent years, with the increased commercialism of peripheral stalls, rides and temporary loukmades restaurants, the festival been has extended to about three weeks, during which the seafront is closed to traffic in the evenings. Loukmades is a sweet delicacy.
The beaches of Larnaca are lined with nearly identical seafood restaurants catering to tourists. Although there are many continental and international restaurants in Larnaca, visitors do not miss out on indulging in the local food. Many of the staple dishes involve beans, such as fasolaki (French beans cooked in red wine with lamb), and louvi me lahana (black-eyed beans with chard). The mezes, or appetizers, are particularly delicious[according to whom?] and are plentiful enough to constitute meals. Some of the standard appetizers are potato salad, kohlrabi salad, and hot grilled black olives. The next course may include Cyprus village sausage and sheftalia, dolmades and keftedes, kolokassi in tomato sauce, and several aubergine-based dishes. Baked or grilled lamb (souvla) usually appears somewhere in the course of dining, as does some kind of fish. The slow pace of eating and the series of food courses makes dining in Larnaca a true delight[according to whom?].
One of Cyprus' four official entry points by sea is located at Larnaca Marina.[clarification needed]
Public transport in Larnaca is served only by buses. Bus routes and timetables can be found [here http://www.cyprusbybus.com/routes.aspx?sid=6].
Twin towns – Sister cities
- Acapulco, Mexico (since 2011)
- Ajaccio, France (since 1989)
- Bratislava, Slovakia (since 1989)
- Galaxidi, Greece (since 2005)
- Giannitsa, Greece (since 2003)
- Glyfada, Greece (since 1998)
- Ilioupoli, Greece (since 2000)
- Larissa, Greece (since 1990)
- Leros, Greece (since 2000)
- Haringey, United Kingdom (since 1987)
- Marrickville, Australia (since 2005)
- Novosibirsk, Russia (since 1993)
- Odessa, Ukraine (since 2004)
- Piraeus, Greece (since 1999)
- Poti, Georgia (since 1987)
- Sarandë, Albania (since 1994)
- Szeged, Hungary (since 1993)
- Tarpon Springs, United States (since 2009)
- Tianjin, China (since 2007)
- Tripoli, Lebanon
- Tulcea, Romania (since 2003)
- Venice, Italy (since 2010)
- Zeno of Citium, stoic philosopher
- Loucas Yiorkas, Greek-Cypriot singer, The X Factor winner 2009
- Apollonios of Kition (1st century BC), physician, nicknamed "the Cypriot Hippocrates"
- St Lazarus (although not born in Larnaca, he was the first bishop of the town during 45-63 AD and he died there – for the second time)[clarification needed]
- Ada Nicodemou, actress
- George Charalambous, actor
- Ebubekir Pasha, Governor of Larnaca and philanthropist
- Dimitris Lipertis, 1866–1937 (national poet)
- Demetrios Pieridis, 1811–1895 (created the Pieridi Museum)
- Anna Vissi, a Greek-Cypriot singer
- Neoclis Kyriazis, medical doctor and historian
- Mehmet Nazim Adil, the leader of the Nakshbandi Sufi order (or Tekke) was born in Larnaca
- Kyriacos A. Athanasiou, a Cypriot-American academic, entrepreneur, and past-president of the Biomedical Engineering Society
- Stass Paraskos, artist
- Giorgos Theofanous, composer
- Garo Yepremian, Former Armenian-Cypriot NFL placekicker, played as a member of the 1972 Miami Dolphins, to date the only team in NFL history to finish with a perfect record.
- Mihalis Violaris singer, actor, composer. Pioneer of Cypriot music popularisation in Greece.
- Chrystalleni Trikomiti, Commonwealth Games gold-medalist rhythmic gymnast.
Old aqueduct "Kamares"
- "2011 Population Census". Statistical Service of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Cyprus. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Excerpt of wall mounted text at Larnaca District Museum, under the title "Kition: The necropolis"
- The Phoenician Period Necropolis of Kition, Volume I
- According to the text on the only plaque at the Kathari site (as of 2013).
- Excerpt of text on the only plaque at the Kathari site (as of 2013).
- Flourentzos, P. (1996). A Guide to the Larnaca District Museum. Ministry of Communications and Works – Department of Antiquities. p. 18. ISBN 978-9963-36-425-1.
- Road & Tourist Map of Larnaka. SELAS LTD. ISBN 978-9963-566-92-1.
- "Meteorological Service – Climatological and Meteorological Reports".
- "Οι αδελφοποιήσεις της Λάρνακας". Larnaca Municipality (in Greek). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- "Partner (Twin) towns of Bratislava". Bratislava-City.sk. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Αδελφοποιήσεις – Twinnings". Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Larnaca.|
- History of Larnaka by the official Municipality
- Municipality of Larnaca Official Web Site
- Larnaka Municipal Wind Orchestra Official Web Site
- Larnaca Travel Web Site
- Larnaca travel guide from Wikivoyage