Lamane

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Lamane or laman (also laam or lam) means "master of the land" in the Serer language.[1][2] The name was also sometimes the title of chiefs or kings of the Serer people of the Senegambia region which includes modern day Senegal and the Gambia.[3] This title was also used by some kings of the Wolof kingdoms.[4][5][6] The title is sometimes used interchangeably with the old title Maad.[7][8] After the Guelowars' migration to the Sine and the foundation of the Kingdom of Sine, "lamane" denotes a provincial chiefs answerable to the King of Sine and Saloum.[9]

Although the later lamanes were always descendants of the Serer village and town founders (the original lamanes), and their families ruled the Kingdoms of Sine, Saloum and Baol etc., the power they previously enjoyed as lamanes diminished they continued to make up the land-owning class.[10] Though their power was somewhat diminished, their economic and political power was intricately linked to Serer custom, Serer history and Serer religion. As such, they were extremely powerful if not as true kings as guardians of Serer traditions and beliefs and could dethrone a reigning monarch if threatened.[11][12]

The lamanes were the guardians of Serer religion. They created sanctuaries and shrines in honour of the Pangool (Serer ancestral spirits and Saints).[13]

Some prominent Serer lamanes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boulègue, Jean. Le Grand Jolof, (XVIIIe - XVIe Siècle). (Paris, Edition Façades), Karthala (1987), p 30
  2. ^ Dyao, Yoro Légendes et coutumes sénégalaises. Cahiers de Yoro Dyao: publiés et commentés par Henri Gaden. p 12. (E. Leroux, 1912)
  3. ^ Dyao, Yoro Légendes et coutumes sénégalaises. Cahiers de Yoro Dyao: publiés et commentés par Henri Gaden. p 12. (E. Leroux, 1912)
  4. ^ Ajayi, J. F. Ade, Crowder, Michael, History of West Africa, p462. Longman, 1976
  5. ^ Boulègue, Jean. Le Grand Jolof, (XVIIIe - XVIe Siècle). (Paris, Edition Façades), Karthala (1987), p 30
  6. ^ Galvan, Dennis Charles. "The State Must Be Our Master of Fire: How Peasants Craft Culturally Sustainable Development in Senegal." Berkeley, University of California Press, (2004). ISBN 978-0-520-23591-5. pp 109-111
  7. ^ Oliver, Roland, Fage, John Donnelly, Sanderson, G. N, The Cambridge History of Africa, p214. Cambridge University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-521-22803-4
  8. ^ Ajayi, J. F. Ade & Crowder, Michael, History of West Africa, Volume 1, p 468. Longman, 1985. ISBN 0-582-64683-9
  9. ^ Sarr, Alioune, Histoire du Sine-Saloum. BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4. 1986-1987, p21
  10. ^ Saint-Martin, Yves-Jean, Le Sénégal sous le Second Empire, Karthala (2000), pp. 35 & 610. ISBN 2-86537-201-4
  11. ^ Kesteloot, Lilyan, Dieux d'eau du Sahel : voyage à travers les mythes, de Seth à Tyamaba, L'Harmattan, Paris, ; IFAN, Dakar, 2007, p. 123 (ISBN 978-2-296-04384-8)
  12. ^ Ngom, Biram Éthiopiques (revue), numéro 54, nouvelle série, vol. 7, semestre 1991
  13. ^ Galvan, Dennis Charles. The State Must Be Our Master of Fire: How Peasants Craft Culturally Sustainable Development in Senegal. Berkeley, University of California Press, 2004. pp 53, 185
  14. ^ Nnoli, Okwudiba, Ethnic conflicts in Africa, p241. CODESRIA, 1998. ISBN 2-86978-070-2
  15. ^ Ngom, Biram, Éthiopiques (revue), numéro 54, nouvelle série, vol. 7, semestre 1991
  16. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye. "Chronique du royaume du Sine." Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972). pp 706-708