The Toucouleurs or Tukulor (or Haalpulaar’en) are a group distinct from but related to the Fula. The difference between the Fulbe, and the Tukulors is that the latter are a traditionally sedentary group, with farming and fishing as their main activities. Tukulors also live in West Africa, when Fulanis live in Central African countries as well , such as Chad and Cameroon.
The name Toucouleur has a debatable origin, with some sources stating it as a French creation meaning "all colors", and other sources citing it as the deformation of tekruri a term that predates colonialization meaning "people from Tekrur", considering them the descendants of the kingdom of Takrur, which would make the present French form popular etymology. According to the oral traditions of the Toucouleurs and Serer people, the Toucouleurs claim descent from Serer and Fula ancestors. This tradition is supported by many scholars including Foltz and Phillips. A joking relationship exist to present between the Serers and Toucouleurs, albeit the historical the Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune (1867) also known as the Battle of Somb.
People and society
The Toucouleurs speak the Fouta-Toro dialect of Pulaar (Fula). They call themselves Haapulaar’en, which means "those who speak Pulaar". They are Muslim. Culturally, the Toucouleur only differ from other Fulas by the sedentary nature of their society.
While the bride-to-be celebrates with her friends, the groom goes to the mosque to validate the marriage. Later, the bride and her family go to the husband's house, where they will sit with elders and discuss the marriage. The next day, the bride's aunt will determine if the girl is a virgin, and then bathe and massage her. The bride greets the village and then her husband, and food is prepared, and eventually the celebration ends.
Childbirth and naming
One week after pémbougale (childbirth), the baby is named and a googo (sister of the father) cuts its hair. The father tells the marabout the name he has chosen, after which the marabout whispers the name in the infant's ear and prays. Following this, the marabout informs a griot or gawlo, of the name that has been chosen, and the griot announces the name to the village.
- This article is based on a translation of the corresponding article from the French Wikipedia, accessed July 5, 2005.