The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof

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The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof
Joof family pic.JPG
The antelope is the totem of the Joof family, the founders of this royal house. In the mythology of the Serer people, it symbolises grace, royalty, wisdom, hardwork and protector.
Country Kingdom of Sine and Kingdom of Saloum.
Both Kingdoms now part of present-day  Senegal.
Parent house Descendance of Lamane Jegan Joof (king and founder of Tukar) and Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof (king of Laa, part of old Baol).
Titles Maad, Maad a Sinig and Maad Saloum
Founded c. 1369
Founder Jaraff Boureh Gnilane Joof
Final ruler Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof (the last king of Sine from this royal house,[1] died 1923[2]). Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof (last king of Sine from the Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof, died 1969).
Dissolution 1969 dissolution Serer monarchies of Sine and Saloum following the deaths of Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof and Maad Saloum Fode Ngoye Joof (king of Sine and Saloum respectively).[3]

The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof (variation : Mbin Boureh Gnilane in Serer[4]) was a royal house founded in the 14th century[5][6] by Jaraff Boureh Gnilane Joof (var : Bouré Gnilane Diouf[6] or Buré Ñilaan[7]). He was a member the Serer tribe, from the pre-colonial Kingdom of Sine now part of independent Senegal.[6][7][8] It was the first royal house founded by the Joof family during the Guelowar period (1350[5] - 1969[3]).[6][7] Boureh Gnilane Joof was a royal prince and a Jaraff (var : Diaraf), a Serer title of nobility with the powers of a Prime Minister. He was neither a Maad a Sinig (king of Sine) nor a Maad Saloum (king of Saloum) but a royal prince who had the title Jaraff bestowed upon him by his cousin and brother-in-law - Maad a Sinig Diessanou Faye (king of Sine).[6] His father Maad Patar Kholleh Joof (the conqueror)[9] was the king of Laa[10] and Teigne of Baol (king of Baol).[6] Boureh's brothers were the first from this house to have succeeded to the throne of Sine during the Guelowar period. His name was adopted in his honour to refer to the first royal house founded by the Joof family during this dynastic period.[6] The Joof family of Sine, from this royal house also ruled in the Kingdom of Saloum (the Joof paternal dynasty of Sine and Saloum)[11] The Joof family also ruled in Baol (the Joof paternal dynasty of Baol).[12][13] From the date of its foundation up to the abolition of the Serer monarchies of Sine and Saloum in 1969,[3] at least ten kings from this house had succeeded to the throne of Sine.[14] As the first royal house of Sine founded by the Joof family in this dynastic period, the Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof holds great significance in Senegambian, Joof family and Serer history, because all the subsequent royal houses founded by the Joof family (who ruled in three Senegambian kingdoms[15]) branched out from this royal house.[7]

List of kings[edit]

The following is a list of kings from the Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof that reigned in the Serer kingdoms of Sine and Saloum. Their royal titles : Maad a Sinig and Maad Saloum signifies king of Sine and Saloum respectively. The surname Joof is the English spelling in the Gambia, whilst Diouf is the French spelling in Senegal. The proper spelling is Juuf or Juf in Serer which reflects the actual pronunciation (see Joof family) :

Kingdom of Sine[edit]

  • Maad a Sinig Niokhobai Mane Nyan Joof,[16] brother of Boureh Gnilane and the first Maad a Sinig (king of Sine) from this royal house. Reigned : c. 1369 - 1379[17]
  • Maad a Sinig Gejopal Mane Nyan Joof,[18] brother of Boureh Gnilane and Maad a Sinig Niokhobai Mane Nyan Joof. Reigned : c. 1379 - 1394[19] During his reign, his reign, the Kingdom of Sine underwent a religious reformation (the religious reformation of Maad a Sinig Gejopal Mane Nyan Joof)[19][20]
  • Maad a Sinig Ama Kodu Joof,[21] reigned : c. 1516 - 1534.[22]
  • Maad a Sinig Latsouk Gnilane Samba Joof, reigned : c. 1672 - 1688.[23] During his reign, the Serer priestly class (the Saltigues) were public humiliated if the actual event differs from what they had divined at the Xoy ceremony (var : Khoy).[23]
  • Maad a Sinig Ama Kodu Samba Joof,[24] reigned : c. 1715 -1724. He aided the Damel of Cayor at the Battle of Sanghai and defeated the Teigne of Baol.[25]
  • Maad a Sinig Boukar Tjilas Mahe Soum Joof,[26] reigned : 1750 - 1763.[27][28] He was the father of Lingeer Kodu Kumba Yandeh Mbarou Joof (many variations : Codou Coumba Yandé[29]) the princess of Sine and queen mother of Cayor and Baol. Lingeer Kodu Kumba Yandeh Mbarou was the mother of Damel-Teigne Makodu Yandeh Mbarou Joof Faal (var : Macodou Codou Coumba Yandé), the king of Cayor and Baol (see Guelowar).[28]
  • Maad a Sinig Ama Kodu Mahe Ngom Joof, reigned 1770 - 1789. As well as chairing the meetings of the Saltigues during his reign, he also challenged their authority. Apart from his interference in religious matters, the Kingdom of Sine was very peaceful during his reign.[30]
  • Maad a Sinig Jaligue Sira Joof,[31] reigned : 1885 - 1886[3][32] He came to the throne following a civil war brought on by the dynastic struggles of Maad a Sinig Amadi Baro Joof and Maad a Sinig Mbackeh Mak Njie.[33] He died few months after succeeding to the throne. After his death, the Junjung of Sine was recovered from his estate and kept by his successor and former adversary (Maad a Sinig Mbackeh Mak).[34]
  • Maad a Sinig Niokhobai Semou Joof,[35] reigned 1886 - 1887[3][34]
  • Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof. He was the last Serer king of Sine from this royal house.[1] He died from illness in 1923.[2]

Kingdom of Saloum[edit]

  • Maad Saloum Malawtan Joof,[36] originally from Sine. He was the longest reigning king of Saloum (45 years on the throne) and one of the most well known.[37] Reigned : 1567 - 1612.[38]
  • Maad Saloum Ama-Joof Joof.[39] His father came from Sine. On his maternal line, he was a Guelowar from the royal line of Lingeer Begay Souka (var : Bigué Souka).[11] Reigned : 1690 - 1696[38] Like Malawtan Joof, many of his descendants that ruled Saloum partains to this royal house.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (1972), p 732 (p 19)
  2. ^ a b Klein, Islam and imperialism in Senegal, p. 202.
  3. ^ a b c d e Klein, Martin. A., "Islam and Imperialism in Senegal Sine-Saloum, 1847-1914", Edinburgh University Press (1968), p XV
  4. ^ Other variations : Mbin Bureh Jelane or Buré Ñilaan (see La famille Juuf), or Keur Bouré Gnilane (see Diouf)
  5. ^ a b For the Guelowar period, see : Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum" (Sénégal). Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. Version légèrement remaniée par rapport à celle qui est parue en 1986-87. p 19
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972), pp 709-712 (pp 6-8)
  7. ^ a b c d (French) La famille Juuf [in] « L'épopée de Sanmoon Fay », [in] Éthiopiques, no 54, vol. 7, 2e semestre 1991 [1]
  8. ^ Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire (IFAN), "Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire: Sciences humaines, Volume 46", IFAN (1985), p 232
  9. ^ Variation : Buur-Patar Kholé Diouf (see Diouf)
  10. ^ Variations : (see Diouf) or Laah
  11. ^ a b (French)Ba, Abdou Bouri, "Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip". Avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin, BIFAN, Tome 38, Série B, n° 4, octobre 1976, p 834 (p 14)
  12. ^ Phillips, Lucie Colvin, Historical dictionary of Senegal, Scarecrow Press (1981), pp 52-71 ISBN 0-8108-1369-6
  13. ^ Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Volume 38. IFAN (1976), pp 557-504
  14. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (1972), pp Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972), pp 709-732 (pp 6-19)
  15. ^ See Joof family
  16. ^ Variation : Niokhobaye Mane Niane Diouf
  17. ^ (French) Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972). pp 712 (p 8)
  18. ^ Variation : Guédiopal Niane Mane Diouf, proper : Gedj O Paal Ñaan Juuf in Serer (see Henry Gravrand, "La civilisation Sereer, vol. 2, Pangool, pp 32 and 474
  19. ^ a b Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (1972), p 713 (p 8)
  20. ^ Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation Sereer, vol. 2. Pangool, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Sénégal (1990), pp 32-33, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1
  21. ^ Variation : Amakodou Diouf
  22. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (1972), p 716 (p 11)
  23. ^ a b Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (1972), p 719 (p 12)
  24. ^ Variation : Amakodou Samba Diouf
  25. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (1972), p 721 (p 14)
  26. ^ Variations : Boukar Tjilas Mahé Soum Diouf or Boukar Tjilas Mahé Soum Diouf
  27. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (1972), p 723 (p 15)
  28. ^ a b "Notes africaines, Issues 145-156", Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Institut français d'Afrique noire, (1975), p 111
  29. ^ Other variation : Kodu Kumba Yandeh Mbarou, Codou Coumba Yandé Mbarou, etc. For Codou Coumba Yandé, see : "Notes africaines, Issues 145-156", Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Institut français d'Afrique noire, (1975), p 111
  30. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (1972), p 723 (p 14)
  31. ^ Variation : Dialgui Sira Diouf
  32. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (1972), p 731 (p 19)
  33. ^ Variations : Mbackeh Kodu Njie, M'Backé Kodou N'Diaye or M'Backé Kodou Mack, see Klein, p XV, proper : Mbackeh Kodu Njaay in Serer
  34. ^ a b Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", (1972), p 731-2 (p 19)
  35. ^ Variation: Niokhobaye Semou Diouf or Niokhobaye Diouf
  36. ^ Variation : Maléotane Diouf
  37. ^ Ba, p 833 (p 13)
  38. ^ a b List of kings of Saloum by king « Fodé Diouf » (Maad Saloum Fode N'Gouye Joof) [in] Brigaud, Félix, "Histoire traditionnelle du Sénégal", Études sénégalaises, n° 9, St-Louis, CRDS, 1962, pp 161-162 [in] Ba, Abdou Bouri, "Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip". Avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin, BIFAN, Tome 38, Série B, n° 4, octobre 1976, p 828 (pp 10-)
  39. ^ Variation : Amadiouf Diouf

Bibliography[edit]

  • Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972).
  • La famille Juuf [in] « L'épopée de Sanmoon Fay », [in] Éthiopiques, no 54, vol. 7, 2e semestre 1991 [2]
  • Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum" (Sénégal). Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. Version légèrement remaniée par rapport à celle qui est parue en 1986-87 (extract)
  • Klein, Martin. A., "Islam and Imperialism in Senegal Sine-Saloum, 1847-1914", Edinburgh University Press (1968), ISBN 85224 029 5
  • Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, "Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire: Sciences humaines, Volume 46", IFAN (1985), p 232
  • Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation Sereer, vol. 2. Pangool, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Sénégal (1990), ISBN 2-7236-1055-1
  • Phillips, Lucie Colvin, Historical dictionary of Senegal, Scarecrow Press (1981), pp 52-71 ISBN 0-8108-1369-6
  • Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Volume 38. IFAN (1976), pp 557-504
  • List of kings of Saloum by king « Fodé Diouf » [in] Brigaud, Félix, "Histoire traditionnelle du Sénégal", Études sénégalaises, n° 9, St-Louis, CRDS, (1962), pp 161–162
  • Ba, Abdou Bouri, "Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip". Avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin, BIFAN, Tome 38, Série B, n° 4, octobre (1976)
  • "Notes africaines, Issues 145-156", Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Institut français d'Afrique noire, (1975), p 111

External links[edit]

  • La famille Juuf [in] « L'épopée de Sanmoon Fay », [in] Éthiopiques, no 54, vol. 7, 2e semestre 1991 [3]
  • Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum" (Sénégal). Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. Version légèrement remaniée par rapport à celle qui est parue en 1986-87 (extract)
  • Alioune Sarr, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum" [in] Omar Diaw, "Sénégal: Diakhao - Dans la cour des Bour Sine" (27 Mars 2012) [in] All Africa [4] (regarding Serer royalty of Sine)