|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2009)|
|Assembly||Sant'Agata Bolognese, Italy|
|Designer||Marcello Gandini at Bertone|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door coupé|
|Layout||Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
LP400, LP400S: 4.0 L (3929 cc)
LP500S: 4.8 L (4754 cc)
5000QV, 25th Anniversary: 5.2 L (5167 cc)
|Wheelbase||96.46 in (2,450 mm) |
|Length||162.99 in (4,140 mm) |
|Height||42.13 in (1,070 mm) |
The Lamborghini Countach is a mid-engined supercar that was produced by Italian automaker Lamborghini from 1974 to 1990. Its design both pioneered and popularized the wedge-shaped, sharply angled look popular in many high-performance sports cars. The "cabin-forward" design concept, which pushes the passenger compartment forward in order to accommodate a larger engine, was also popularized by the Countach.
In 2004, American car magazine Sports Car International named the car number three on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s, and it was listed as number ten on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s.
The prototype was introduced to the world at the 1971 Geneva Motor Show. Most previous and subsequent Lamborghini car names were associated with bulls and bullfighting.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2010)|
The Countach was styled by Marcello Gandini of the Bertone design studio, the same designer and studio that designed the Miura. Gandini was then a young, inexperienced designer—not very experienced in the practical, ergonomic aspects of automobile design, but at the same time unhindered by them. Gandini produced a striking design. The Countach shape was wide and low (42.1 inches (1.07 m)), but not very long (only 163 inches (4.1 m)). Its angular and wedge-shaped body was made almost entirely of flat, trapezoidal panels.
The doors, a Countach trademark, were scissor doors: hinged at the front with horizontal hinges, so that they lifted up and tilted forwards. The main reason is the car's tubular spaceframe chassis results in very high and wide door sills. It was also partly for style, and partly because the width of the car made conventional doors impossible to use in an even slightly confined space. Care needed to be taken, though, in opening the doors with a low roof overhead. The car's poor rear visibility and wide sills led to drivers adopting a method of reversing the car for parking by opening the door, sitting on the sill, and reversing while looking over the back of the car from outside.
The pure style of the prototype was progressively altered by the evolution of the car to improve its performance, handling, tractability, and ability to meet mandated requirements. This began with the first production model, which included several vents which were found to be necessary to cool the engine adequately. These included the iconic NACA duct on the door and rear fender of each side of the car. The car design changes ended with a large engine vent directly behind the driver, reducing the rear view. Later additions, including fender flares, spoilers, carburetor covers, and bumpers, progressively changed the aesthetic values of the car.
The Countach's styling and visual impression caused it to become an icon of great design to almost everyone except automotive engineers. The superior performance characteristics of later Lamborghini models (such as the Diablo, or the Murciélago) appealed to performance car drivers and engineers, but they never had the originality or outrageousness that gave the Countach its distinction. The different impressions left by the various Lamborghini models have generated numerous debates and disagreements over what constitutes "classic" or "great" automotive design (elegant looks and style, versus technical and engineering superiority).
The rear wheels were driven by a traditional Lamborghini V12 engine mounted longitudinally with a mid-engined configuration. This contrasted with the Miura, on which the centrally mounted engine had been installed transversely. For better weight distribution, the engine is pointed "backwards"; the output shaft is at the front, and the gearbox is in front of the engine, the driveshaft running back through the engine's sump to a differential at the rear. Although originally planned as a 5-liter powerplant, the first production cars used the Lamborghini Miura's 4-liter engine. Later advances increased the displacement to 4.8 liters and then (in the "Quattrovalvole" model) 5.2 L with four valves per cylinder.
All Lamborghini Countaches were equipped with six Weber carburetors until the arrival of the 5000QV model, at which time the car became available in America, and used Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection. The European models, however, continued to use the carburetors (producing more power than fuel-injected cars) until the arrival of the Lamborghini Diablo, which replaced the Countach.
The Countach used a skin of aircraft-grade aluminium over a tubular space frame, as in a racing car. Although expensive to build, it is immensely strong and very light; despite its size, the car weighs approximately 1,400 kg (3,100 lb)). The underbody tray was fiberglass.
Prototype LP 500
A single prototype was built, the LP 500  (the 500 standing for the 5.0 L displacement of the engine which was intended to be used). Painted bright sunflower yellow, the car was a stunner at the Geneva Motor Show in 1971. Sporting Gandini's original design concepts, the car's design needed extensive modification for production. In particular, the small air intake ducts on the car's rear shoulders proved insufficient to cool the engine, and large "air box" scoops were added in that position. The experimental car was also constructed of aluminium honeycomb sheeting among other things, which was dropped for production.
The car did not survive; it was sacrificed in a crash test at MIRA facility to gain European type approval, even though its construction method was utterly unlike production vehicles.
The Countach entered production as the LP 400 with a 4.0-litre (3929 cc) 375 PS engine. The first production Countach was delivered to an Australian in 1974. Externally, little had altered from the final form of the prototype except at the rear, where conventional lights replaced the futuristic light clusters of the prototype. The styling had become rather more aggressive than Gandini's original conception, with the required large air scoops and vents to keep the car from overheating, but the overall shape was still very sleek. The original LP 400 rode on the quite narrow tires of the time, but their narrowness and the slick styling meant that this version had the lowest drag coefficient of any Countach model and possibly the highest top speed. The emblems at the rear simply read "lamborghini" and "Countach", with no engine displacement or valve arrangement markings as is found on later cars. By the end of 1977 the company had produced 158 Countach LP 400s.
In 1978, a new LP 400S model was introduced. Though the engine was slightly downgraded from the LP 400 model (355 PS), the most radical changes were in the exterior, where the tires were replaced with much wider Pirelli P7 units, and fiberglass wheel arch extensions were added, giving the car the fundamental look it kept until the end of its production run. An optional V-shaped spoiler was available over the rear deck, which, while improving high-speed stability, reduced the top speed by at least 10 miles per hour (16 km/h). Most owners ordered the wing. The handling of the LP 400S was improved by the wider tires which made the car more stable in cornering. Aesthetically, some prefer the slick lines of the original while others prefer the more aggressive lines of the later models, beginning with the LP 400S. The standard emblems ("Lamborghini" and "Countach") were kept at the rear, but an angular "S" emblem was added after the "Countach" on the right side.
There are three distinct Countach LP 400S Series:
- Series One: The first 50 cars delivered with Campagnolo "Bravo" wheels in 1978 and 1979. The very early 1978 cars had the original LP 400 steering wheel. Small Stewart Warner gauges, 45 millimetres (1.8 in) carburettors and a lowered suspension (lowbody) setting is a trademark feature of this celebrated first series. Halfway through 1979's production, bigger gauges were employed. 50 cars were built and the last one is noted to be 1121100*.
- Series Two: These cars are recognized by their smooth finish dished/concave wheels, and still retain the lowbody setting. 105 cars were built and the last one is noted to be 1121310*.
- Series Three: It is claimed that from chassis number 1121312 onwards, the cockpit space available was raised by 3 cm (1.2 in). These cars are recognized by their raised suspension setting. 82 cars were built, and the last one is noted to be 1121468*.
1982 saw another improvement, this time giving a bigger, more powerful 4.8-litre engine. The bodywork was unaltered. This version of the car is sometimes called the LP 5000S, which may cause confusion with the later 5000QV (next section). 323 cars were built.
In 1985 the engine was improved again, bored and stroked to 5.2 litres (5,167 cc) and given four valves per cylinder (quattrovalvole in Italian). The carburetors were moved from the sides to the top of the engine for better breathing—unfortunately this created a hump on the engine deck, reducing the already poor rear visibility to almost nothing. Some body panels were also replaced by Kevlar. In later versions of the engine, the carburettors were replaced with fuel-injection.
For the first time, a US specification model was produced by the factory, with styling changes to allow bumpers to meet US federal standards. (Many had those bumpers removed immediately as the bulky looking addition to the car was said to ruin the otherwise smooth lines of the body.) Although this change was the most notable on the exterior, the most prominent change under the hood was the use of Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection providing 420 PS (309 kW; 414 hp), rather than the six Weber carburettors providing 455 bhp (339 kW; 461 PS) used in the Euro-spec model. The 1985 US model had a base price close to $100,000. Only two optional extras were available: a $5,500 aerodynamic spoiler and a $7,500 sound system. As for other markets, 1987 and 1988 model Quattrovalvoles received straked sideskirts. 610 cars were built.
25th Anniversary Countach
|25th Anniversary Countach|
|Engine||5.2 L (5167 cc) V12|
|Wheelbase||2,500 mm (98.4 in)|
|Length||4,140 mm (163.0 in)|
|Width||2,000 mm (78.7 in)|
|Height||1,070 mm (42.1 in)|
|Curb weight||1,490 kg (3,285 lb)|
Named to honor the company's twenty-fifth anniversary, in 1988, the 25th Anniversary Countach was mechanically very similar to the 5000QV but sported much changed styling. The rear "air boxes" were restyled and enlarged, while the vents behind them were changed so that they ran front to back instead of side to side. In addition, a new air dam and side skirting, both with air intakes, were fitted, and the taillights were restyled to be narrower, with body-colored panels replacing the upper and lower parts of the previous large taillights. The styling changes were unpopular with many, particularly since the intakes had strakes in them that appeared to mimic those on the Ferrari Testarossa, but they improved the engine's cooling, a problem the Countach had always struggled with. It also featured 345/35R15 tires; the widest tires available on a production car at the time. The Anniversary was produced through 1990 when it was replaced by the Lamborghini Diablo.
Walter Wolf Countach
In 1975, Walter Wolf, a wealthy Canadian businessman and owner of the Wolf F1 Racing team in the 1970s, purchased an LP 400; however, he was not satisfied with the LP 400's engine and asked Dallara, the chief engineer of Lamborghini at that time and the founder of the Italian F1 racing team Scuderia Italia in the mid-1980s, to create a special high-power version of the Countach. It was the "code No. 1120148" Walter Wolf special with the original "5" engine from the Countach prototype, which produced 447 hp / 7900 rpm and reached a supposed maximum speed of 315 or 323.6 km/h (195.7 or 201.1 mph). This model also featured the upgraded wheels, Pirelli P7 tires, large fender flares, and front and rear spoilers of the LP 400S model. It was painted in red, with black fender flares, and was designated "LP 500S" like the standard Countach model from the 1980s, and was the stepping stone that led to this later production model. Two other Wolf Countaches were produced, one painted blue, No. 1120202 (currently in Germany) and one navy blue, No. 1121210. (This machine was owned by Mr. Wolf for a long time, but was eventually sold.)
A total of 2,042 cars were built during the Countach's sixteen-year lifetime:
|Prototype||LP 400||LP 400S||LP 500S||LP 5000QV||25 Anniversary|
Substantially more than half were built in the final five years of production, as Lamborghini's new corporate owners increased production.
|Model||Capacity||Power||Torque||Compression ratio||Fuel system|
|Study LP 500||4971 cc||328 kW 446 PS (328 kW; 440 hp)||448 Nm @ 5750 rpm||10,5:1||Carburetor|
|LP 400||3929 cc||276 kW (375 PS)||361 N·m (266 lb·ft) @ 5000/min||10,5:1||Carburetor|
|LP 400S||3929 cc||261 kW (355 PS)||356 N·m (263 lb·ft) @ 5000/min||10,5:1||Carburetor|
|LP 500S||4754 cc||276 kW (375 PS)||418 N·m (308 lb·ft) @ 4500/min||9,2:1||Carburetor|
|LP 5000S QV
|5167 cc||335 kW (455 PS)||500 N·m (369 lb·ft) @ 5200/min||9,5:1||Carburetor|
|Evoluzione||5167 cc||360 kW (490 PS)||9,5:1||Carburetor|
|LP 500 Turbo S Prototype||4754 cc||549 kW (748 PS)||876 N·m (646 lb·ft) @ 4500/min||Carburetor with 2 turbochargers|
Driving performance and weight
|Model||Top speed||Acceleration 0 – 100 km/h||Empty weight|
|LP 500 Prototype||300 km/h (186 mph)||5 s||1,130 kg (2,491 lb)|
|LP 400||309 km/h (192 mph)||5.4 s||1,065 kg (2,348 lb)|
|LP 400S||292 km/h (181 mph)||5.9 s||1,200 kg (2,646 lb)|
|LP 500S||300 km/h (186 mph)||5.4 s||1,480 kg (3,263 lb)|
|LP 5000S QV||295 km/h (183 mph)||4.9 s||1,490 kg (3,285 lb)|
|25th Anniversary||295 km/h (183 mph)||4.9 s||1,590 kg (3,505 lb)|
|Evoluzione||330 km/h (205 mph)||4.2 s||980 kg|
|LP 500 Turbo S Prototype||333 km/h (207 mph)||3.6 s||N/A|
In 1984, Rod Ladret of Ladret Design Studio located in Alberta, Canada, began producing and marketing a replica of the Countach. The form for the kit was sculpted from plaster and then a fiberglass mold was made of the form. The kits and cars Ladret Design Studio built included a tube frame chassis with an American V8 power plant. Ladret Design Studio built 141 of these replicas and the industrial clients who purchased his fiberglass forms have built several thousand over the past two decades. As of 2007 there are still several companies building kits based on Ladret's forms built in 1984. In 1993, Ladret ceased manufacturing the Countach replica and moved on to other projects.
From around 1985 until the late 1990s, several companies replicated the Countach with varying degrees of success. In 1985, Gary Thompson and Pete Jackson rented a real Countach from an up-market Manchester car-rental company and made a glass-fiber mold of it. This mold resulted in a number of UK-based manufacturers producing their own Countach replicas. A few were able to produce remarkably good replicas, including Paul Lawrenson of Prova Cars, Alan Booth of Sienna Cars, Phil Cheetham of Mirage Replicas, and Ken Cook of Brightwheel/Classic Replicas. DC Supercars now has Phil Cheetham moulds and is producing Countach replicas.
- "Designer". ajovalo.net. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- World Cars 1982. Herald Books. ISBN 0-910714-14-2.
- World Cars 1978. Herald Books. ISBN 0-910714-10-X.
- Legendary Cars. White Star. 2005. ISBN 978-88-544-0098-6.
- "Nachtschicht im Schloss: A report on a concours d'elegance at Schloss Bensberg". Auto Motor u. Sport. Heft 25 2010: 38. 18 November 2010.
- "LP500 Prototipo". supercars.net. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Collectible Classic: 1974-90 Lamborghini Countach". Automobile Magazine. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
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|*The Gallardo LP550-2 uses a rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive layout.|