Lancaster House Agreement
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The negotiations which led to the Lancaster House Agreement brought recognised independence to Rhodesia following Ian Smith’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965. The Agreement (signed in December 1979) covered the Independence Constitution, pre-independence arrangements, and a ceasefire. The parties represented during the conference were: the British Government, the Patriotic Front led by Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo, ZAPU (Zimbabwe African Peoples Union) and ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) and the Zimbabwe Rhodesia government, represented by Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Ian Smith. It was signed on 21 December 1979.
Following the Meeting of Commonwealth Heads of Government held in Lusaka from 1–7 August 1979, the British government invited Muzorewa and the leaders of the Patriotic Front to participate in a Constitutional Conference at Lancaster House. The purpose of the Conference was to discuss and reach agreement on the terms of an Independence Constitution, to agree on the holding of elections under British authority, and to enable Zimbabwe Rhodesia to proceed to lawful and internationally recognized independence, with the parties settling their differences by political means.
In the course of its proceedings the conference reached agreement on the following issues:
- An outline of the Independence Constitution;
- arrangements for the pre-independence period;
- a cease-fire agreement signed by all the parties.
In concluding this agreement and signing its report, the parties undertook:
- to accept the authority of the Governor;
- to abide by the Independence Constitution;
- to comply with the pre-independence arrangements;
- to abide by the cease-fire agreement;
- to campaign peacefully and without intimidation;
- to renounce the use of force for political ends;
- to accept the outcome of the elections and to instruct any forces under their authority to do the same.
Under the Independence Constitution agreed, 20 per cent of the seats in the country's parliament were to be reserved for whites.
In addition to the terms cited above, Robert Mugabe and his supporters were pressured into agreeing to wait ten years before instituting land reform.
The three-month long conference almost failed to reach an accord due to disagreements on land reform. Mugabe was pressured to sign and land was the key stumbling block. Both the British and American governments offered to buy land from willing white settlers who could not accept reconciliation (the "Willing buyer, Willing seller" principle) and a fund was established, to operate from 1980 to 1990.
Lord Carrington and Sir Ian Gilmour signed the report for the United Kingdom, Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Dr Silas Mundawarara signed for Zimbabwe Rhodesia, and Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo for the Patriotic Front.
United Kingdom delegation
- Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington (Chairman)
- Sir Ian Gilmour
- Sir Michael Havers
- David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech
- Richard Luce
- Sir Michael Palliser
- Sir Antony Duff
- D. M. Day
- R. A. C. Byatt
- Robin Renwick, Baron Renwick of Clifton
- P. R. N. Fifoot
- Sir Nicholas Fenn, Head of News Department of the Foreign Office
- George Walden
- C. D. Powell
- P. J. Barlow
- R. D. Wilkinson
- A. M. Layden
- R. M. J. Lyne
- M. J. Richardson
- C. R. L. de Chassiron
- A. J. Phillips
- M. C. Wood
Patriotic Front delegation
- Robert Mugabe – ZANU-PF leader and future President of Zimbabwe
- Joshua Nkomo – PF-ZAPU leader
- Josiah Mushore Chinamano – ZAPU leader, moderate, detained with Nkomo, future government minister
- Edgar Tekere – future Government minister, expelled from the party in 1988 after he denounced plans to establish a one-party state in Zimbabwe. He also emerged as a vocal critic of the massacre of civilians in Matabeleland after government launched a crackdown against so-called dissidents in the region. He formed his own party, Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM) in 1989 ahead of general elections in 1990.
- General Josiah Tongogara, ZANLA general, from ZANU militant external wing
- Ernest R Kadungure, ZAPU, future Finance secretary
- Dr H Ushewokunze – first health minister, director of energy and transportation, director of political affairs. Flamboyant and often controversial, he often clashed with the Mugabe administration and was thrown out of the government, welcomed back in, then thrown out again. He died in 1995 and was buried in Zimbabwe's national cemetery. He was declared a national hero.
- Dzingai Mutumbuka – future minister of education
- Josiah Tungamirai – future Air force chief, after retirement as MP for Gutu North.
- Edson Zvobgo – lawyer, Harvard graduate, future Government minister, clashed with Mugabe around press freedom, buried a national hero.
- Dr Simbi Mubako
- Prof Walter Kamba, later Vice-Chancellor of the University of Zimbabwe
- Joseph Msika – ZAPU leader, detained with Nkomo, future vice-president
- T George Silundika – ZAPU Publicity and Information Secretary
- A M Chambati – Future Minister of Finance (and died from cancer within 6 months of accepting the post) after David J M Vincent declined the post.
- John Nkomo – Future Vice-President
- L Baron
- S K Sibanda
- E Mlambo
- C Ndlovu
- E Siziba
Zimbabwe Rhodesia delegation
- Prime Minister Bishop Abel Muzorewa
- S C Mundawarara
- E L Bulle
- F. Zindoga
- D C Mukome
- G B Nyandoro
- Reverend Ndabaningi Sithole
- L Nyemba
- Chief Kayisa Ndiweni
- Z M Bafanah
- Ian Smith
- D C Smith
- R Cronje
- C Andersen
- Dr J Kamusikiri
- G Pincus
- L G Smith
- Air Vice Marshal H Hawkins
- Dr E M F Chitate
- David Zamchiya
- Simpson Mutambanengwe
- M A Adam
- P Claypole
- Gordon Chavunduka
In 1980 the first phase of land reform, partly funded by the United Kingdom, resettled around 70,000 landless people on more than 20,000 km² of land in the new Zimbabwe.
In 1981 the British assisted in setting up a Zimbabwe conference on reconstruction and development, at which more than £630 million of international aid was pledged.
In 1997 War veterans began receiving individual personal payments of ZW$50,000 each for their service in the war, costing the nation's tax payers billions of dollars and depleting government coffers. Then some months later Robert Mugabe announced the forced acquisition of land under Section 8 would proceed, and within 24 hours the local currency had devalued more than 50% and thus began the hyper-inflation and demonetisation of Zimbabwean currency and the "Flights of Whites" from the country. Most never to return.
In the time since independence, the Lancaster House Agreement was modified and changed more than 27 times according to a Zimbabwe independent newspaper.
- Preston, Matthew (2004). Ending Civil War: Rhodesia and Lebanon in Perspective. London: Tauris. p. 25. ISBN 1850435790.
- Chung, Fay; Kaarsholm, Preben (2006). Re-living the Second Chimurenga: memories from the liberation struggle in Zimbabwe. Harare: Weaver Press. p. 242. ISBN 9171065512.
- Martin, D.; Johnson, P. (1981). The struggle for Zimbabwe. Boston: Faber and Faber. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-85345-599-8.