Voice of America

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"VOA" redirects here. For other uses, see VOA (disambiguation).
For other uses of "Voice of America", see Voice of America (disambiguation).
Voice of America
Type International public broadcaster
Country United States (for external consumption only)
Founded 1942
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
Owner United States government
Official website
www.voanews.com
Voice of America headquarters in Washington, D.C.
Yankee Doodle, the interval signal of the Voice of America

The Voice of America (VOA) is the official external broadcast institution of the United States federal government. The VOA provides programming for broadcast on radio, TV, and the Internet outside of the U.S., in English and some foreign languages. A 1976 law signed by President Gerald Ford requires the VOA to "serve as a consistently reliable and authoritative source of news."[1] The VOA Charter states: "VOA news will be accurate, objective and comprehensive."[1] The Voice of America headquarters is located at 330 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC, 20237, U.S. The Voice of America is fully funded by the U.S. government. The United States Congress appropriates funds for it annually.

VOA radio and television broadcasts are distributed by satellite, cable and on FM, AM, and shortwave radio frequencies. They are streamed on individual language service websites, social media sites and mobile platforms. The VOA has affiliate and contract agreements with radio and television stations and cable networks worldwide.

The interval signal of VOA radio broadcast is the Yankee Doodle played by a brass band.

Current languages[edit]

VOA News in Russian 2013-01-11: mental illness

The Voice of America website has five versions in English language (Worldwide, Special English, Cambodia, Zimbabwe and Tibet). Additionally, the VOA website has versions in 41 foreign languages (Radio programs marked with an asterisk; TV programs with a plus symbol):

The number of languages vary according to the priorities of the United States Government and the world situation.[2]

History[edit]

American private shortwave broadcasting before World War II[edit]

Before World War II, all American shortwave stations were in private hands.[3] Known privately controlled shortwave networks included the National Broadcasting Company's International, or White Network, which broadcast in six languages,[4] the Columbia Broadcasting System's Latin American international network, which consisted of 64 stations located in 18 different countries,[5] and the Crosley Company in Cincinnati, Ohio, all of which had shortwave transmitters. Experimental programming began in the 1930s, but there were then fewer than 12 transmitters in operation.[6]

In 1939, the Federal Communications Commission set the following policy:

A licensee of an international broadcast station shall render only an international broadcast service which will reflect the culture of this country and which will promote international goodwill, understanding and cooperation. Any program solely intended for, and directed to an audience in the continental United States does not meet the requirements for this service.[7]

Washington observers felt this policy was to enforce the State Department's Good Neighbor Policy, but many broadcasters felt that this was an attempt to direct censorship.[8]

In 1940, the Office of the Coordinator of Interamerican Affairs, a semi-independent agency of the U.S. State Department headed by Nelson Rockefeller, began operations. Shortwave signals to Latin America were regarded as vital to counter Nazi propaganda.[9] Initially, the Office of Coordination of Information sent releases to each station, but this was seen as an inefficient means of transmitting news.[3]

World War II: The VOA begins as the VOA[edit]

Even before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government's Office of the Coordinator of Information had already begun providing war news and commentary to the commercial American shortwave radio stations for use on a voluntary basis.[10] Direct programming began approximately seven weeks after the United States's entry into World War II, with the first live broadcast to Germany, which was called Stimmen aus Amerika ("Voices from America") and was transmitted on February 1, 1942. It was introduced by "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" and included the pledge: "Today, and every day from now on, we will be with you from America to talk about the war. . . . The news may be good or bad for us – We will always tell you the truth."[11] Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States, approved this broadcast, which then-Colonel William J. Donovan and playwright Robert Sherwood, the playwright who served as Roosevelt’s speech writer and information advisor, had recommended to him. It was Sherwood who actually coined the term “The Voice of America” to describe the shortwave network that began its transmissions on February 1, from 270 Madison Avenue in New York City.

The Office of War Information, when organized in the middle of 1942, officially took over the VOA's operations. The VOA reached an agreement with the British Broadcasting Corporation to share medium-wave transmitters in Britain, and expanded into Tunis in North Africa and Palermo and Bari, Italy as the Allies captured these territories. The OWI also set up the American Broadcasting Station in Europe.[12]

Asian transmissions started with one transmitter in California in 1941; services were expanded by adding transmitters in Hawaii and, after recapture, the Philippines.[13]

By the end of the war, the VOA had 39 transmitters and provided service in 40 languages.[14] Programming was broadcast from production centers in New York and San Francisco, with more than 1,000 programs originating from New York. Programming consisted of music, news, commentary, and relays of U.S. domestic programming, in addition to specialized VOA programming.[15]

About half of the VOA's services, including the Arabic service, were discontinued in 1945.[16] In late 1945, the VOA was transferred to the Department of State.

The Cold War[edit]

In 1947, the VOA started broadcasting to the Soviet citizens in Russian under the pretext of countering "more harmful instances of Soviet propaganda directed against American leaders and policies" on the part of the internal Soviet Russian-language media, according to John B. Whitton's treatise, Cold War Propaganda.[17] The Soviet Union responded by initiating electronic jamming of VOA broadcasts on April 24, 1949.[17]

Charles W. Thayer headed the VOA in 1948–49.

Over the next few years, the U.S. government debated the best role of the Voice of America. The decision was made to use VOA broadcasts as a part of its foreign policy to fight the propaganda of the Soviet Union and other countries.

The Arabic service resumed on January 1, 1950, with a half-hour program. This program grew to 14.5 hours daily during the Suez Crisis of 1956, and was six hours a day by 1958.[16]

In 1952, the Voice of America installed a studio and relay facility aboard a converted U.S. Coast Guard cutter renamed Courier whose target audience was Russia and its allies. The Courier was originally intended to become the first in a fleet of mobile, radio broadcasting ships (see offshore radio) that built upon U.S. Navy experience during WWII in using warships as floating broadcasting stations. However, the Courier eventually dropped anchor off the island of Rhodes, Greece with permission of the Greek government to avoid being branded as a pirate radio broadcasting ship. This VOA offshore station stayed on the air until the 1960s when facilities were eventually provided on land. The Courier supplied training to engineers who later worked on several of the European commercial offshore broadcasting stations of the 1950s and 1960s.

Control of the VOA passed from the State Department to the U.S. Information Agency when the latter was established in 1953.[16] to transmit worldwide, including to the countries behind the Iron Curtain and to the People's Republic of China (PRC).

During the 1950s and 1960s, VOA broadcast American jazz, which was highly popular worldwide. For example, a program aimed at South Africa in 1956 broadcast two hours nightly, along with special programs such as The Newport Jazz Festival. This was done in association with tours by U.S. musicians, such as Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong, and Duke Ellington, sponsored by the State Department.[18]

Throughout the Cold War, many of the targeted countries's governments sponsored jamming of VOA broadcasts, which sometimes led critics to question the broadcasts' actual impact. For example, in 1956, Poland stopped jamming the VOA, but Bulgaria continued to jam the signal through the 1970s. and Chinese language VOA broadcasts were jammed beginning in 1956 and extending through 1976.[19] However, after the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, interviews with participants in anti-Soviet movements verified the effectiveness of VOA broadcasts in transmitting information to socialist societies.[20] The People's Republic of China diligently jams VOA broadcasts.[21] Cuba has also been reported to interfere with VOA satellite transmissions to Iran from its Russian-built transmission site at Bejucal.[22] David Jackson, former director of the Voice of America, noted: "The North Korean government doesn't jam us, but they try to keep people from listening through intimidation or worse. But people figure out ways to listen despite the odds. They're very resourceful."[23]

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the VOA covered some of the era's most important news, including Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech and Neil Armstrong's first walk on the moon. During the Cuban missile crisis, the VOA broadcast around-the-clock in Spanish.

In the early 1980s, the VOA began a $1.3 billion rebuilding program to improve broadcast with better technical capabilities. Also in the 1980s, the VOA also added a television service, as well as special regional programs to Cuba, Radio Martí and TV Martí. Cuba has consistently attempted to jam such broadcasts and has vociferously protested U.S. broadcasts directed at Cuba.

In September 1980, the VOA started broadcasting to Afghanistan in Dari and in Pashto in 1982. At the same time, the VOA started to broadcast U.S. government editorials, clearly separated from the programming by audio cues.

In 1985, VOA Europe was created as a special service in English that was relayed via satellite to AM, FM, and cable affiliates throughout Europe. With a contemporary format including live disc jockeys, the network presented top musical hits as well as VOA news and features of local interest (such as "EuroFax") 24 hours a day. VOA Europe was closed down without advance public notice in January, 1997 as a cost-cutting measure. Today, stations are offered the VOA1 - The Hits service (until October 2014 known as VOA Music Mix).

In 1989, the Voice of America expanded its Mandarin and Cantonese programming to reach the millions of Chinese and inform the country, accurately about the pro-democracy movement within the country, including the demonstration in Tiananmen Square.

Starting in 1990, the U.S. consolidated its international broadcasting efforts, with the establishment of the Bureau of Broadcasting.

Post Cold War[edit]

With the breakup of the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe, the VOA added many additional language services to reach those areas. This decade was marked by the additions of Tibetan, Kurdish (to Iran and Iraq), Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, Macedonian, and Rwanda-Rundi language services.

In 1993, the Clinton administration advised cutting funding for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as it was felt post-Cold War information and influence was not needed in Europe. This plan was not well received, and he then proposed the compromise of the International Broadcasting Act. The Broadcasting Board of Governors was established and took control from the Board for International Broadcasters which previously oversaw funding for RFE/RL.[24]

In 1994, President Clinton signed the International Broadcasting Act into law. This law established the International Broadcasting Bureau as a part of the U.S. Information Agency and created the Broadcasting Board of Governors with oversight authority. In 1998, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act was signed into law and mandated that BBG become an independent federal agency as of October 1, 1999. This act also abolished the U.S.I.A. and merged most of its functions with those of the State Department.

In 1994, the Voice of America became the first[25] broadcast-news organization to offer continuously updated programs on the Internet.

New Millennium: Cuts in services[edit]

The Arabic Service was abolished in 2002 and replaced by a new radio service, called the Middle East Radio Network or Radio Sawa, with an initial budget of $22 million. Radio Sawa offered mostly Western and Middle Eastern popular songs with periodic brief news bulletins.

In 2004, Worldnet, a satellite television service, was merged into the VOA.

On September 2008, The VOA eliminated the Hindi language service after 53 years.[26] Previously, radio programs in Russian were gone off the air in July.[26] The same fate happened to broadcasts in Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian and Bosnian.[27] These reductions were part of American efforts to concentrate more resources to broadcast to the Muslim world.[26][27]

In September 2010, the VOA launched its radio broadcasts in Sudan. As U.S. interests in South Sudan have grown, there is a desire to provide people with free information.[28]

In February 2013, a documentary released by China Central Television interviewed a Tibetan self-immolator who failed to kill himself. The interviewee said he was motivated by the Voice of America's broadcasts of commemorations for who committed suicide in political self-immolation. The VOA denied any allegations of instigating self-immolations and demanded that the Chinese station retract its report.[29] In 2013, The VOA finished foreign language transmissions on shortwave and medium wave to Albania, Georgia, Iran and Latin America; as well as English language broadcasts to the Middle East and Afghanistan.[30] The movement was done due to budget cuts.[30]

On 1 July 2014, the VOA cut most of its shortwave transmissions in English to Asia.[31] Shortwave broadcasts in Azerbaijani, Bengali, Khmer, Kurdish, Lao, and Uzbek were dropped too.[31] On 11 August 2014, the Greek service ended after 72 years on air.[32][33]

Agencies[edit]

The Voice of America has been a part of several agencies. From its founding in 1942 to 1945, it was part of the Office of War Information, and then from 1945 to 1953 as a function of the State Department. The VOA was placed under the U.S. Information Agency in 1953. When the USIA was abolished in 1999, the VOA was placed under the Broadcasting Board of Governors, or BBG, which is an autonomous U.S. government agency, with bipartisan membership. The Secretary of State has a seat on the BBG.[34] The BBG was established as a buffer to protect the VOA and other U.S.-sponsored, non-military, international broadcasters from political interference. It replaced the Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) that oversaw the funding and operation of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, a branch of the VOA.[24]

Laws[edit]

Smith–Mundt Act[edit]

Under § 501 of the Smith–Mundt Act of 1948, the Voice of America was forbidden to broadcast directly to American citizens until July 2013.[35] The intent of the legislation was to protect the American public from propaganda actions by its own government.[36] Although the VOA does not broadcast domestically, Americans can access the programs through shortwave and streaming audio over the Internet.

Internal policies[edit]

The VOA Charter[edit]

Under the Eisenhower administration in 1959, VOA Director Harry Loomis commissioned a formal statement of principles to protect the integrity of VOA programming and define the organization's mission, and was issued by Director George V. Allen as a directive in 1960 and was endorsed in 1962 by USIA director Edward R. Murrow.[37] On July 12, 1976, the principles were signed into law on July 12, 1976, by President Gerald Ford. It reads:

The long-range interests of the United States are served by communicating directly with the peoples of the world by radio. To be effective, the Voice of America must win the attention and respect of listeners. These principles will therefore govern Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts. 1. VOA will serve as a consistently reliable and authoritative source of news. VOA news will be accurate, objective, and comprehensive. 2. VOA will represent America, not any single segment of American society, and will therefore present a balanced and comprehensive projection of significant American thought and institutions. 3. VOA will present the policies of the United States clearly and effectively, and will also present responsible discussions and opinion on these policies.[1]

"Two-Source Rule"[edit]

According to former VOA correspondent Alan Heil, the internal policy of VOA News is that any story broadcast must have two independently corroborating sources or have a staff correspondent actually witness an event.[38]

Newsroom[edit]

The Voice of America's central newsroom has hundreds of journalists and dozens of full-time domestic and overseas correspondents, who are employees of the U.S. government or paid contractors. They are augmented by hundreds of contract correspondents and stringers throughout the world, who file in English or in one of the VOA's other radio and television broadcast languages.

In late 2005, the VOA shifted some of its central-news operation to Hong Kong where contracted writers worked from a "virtual" office with counterparts on the overnight shift in Washington, D.C., but this operation was shut down in early 2008.

Shortwave frequencies[edit]

By December 2014, the VOA has been used shortwave transmissions to cover some areas of Africa and Asia. Shortwave broadcasts are still done in these languages: Afaan Oromoo, Amharic, Cantonese, Chinese, English, Indonesian, Korean and Swahili.

English Language Broadcast Frequencies (26 October 2014 through 28 March 2015)[39]
Target audience Frequencies (kHz)
Africa (various times throughout the day) 909, 1530, 4930, 4940, 6080, 9550, 13590, 15580, 17895
South Sudan (1630-1700 UTC) 11900 13870 15180
South East Asia (1100-1200 & 2230-2400 UTC) 1575
Learning English (0030-0100 UTC) 1575

VOA Radiogram[edit]

This is a Voice of America program, started in 2012, which broadcasts digital text and images via shortwave radiograms.[40] This digital stream can be decoded with software of the Fldigi family.

Transmission facilities[edit]

One of the VOA's radio transmitter facilities was originally based on a 625-acre (2.53 km2) site in Union Township (now West Chester Township) in Butler County, Ohio, near Cincinnati. The Bethany Relay Station operated from 1944 to 1994. Other former sites include California (Dixon, Delano), Hawaii, Okinawa, Liberia, Costa Rica, and Belize.[citation needed]

Currently, the VOA and the IBB continue to operate shortwave radio transmitters and antenna farms at one site in the United States, close to Greenville, North Carolina. They do not use FCC-issued callsigns, since they are overseen by the NTIA, which is the Federal Government equivalent of the FCC (which regulates state government and public & private communications) and they operate under different rules. The IBB also operates a transmission facility on São Tomé for the VOA.[citation needed]

Comparing VOA-RFE-RL-RM to other broadcasters[edit]

In 1996, the U.S.'s international radio output consisted of 992 hours per week by the VOA, 667 hpw by RFE/RL, and 162 hpw by Radio Marti.

Estimated total direct programme hours per week of some external radio broadcasters for 1996
Broadcaster 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1996[2]
United States VOA, RFE/RL & Radio Martí 497 1,495 1,907 1,901 2,611 1,821
China China Radio International 66 687 1,267 1,350 1,515 1,620
United Kingdom BBC World Service 643 589 723 719 796 1,036
Russia Radio Moscow / Voice of Russia[1][3] 533 1,015 1,908 2,094 1,876 726
Germany Deutsche Welle 0 315 779 804 848 655
Egypt Radio Cairo (ERTU) 0 301 540 546 605 604
Iran IRIB World Service / Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran 12 24 155 175 400 575
India All India Radio 116 157 271 389 456 500
Japan NHK World Radio Japan 0 203 259 259 343 468
France Radio France Internationale 198 326 200 125 379 459
Netherlands Radio Netherlands Worldwide[1] 127 178 335 289 323 392
Israel Israel Radio International[1] 0 91 158 210 253 365
Turkey Voice of Turkey 40 77 88 199 322 364
North Korea Radio Pyongyang / Voice of Korea 0 159 330 597 534 364
Bulgaria Radio Bulgaria[1] 30 117 164 236 320 338
Australia Radio Australia 181 257 350 333 330 307
Albania Radio Tirana (RTSH) 26 63 487 560 451 303
Romania Radio Romania International 30 159 185 198 199 298
Spain Radio Exterior de España[5] 68 202 251 239 403 270
Portugal RDP Internacional[1] 46 133 295 214 203 226
Cuba Radio Havana Cuba 0 0 320 424 352 203
Italy Rai Italia Radio[1] 170 205 165 169 181 203
Canada Radio Canada International[1] 85 80 98 134 195 175
Poland Radio Polonia[1] 131 232 334 337 292 171
South Africa Radio RSA / Channel Africa 0 63 150 183 156 159
Sweden Sveriges Radio International[1] 28 114 140 155 167 149
Hungary Magyar Rádió[1] 76 120 105 127 102 144
Czech Republic Radio Prague[4] 119 196 202 255 131 131
Nigeria Voice of Nigeria 0 0 62 170 120 127
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Radio Belgrade / International Radio of Serbia 80 70 76 72 96 68

Source: International Broadcast Audience Research, June 1996

The list includes about a quarter of the world's external broadcasters whose output is both publicly funded and worldwide. Among those excluded are Taiwan, Vietnam, South Korea and various international commercial and religious stations.

Notes:

  1. Does not broadcast on shortwave as of 2014.
  2. 1996 figures as at June; all other years as at December.
  3. Before 1991, broadcasting for the former USSR.
  4. Before 1996, broadcasting for the former Czechoslovakia.
  5. REE ceased all shortwave broadcasts in October 2014 but announced in December that it would resume shortwave transmission in Spanish only for four hours a day in order to accommodate Spanish fishing trawlers who were otherwise unable to receive REE at sea.

Controversy[edit]

VOA as a propaganda tool[edit]

Some sources[41]consider Voice of America an instrument of US propaganda campaigns.

National sovereignty[edit]

The Cuban government and allied critics have suggested that the U.S. government violates national sovereignty by broadcasting to their countries,[42] despite Cuba's own broadcasts to the US and elsewhere. This argument has been used to justify open attempts by the Cuban government to jam VOA broadcasts,[43][44][45] as well as respond with equally powerful shortwave transmissions of English-language political broadcasts and communiques directed at the United States. Time interval signals identical to those used by Radio Havana Cuba have also been detected in coded numbers station broadcasts that are allegedly linked to espionage activity in the U.S.[46]

Mullah Omar interview[edit]

In late September 2001, the VOA aired a report that contained brief excerpts of an interview with then Taliban leader Mullah Omar Mohammad, along with segments from President Bush's post-9/11 speech to Congress, an expert in Islam from Georgetown University, and comments by the foreign minister of Afghanistan's anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. State Department officials including Richard Armitage and others argued that the report amounted to giving terrorists a platform to express their views. In response, reporters and editors argued for the VOA's editorial independence from its governors. The VOA received praise from press organizations for its protests, and the following year in 2002, it won the University of Oregon's Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism.

Abdul Malik Rigi interview[edit]

On April 2, 2007, Abdul Malik Rigi, the leader of Jundullah, a militant group with possible links to al-Qaeda, appeared on the Voice of America's Persian service. The VOA introduced Rigi as "the leader of popular Iranian resistance movement."[47] The interview resulted in public condemnation by the Iranian-American community, as well as the Iranian government.[48][49][50] Jundullah is a Sunni Islamist militant organization that has been linked to numerous attacks on civilians, such as the 2009 Zahedan explosion.[51][52]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "VOA Charter". VOA. Retrieved April 22, 2011. 
  2. ^ "FAQs, How do you make decisions to cut or add languages or programs?". bbg.gov. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Berg, Jerome S. On the Short Waves, 1923–1945: Broadcast Listening in the Pioneer Days of Radio. 1999, McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0506-6, page 105
  4. ^ Library of Congress. "NBC Resources Held by the Recorded Sound Section." Library of Congress
  5. ^ Chamberlain, A.B. "CBS International Broadcast Facilities". Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 30, Issue 3, March 1942 Page(s): 118 – 129, abstract at IEEE
  6. ^ Dizard, Wilson P. Inventing Public Diplomacy: The Story of the U.S. Information Agency 2004, Lynne Rienner Publishers, ISBN 1-58826-288-X, p. 24
  7. ^ Rose, Cornelia Bruère. National Policy for Radio Broadcasting. 1971, Ayer Publishing. ISBN 0-405-03580-2. Page 244
  8. ^ Time magazine. "NABusiness." Monday, July 24, 1939. Time.com
  9. ^ Dizard, ibid, p. 24
  10. ^ Roberts, Walter R. "The Voice of America: Origins and Recollections". Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  11. ^ Roberts, Walter R. UNC.edu See also: Kern, Chris. "A Belated Correction: The Real First Broadcast of the Voice of America". Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  12. ^ Dizard, ibid, p. 24-25
  13. ^ Dizard, ibid, p. 25
  14. ^ Dizard, ibid, p. 25
  15. ^ Sterling and Kittross, op. cit., p. 263
  16. ^ a b c Rugh 2006, op. cit., 13
  17. ^ a b Cold War Propaganda by John B. Whitton, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Jan., 1951), pp. 151–153
  18. ^ Appy, Christian G. Cold War Constructions: The Political Culture of United States Imperialism. 2000, University of Massachusetts Press; ISBN 1-55849-218-6, page 126.
  19. ^ Broadcasting Yearbook, 1976 and 1979 editions.
  20. ^ Conference Report, Cold War Impact of VOA Broadcasts, Hoover Institution and the Cold War International History Project of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Oct. 13–16, 2004
  21. ^ Bihlmayer, Ulrich (September 12, 2006). "Fighting the Chinese Government "Firedragon"- Music Jammer AND "Sound of Hope" Broadcasting (SOH), Taiwan" (PDF). IARU Region 1 Monitoring System. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  22. ^ "U.S.: Cuba Jamming TV Signals To Iran – Local News Story – WTVJ". Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  23. ^ Jackson, David. "The Future of Radio II." World Radio TV Handbook, 2007 edition. 2007, Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-5997-9. p 38.
  24. ^ a b Raghavan, Sudarsan V., Stephen S. Johnson, and Kristi K. Bahrenburg. "Sending cross-border static: on the fate of Radio Free Europe and the influence of international broadcasting," Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 47, 1993, access on 2011-03-25.
  25. ^ Kern, Chris. "The Voice of America: First on the Internet". Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  26. ^ a b c "India Set to Lose Voice of America". Washington Post. 12 September 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  27. ^ a b "Voice of America to Cut Language Services". propublica.org. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  28. ^ Abedje, Ashenafi. "Voice of America Expands its Sudan Programming," Voice of America News, September 17, 2010. Retrieved on 2011-03-25
  29. ^ Flanagan, Ed (2013-02-07). "Chinese documentary alleges US broadcaster incites Tibetan self-immolations". Behind the Wall (NBC News). 
  30. ^ a b "VOA Reducing Radio Frequencies". insidevoa.com. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  31. ^ a b "Voice of America Makes More Cuts to International Shortwave Broadcast Schedule". arrl.org. 1 July 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  32. ^ "Voice of America Ends Greek Broadcasts". bbg.gov. 11 August 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  33. ^ "After 72 years on air, VOA's Greek Service goes silent". Kathimerini. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  34. ^ Rugh 2006, 14
  35. ^ Chuck, Elizabeth (July 20, 2013). "Taxpayer money at work: US-funded foreign broadcasts finally available in the US". NBC News. 
  36. ^ Broderick, James F., and Darren W. Miller. Consider the Source: A Critical Guide to 100 prominent news and information sites on the Web. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2007. ISBN 0-910965-77-3, ISBN 978-0-910965-77-4. p. 388
  37. ^ Rugh 2006, 13 – 14
  38. ^ Columbia University Press. Interview with Alan Heil, author of Voice of America
  39. ^ "VOA Broadcast Frequency Schedules". voanews.com. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  40. ^ "VOA Radiogram". VOA Radiogram. Retrieved 2014-04-15. 
  41. ^ Scott, Julia. "America's Propaganda War." March 2, 2005. Salon.com. Salon.com archive
  42. ^ Karen Wald. "Cuba Battles for Sovereignty of the Airwaves". Latin America Press. 
  43. ^ "IBB Fact Sheet". Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  44. ^ "OCB Fact Sheet". Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  45. ^ "Harr, Radio and TV Marti". Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  46. ^ Miami New Times, "Espionage is in the Air," February 8, 2001.
  47. ^ "VoA interviews Iranian terrorist culprit in a sign of backing". PressTV. April 2, 2007. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  48. ^ "VoA interviews Iranian terrorist culprit in a sign of backing". Press TV. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  49. ^ "Iranian speaker says U.S. supports "terrorists"". swissinfo. Archived from the original on December 5, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  50. ^ گفتوگوي صداي آمريکا با قاتل مردم بلوچستان! (in Persian). Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  51. ^ "Preparing the Battlefield". 
  52. ^ Massoud, Ansari (January 16, 2006). "Sunni Muslim group vows to behead Iranians". Washington Times. Retrieved 2007-04-05.