Let L-410 Turbolet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
L-410 Turbolet
Let L-410.jpg
Let L-410MU at Kubinka
Role Airliner, transport aircraft
Manufacturer Let Kunovice
First flight 16 April 1969
Introduction 1970
Status In service
Primary user Aeroflot (Former)
Produced 1971–present
Number built 1,138[1][2]

The Let L-410 Turbolet is a twin-engine short-range transport aircraft, manufactured by the Czech aircraft manufacturer LET, mostly used for passenger transport. Since 1969, more than 1100 airframes have been produced.

Development[edit]

Development of the L-410 was started in the 1960s by the Czechoslovak aircraft manufacturer Let Kunovice. The Soviet airline Aeroflot was looking for a turbine-powered replacement for the Antonov An-2 aircraft, initiating the design development by Let. After preliminary studies of an aircraft called the L-400, a new version was introduced called the L-410 Turbolet. The first prototype, designated XL-410, flew on April 16, 1969. Because of delays in the development of a suitable Czech engine (Walter M601), the prototype and first production version were powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 engines.

After M601 development was completed, the PT6 engine was replaced by M601 engines coupled with Avia V508 three-blade propellers and the next variant was introduced, the L-410M.

A further version for Aeroflot was the L-410 UVP. This has improved performance in take-off and landing due to increased wing and tail area - STOL. However, due to an increased empty weight and a shift in the center of gravity, the aircraft had a decreased seating capacity: 15 passengers.

The L-410UVP-E (the most common variant of the L-410) has increased maximum take-off weight to 6400 kg, M601E engines with increased power, new five-blade propellers designated V 510 and the provision for wing tip tanks to increase fuel quantity. First flight was made in 1984, and production started in 1986.

The L-410UVP-E9 and UVP-E20 are versions which vary from each other only by minor changes arising from various certification regulations. The last L-410 family member is the L-420 which uses the new Walter engine variant, the M601F. Currently produced L 410 UVP-E20's are powered by next derivative of M601 engine designated as GE H80-200 and new Avia Propeller AV-725 five blade propellers.

The L-410 UVP-E is an unpressurized all-metal high-wing commuter aircraft, with Avia V 510 five-blade propellers. It is equipped with a retractable undercarriage. The aircraft uses two hydraulic circuits: main and emergency. The main electrical system operates with 28V DC. The de-icing system is leading edge pneumatic deicers and electrical heating of propellers, cockpit windshields and pitot-static system heads. Maximum take-off weight of the L-410 UVP-E is 6400 kg with the possibility of an increase to 6600 kg for the E9 and E20 variants, seating capacity 17 to 19. Cruise speed is 170 KIAS, maximum range about 770 nautical miles (1,430 km). The airplane is certified for IFR operation, CAT I ILS approach, and flights in icing conditions.

Of the more than 1,100 units built, roughly 500 remain in service. The majority were delivered to the former Soviet Union, but have been resold, particularly to airlines in Asia, Africa and South America. Forty aircraft are in use throughout Europe for commercial operation or skydiving. There are also an unknown number in Russia and ex-Soviet states. The aircraft can be used with short or even unpaved runways.

On 3 September 2013 the Russian company UGMK (Iskander Machmudov) became the wholesale owner of LET Kunovice Aircraft Industries. They announced that they would move production of the L-410 to Russia within the year.[citation needed]

Versions[edit]

Let L410UVP-E16 at an air show in Góraszka, Poland
Let L-410UVP-E of the Slovenian Armed Forces
Let L-410UVP-E of SEAir.
Let L-420 demonstrator at Perth Airport (2000).
L-410
Prototype, three units built.
L-410A
First series with Pratt & Whitney PT6A-27 turbo-prop engines.
L-410AB
Version with four-bladed propellers.
L-410AF
Aerial photo version supplied to Hungary.
L-410AG
With modified equipment.Never built.
L-410AS
Test aircraft, supplied to the USSR. Five airplanes built
L-410M
Second series with Walter M601A engines.
L-410AM
Version with improved M601Bs, also known as L-410MA or L-410MU.
L-410NG
New improved more powerful version with General Electric H80 engines. Expected from 2014.[3]
L-410UVP
Third series, fundamentally modified. Main changes are a trunk, an extended wingspan by 0.80 m, M601Bs, a higher horizontal stabilizer. The UVP variants possesses STOL characteristics (UVP=Russian for "short take-off and landing).
L-410UVP-S
Salon variant of the UVP with upward hinged entrance hatch.
L-410UVP-E
Re-equipped with M601Es, five-bladed propellers, additional fuel tanks at the wing ends. The L 410 UVP-E20 variant is type certified on the basis of FAR 23 regulation (Amendment 34) and have received the Type Certificates in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Russian Federation, Cuba and Chile. After establishing the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) the aircraft also received full EASA Type Certificate valid for all EU (EASA) countries.[4]

The aircraft has also been approved for operation in a number of other countries, like Algeria, Republic of South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Tunisia, Colombia, Venezuela, South Korea, India and others.

L-410FG
Photogrammetry version based on L-410UVP
L-410T
Transport variant of the UVP with larger loading hatch (1.25 m × 1.46 m), can transport 6 stretchers as a medical airplane + a medic, or 12 parachutists. It can also carry 1,000 kg of cargo containers.
L-420
upgraded L-410UVP-E - new M601Fs The Let-420 is the US FAA certified variant of the L 410 UVP-E20 model, has been certified on the basis of FAR 23 regulation (Amendment 41) and have received the Type Certificates in the Czech Republic, USA, Australia and Indonesia and also full EASA Type Certificate.[4]

Operators[edit]

Civilian[edit]

At August 2006, 313 L-410 aircraft remained in airline service. Major operators included: Air-Tec Africa (17), Rivne Universal Avia (13), Atlantic Airlines de Honduras (10), SEARCA (9), Heli Air Services (7), South East Asian Airlines (6), NHT Linhas Aéreas (6), CM Airlines (3), Aerolineas Sosa (4), Citywing (3), Green Air (P) Ltd Nepal (1), Tortug' Air (3), Mombasa Air Safari (3), ABC Air Hungary (3), Kazan Air Enterprise (2), TEAM Linhas Aéreas (2), Transportes Aéreos Guatemaltecos (2), Benair (2) and UTair (2), Kin-Avia (5). Around 111 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the type.[5]

Current civilian operators[edit]

 Brazil
 Bulgaria
 Colombia
 Czech Republic
 Haiti
 Honduras
 Hungary
 Kenya
 Philippines
 Russia
 Ukraine

Former civilian operators[edit]

 Czech Republic
  • Government of the Czech Republic
 Czechoslovakia
 Croatia
 Hungary
 Slovenia
  • Government of Slovenia
 Slovakia
  • Government of Slovakia
 India
 Soviet Union
 France
 Venezuela
  • Private Companies in the Aviation Industries

Current military operations[edit]

 Bulgaria
 Czech Republic
 Cape Verde
 Djibouti
 Lithuania
 Russia
 Slovakia
 Slovenia
 Tunisia

Former military operators[edit]

 Colombia
 Comoros
 Czechoslovakia
 Estonia
 East Germany
 Germany
 Hungary
 Indonesia
 Latvia
 Libya
 Peru
 Soviet Union

Notable accidents[edit]

  • On 6 August 1977, an L-410 crashed into the Lake Balaton killing one man on board.[12]
  • On 7 June 1995, an L-410 belonging to Latvian military, participated in an airshow in Lielvarde military base in Latvia, during which the pilots tried to perform an (unsanctioned) barrel roll. The maneuver would likely be successful, but the initial altitude was too low (about 350 meters) and the aircraft crashed some 150 meters from spectators, killing both men on board.
  • On 10 September 2001, an L-410 carrying 19 people, including University of Washington Husky football fans, alumni and alumni association members crashed into the jungle in the Mexican state of Yucatán, killing all people on board.[13]
  • On 2 March 2003, an L-410 carrying a load of sport skydivers crashed at the dropzone Borki, Russia. The aircraft stalled at high altitude and many of the skydivers survived thanks to their parachutes.[14]
  • On 23 May 2004, two Blue Bird Aviation Let L-410 planes hit each other inflight near Mwingi, Kenya. One of the planes crashed into the ground, killing both crew members on board, while the other landed safely [15]
  • On 27 January 2005, a Farnair Hungary Let L-410 aircraft was carrying out a non-directional beacon let-down with radar assistance at Iași Airport, Romania, but when the crew notified air traffic control of their position over the airport beacon and their intention to turn right outbound, they were seen to turn left. Then the aircraft spiralled down to crash on the airfield. Both crew members on board were killed.
  • On 2 June 2005, an L-410 of Transportes Aéreos Guatemaltecos, registration TG-TAG, carrying 17 passengers on board crashed near Zacapa shortly after take-off. The crew tried to return to the airfield after reporting technical problems. All crew and passengers survived the accident.[16]
  • On 30 October 2005, an Let L-410UVP-E19A Turbolet of Trade Air, registration 9A-BTA, crashed few minutes after take off from Bergamo-Orio Al Serio Airport on its way to Zagreb. All three on board were killed. Weather was poor with a limited visibility due to fog.[17][18]
  • On 31 March 2006 an L-410UVP-E20, operated by TEAM Linhas Aéreas had a fatal accident. TEAM Flight 6865 departed Macaé at 17:19 on a scheduled flight to Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont. The airplane PT-FSE was expected to arrive at 18:02. Contact was lost and the flight appeared to have crashed between the cities of Saquarema and Rio Bonito. All 19 people on board died.[19]
  • On 8 October 2007, an L-410UVP-E10A carrying 15 soldiers and 3 crew members crashed in Cerro Bravo, Colombia.[21][22]
  • On 4 January 2008, an L-410UVP-E, registration number YV2081, operated by Transaven carrying 12 passengers and two crew crashed near Islas Los Roques, Venezuela, killing all on board. The aircraft itself was discovered and recovered five years after the accident.
  • On 14 February 2011, an L-410 operated by Central American Airways carrying 12 passengers and 2 crew members, crashed before landing at Toncontín International Airport. All passengers and crew were killed.[24]
  • On 10 June 2012, a L-410 crash landed at the Borodyanka airstrip, located 50 km north-west of Kiev, Ukraine. Five people were killed and thirteen injured when the aircraft attempted to make an emergency landing in stormy weather. The aircraft was carrying 16 parachutists and two crew members.[29]
  • On 22 August 2012, a Mombasa Air Safari Let L-410UVP-E9, registration 5Y-UV7, with 11 passengers and 2 crew, crashed at an airstrip in the Maasai Mara Game Reserve, Kenya, killing both pilots and two passengers. Nine passengers on board the aircraft received injuries of varying degree. The aircraft that impacted ground shortly after takeoff from Ngerende Airstrip was destroyed.[30]

Specifications (L-410UVP-E)[edit]

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94[31]

General characteristics

Performance

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

  1. ^ flugzeuginfo.net: LET L-410 Turbolet Specification Retrieved on 20 January 2009
  2. ^ LET Aircraft Industries: History Retrieved on 20 January 2009
  3. ^ http://geturbopropnews.com/2012/03/
  4. ^ a b http://www.let.cz/index.php?sec=7&selected=0&other_text=1&ndps=General+information&letadlo_id=6
  5. ^ Flight International, Central American Airlines, Honduras, 3–9 October 2006
  6. ^ Jethro's Citywing fleet listing.
  7. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 49.
  8. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 55.
  9. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 58.
  10. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 59.
  11. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 61.
  12. ^ Víztorony.hu
  13. ^ UW Family Tragedy in Mexico
  14. ^ aviation-safety.net
  15. ^ aviation-safety.net: Accident description
  16. ^ [1].
  17. ^ Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives
  18. ^ La Repubblica.it
  19. ^ "Accident description PT-FSE". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  20. ^ Aviation Safety Net
  21. ^ Aeronave con 15 militares y 3 tripulantes a bordo se accidentó, confirmó el Ejército - Archivo - Archivo digital eltiempo.com
  22. ^ Aviation Safety Net
  23. ^ "Aircraft crashes after crocodile on board escapes and sparks panic". telegraph.co.uk. 21 October 2010. 
  24. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2011/02/15/353190/l-410-crashes-in-honduras.html
  25. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: African Air Services L410 near Kavumu on Feb 14th 2011, impacted mountain". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  26. ^ "Accident Description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  27. ^ "Accident description PR-NOB". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  28. ^ "Noar emite comunicado sobre acidente em Recife" (in Portuguese). Panrotas. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  29. ^ "Storm hits Ukraine parachute jump, five killed". Kyiv Post. 11 June 2012. 
  30. ^ 22 August 2012. "Accident: Mombasa Air Safari L410 at Ngerenge". Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  31. ^ Lambert 1993, pp. 66–67.
  32. ^ excludes tip tanks - 19.98 m (65 ft 6½in) with tanks

External links[edit]