CASA C-212 Aviocar
|Former CASA C-212 of the Swedish Coast Guard|
|Role||Medium transport aircraft|
|Manufacturer||Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA
|First flight||26 March 1971|
|Primary users||Spanish Air Force
Indonesian Armed Forces
Royal Saudi Air Force
Portuguese Air Force
|Number built||478 (CASA) + >100 (IPTN)|
The CASA C-212 Aviocar is a turboprop-powered STOL medium transport aircraft designed and built in Spain for civil and military use. C-212s are also produced under licence in Indonesia by Indonesian Aerospace, formerly called IPTN but now known as IAe. The design was initially marketed under the name of Aviocar, but EADS-CASA no longer uses that name in referring to the C-212.
A total of 478 C-212s of all variants had been delivered through the end of 2008 by EADS-CASA. EADS-CASA predicts that an additional 85 aircraft will be delivered in the 2007–2016 time period. EADS-CASA currently builds only the C-212-400, which received Spanish certification in 1998. The C-212-200 is currently built in Indonesia, and IAe is also reportedly preparing to begin assembly of −400 models.
Design and development 
During the late 1960s, the Spanish Air Force was still operating the already outdated three-engined Junkers Ju 52 and two-engined Douglas C-47, unpressurized and non-turbocharged piston-powered aircraft. CASA developed the C-212 as a more modern alternative using the lighter and more reliable turboprop engine, with the first prototype flying on 26 March 1971. In 1974, the Spanish Air Force decided to acquire the Aviocar to update its fleet.
Airlines took note of the type's success with the military, so CASA developed a commercial version, the first examples of which were delivered in July 1975. In August 2006 a total of 30 CASA C-212 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service around the world.
The C-212 has a high-mounted wing, a boxy fuselage, and a conventional tail. The tricycle undercarriage is non-retractable. It has space for 21–28 passengers depending on configuration. Since the C-212 does not have a pressurized fuselage, it is limited to relatively low-flight-level airline usage (below 10,000 ft (3,000 m) MSL). It is thus ideal for short legs and regional airline service.
Series 100 
- Original military production version. Also known as C-212-5, C-212-5 series 100M, and by the Spanish Air Force as the T-12B and D-3A (for medevac aircraft), 129 built.
- VIP transport version, T-12C.
- Six pre-production C-212As converted for photo-reconnaissance missions, TR-12A.
- Original civil version
- Two pre-production C-212As converted for use as navigational trainers, TE-12B.
- Manufactured under licence in Indonesia since 1976, IPTN producing 28 NC-212-100s before switching to NC-212-200.
Series 200 
Stretched version with updated engines (Honeywell TPE331-10R-511C or −512C, rated at 900 shp (671 kW) each), introduced in 1979. The CASA C-212-200 is also a popular skydiving aircraft, known for its large capacity, fast climb, and large tailgate exit ramp.
- C-212 series 200M
- Military version known as T-12D in Spanish service and Tp 89 for the Swedish Air Force. Specialised ASW and maritime patrol aircraft have been built from this version.
- C-212-200 built under licence by IPTN.
- NC-212-200 MPA
- C-212-200 built under licence by IPTN, Designed as Maritime Patrol Aircraft
Series 300 
Standard production version from 1987 on. Engines were Honeywell TPE331-10R-513C, also rated at 900 shp (670 kW) continuous (925 shp maximum). The propellers were changed from four-bladed Hartzell composite blade propellers to four-bladed Dowty-Rotol all-metal propellers. Winglets and a larger vertical stabilizer area provide improved performance, and the addition of a nose baggage compartment gives the nose a more streamlined look than the Series 200. Various systems have been incrementally upgraded, including the addition of an integrated autopilot system.
- C-212-M series 300 (Series 300M)
- Military version.
- C-212 series 300 airliner
- 26 seat regional airliner.
- C-212 series 300 utility
- 23 seat civil utility version.
- C-212 series 300P
- Civil utility version with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65 engines
Series 400 
Upgraded version with 925 shp (690 kW) TPE331-12JR-701C engines, increased payload and upgraded avionics moved from under the floor to the nose. First flew 4 April 1997, replacing Series 300 in production from 1998.
Civil operators 
- Arctic Transportation Services
- Bering Air
- Bighorn Airways
- Academi
- Executive Airlines - operating as American Eagle in the Caribbean from San Juan, PR (SJU)
- Fischer Brothers d/b/a Northwest Airlink
Military operators 
Incidents and accidents 
- 4 March 1987: Northwest Airlink Flight 2268 crashed while landing at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport in Romulus, Michigan. Nine of the 19 passengers and crew on board were killed.
- 8 May 1987: American Eagle Flight 5452 crashed while landing in Puerto Rico, killing two.
- 1 February 1988: A Panamanian Air Force C-212 crashed into a mountain near the Panamese-Colombian border, killing all 16 people on board.
- 1 December 1989: A United States Army C-212-200 crashed into the Patuxent River while trying to land at the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Maryland, killing all five people on board.
- 16 January 1990: SANSA Flight 32 crashed into the Cerro Cedral, a mountain in Costa Rica shortly after takeoff from Juan Santamaria International Airport in San Jose. All 20 passengers and 3 crew on board died in the crash.
- 24 January 1990: A Venezuelan Navy C-212 crashed into a mountain due to poor weather, killing all 24 people on board.
- 27 March 1990: An Angolan government C-212 was shot down by UNITA rebels near Kuito, killing all 25 people on board.
- 7 June 1992: American Eagle Flight 5456, a CASA C-212 flying from Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico crashed short of the runway in Mayagüez, killing both crew members and all three passengers. The investigation led to the discontinuation of use of the C-212 by American Eagle.
- 8 March 1994: A Spanish Air Force CASA C-212 was hit in the tail by a Serbian SA-7 missile over Gvozd (then Vrginmost) when ferrying UNPROFOR personnel from Sarajevo. The aircraft was part of the Ala 37 deployed in Vicenza, Italy. A Croatian MiG-21 had been shot down over the same area on 14 September 1993. The tail control surfaces were damaged, the left engine failed and several passengers were injured. The crew managed to land the aircraft at Rijeka, Croatia. Spanish technicians were able to repair the damage and have the aircraft back in service in 48 hours.
- 27 November 2004: "Blackwater 61" Presidential Airways CASA C-212-200 (registration: N960BW / serial nr: 231) was contracted by the U.S. Department of Defense to supply American forces deployed in remote areas of Afghanistan. The aircraft entered a box canyon and struck the 14,650-foot (4,470 m) level of Baba Mountain, which has a peak elevation of 16,739 feet (5,102 m). The flight was about 25 nm north of the typical route between Bagram and Farah.
- 22 February 2005: An Indonesian National Police C-212 received engine trouble during landing, causing it to crash into the sea. Of the 18 police officers on board, 15 were killed.
- 26 October 2006: Swedish Coast Guard CASA C-212-200 (registration: SE-IVF/serial nr: KBV 585) crashed in the Falsterbo Canal during a surveillance mission, killing all four on board. Eye-witness accounts suggest that the accident was caused by one of the wings of the aircraft somehow detaching. The preliminary report from the Swedish Accident Investigation Board suggests that the right wing detached due to a fatigue crack which had developed in the load-bearing structure in the wing.
- 15 November 2006: Mexican Navy CASA 212-200 Maritime Patrol (serial AMP-114) crashed in the sea in Campeche coast over the Mexican Gulf during a surveillance mission, all crew managed to survive, due to a smooth maneuver, reasons of the accident still unknown.
- 26 June 2008: Indonesian Military CASA C-212 was flying from the capital to Bogor, carrying 12 military personnel and six civilians, and was due to test a digital mapping camera, but it disappeared in the Salak Mountain region, about 90 km (60 miles south) of Jakarta. An air force spokesman said it was assumed it had crashed.
- 9 October 2009: Uruguayan Air Force CASA C-212 FAU-531, being operated as part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti crashed west of Fonds-Verettes killing all 11 on board.
- 19 June 2010: a Cameroon Aero Service CASA C212 chartered by Sundance Resources crashed in dense jungle after departing Cameroon for Congo, killing all 11 people aboard, including Australian mining magnate Ken Talbot and Sundance personnel, Chairman Geoff Wedlock, Chief Executive Officer Don Lewis, company secretary John Carr-Gregg and non-executive directors John Jones and Craig Oliver. At the time of the accident Talbot was a director of Sundance and its largest shareholder.
- 12 February 2011: Sabang Merauke Raya Air Charter CASA C-212, PK-ZAI, carrying five crew, crashed after takeoff from Batam, Indonesia, during a test flight after engine maintenance was performed. All five crew were killed.
- 1 April 2011: FUGRO Aviation Canada Limited CASA C-212, C-FDKM, carrying three crew, crashed attempting landing at Saskatoon Airport, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, after declaring an emergency with an engine failure. Aircraft crashed on a Saskatoon street and hit a concrete barrier; one killed, two injured.
- 2 September 2011: A Chilean Air Force CASA C-212, carrying 21 people, crashed 500 miles from Chile's Pacific coastline in the Juan Fernández Islands, without survivors. Felipe Camiroaga, one of the most popular Chilean TV presenters was one of those on board the aircraft. Also on board was businessman Felipe Cubillos, who had been working on post-earthquake reconstruction efforts.
- 29 September 2011: An Indonesian Aerospace CASA C-212, registration PK-TLF, built in 1989, carrying 18 people (14 passengers, three crew and the pilot) on a flight between Medan, North Sumatra and Kutacane, Aceh operated by Nusantara Buana Air crashed into Gunung Kapur, a mountain of 1600 metres height in the Bukit Barisan mountain range, 10 km walk from the village of Bukit Lawang in Bohorok district Gunung Leuser National Park. The accident occurred between 07.28 and 08.05 local time about 36 miles northwest of Medan, North Sumatra.
Specifications (Series 300) 
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89
- Crew: Two (pilot and co-pilot)
- Capacity: 26 passengers (civil version), 24 paratroops or 2,700 kg (5,952 lb) cargo
- Length: 16.20 m (53 ft 1¾ in)
- Wingspan: 20.28 m (66 ft 6½ in)
- Height: 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in)
- Wing area: 41.0 m² (441 ft²)
- Airfoil: NACA 653-218
- Aspect ratio: 10.0:1
- Empty weight: 3,780 kg (8,333 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 7,700 kg (16,975 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Garrett AiResearch TPE-331-10R-513C turboprop engines, 617 kW (900 shp) each
- Maximum speed: 370 km/h (200 kts, 230 mph)
- Cruise speed: 300 km/h (162 knots, 186 mph) (econ cruise)
- Stall speed: 145 km/h (78 knots, 90 mph)
- Range: 1,811 km (978 nmi, 1,125 miles) econ cruise, max fuel
- Service ceiling: 7,925 m (26,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 8.3 m/s (1,630 ft/min)
- Up to 500 kg (1,100 lb) of weapons on two hardpoints. Typically, machine gun pods or rocket launchers.
See also 
- Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 October 2007 issue, p. 66.
- Flight International, 3–9 October 2006.
- Jackson 2003, p. 445.
- Eastwood 1990, pp. 85–94.
- "CASA 212-200 Aircraft Found." Vivanews, 30 September 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 45.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 46.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 48.
- Ejército da de baja tres Casa 212 por altos costos de mantención – La Tercera, 11 November 2012
- Hoyle 2011, p. 49.
- Barrie and Pite 1994, p. 39.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 52.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 54.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 55.
- Hoyle 2010, p. 42.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 57.
- Barrie and Pite 1994, p. 55.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 60.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 61.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 63.
- "DOD 4120.15-L – Addendum." designation-systems.net, 26 February 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "U.S. Coast Guard Aviation History." United States Coast Guard, 14 February 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Hoyle 2012, p. 64.
- Flight International 24–30 November 1993, p. 76.
- Vietnamese build-up a response to China
- MSS 6000 For Vietnam
- "Slow advance for Viet army revamp." straitstimes.com.Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- Vietnam Takes Delivery of Third C212-400
- "Accident statistics for CASA C-212." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "List of incidents." Aviation Safety Network Database. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "ASN Aircraft accident CASA C-212 Aviocar 200 N296CA Patuxent River Naval Air Station, MD." Aviation safety Network. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "Accident description, Date: 7 June 1992, Type: CASA C-212 Aviocar 200." Aviation safety Network. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- Vinuesa, Arturo. El conflicto de los Balcanes y la seguridad común europea (Spanish). Editorial Fundamentos, 2002, p. 190. ISBN 84-245-0927-7
- Destacamento C-212 en Vicenza / 1993–2002 (Spanish)
- "Ala 37" (Spanish) ejercitodelaire.mde.es. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "The Flight and Crash of "Blackwater 61." CBS News 60 Minutes. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "Blackwater 61 – Cockpit Voice Recording aviation.military. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "United States District Court Middle District of Florida Division Case No. 6:05-cv-1002-ORL-28-JGG." Sourcewatch.
- Anderson, Rick. "Welcome Aboard Blackwater Airlines." Seattle Weekly News, 14 November 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Press release." Swedish Coast Guard. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "Accident description, October 26, 2006." Aviation Safety Network Database. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "Four dead after coastguard plane crash." The Local, 26 October 2006.
- "Statens Haverikommission." Swedish Accident Investigation Board. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "SEMAR aircraft crashed in Mexican Gulf" (Spanish). SEMAR. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "Plane goes missing over Indonesia." BBC, 27 June 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Recent accidents." Planecrashinfo. Retrieved: 10 October 2009.
- "UN plane crash kills 11 in Haiti." BBC News Online, 9 October 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
- Cameroun : un avion porté disparu avec 11 personnes dont deux Français
- McCullough, James. "Mining magnate Ken Talbot feared dead in plane crash over Congo." couriermail.com.au, 20 June 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- "Sundance Plane Wreckage Found in Congo; No Survivors (Update2)." bloomberg.com. Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- "Crash: Sabang Merauke Raya C212 near Batam on 12 February 2011, lost height enroute." avherald.com.Retrieved: 21 April 2012.
- Grummett, Danny and David Giles. "Ontario man dead as investigators sift through the wreckage of fatal Saskatoon plane crash." Global TV, Saskatoon (Shaw Media), 4 April 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- "Chile air force plane carrying 21 aboard crashes." cbsnews.com, 2 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Buana C212 near Kutacane on Sep 29th 2011, wreckage found, no survivors." avherald.com, 1 October 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Pesawat dengan 14 penumpang jurusan Medan-Kutacane hilang," BBC, 29 December 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "SAR Dekati Titik Jatuhnya Cassa NBA, Nasib Penumpang Belum Jelas." metrotvnews.com, 1 October 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Taylor 1988, pp. 205–206.
- Barrie, Douglas and Jenny Pite. "World's Air Forces". Flight International, Vol. 146, No. 4435, 24–30 August 1994, pp. 29–64.
- Eastwood, Tony and John Roach. Turbo Prop Airliner Production List. London: The Aviation Hobby Shop, 1990. ISBN 0-907178-32-4.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Directory: World Air Forces". Flight International, Vol. 178, No. 5257, 14–20 December 2010, pp. 26–53.
- Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol. 180, No. 5321, 13–19 December 2011, pp. 26–52.
- Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol. 182, No. 5370, 11–17 December 2012. pp. 40–64. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
- Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
- "World's Air Forces". Flight International, Vol. 144, No. 4397, November 1993, pp. 41–76. 24–30.
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