A limiting factor in a system is an input or variable such that a small change in it from the present value would cause a non-negligible change in an output or other measure of the system. A factor which is not limiting over a certain domain of starting conditions may yet be limiting over another domain of starting conditions, including that of the factor in question.
The identification of a factor as limiting is of use only in distinction to one or more other factors which is/are non-limiting. Disciplines differ in their use of the term as to whether they admit of the simultaneous existence of more than one limiting factor (which may then be called "co-limiting"), but they all require the existence of at least one non-limiting factor when the terms are used. When all factors are limiting, none are.
Limiting Factors In Biology and Ecology
In biology, common limiting factors are resource or environmental conditions that limit the growth, abundance, or distribution of an organism or a population of organisms in an ecosystem. The concept of limiting factors is based on Liebig's Law of the Minimum, which states that growth is controlled not by the total amount of resources available, but by the scarcest resource. In other words, a factor is limiting if a change in the factor produces increased growth, abundance or distribution of an organism, when other factors necessary to the organisms life do not. Limiting factors may be physical or biological.
Limiting factors are not all limited to the condition of the species. Some factors may be increased or reduced based on circumstances. An example of a limiting factor is sunlight in the rain forest, where growth is limited to all plants in the under story unless more light becomes available. This decreases a number of potential factors that could influence a biological process, but only one is in effect at any one place and time. This recognition that there is always a single limiting factor is vital in ecology; and the concept has parallels in numerous other processes. The limiting factor also causes competition between organisms in which of the same species population. For example, space is a limiting factor. Many predators and prey need a certain amount of space between another in order to receive enough food, water, and other biological needs. If there is too much population of a species, they start competing for those such needs. This makes some of the population to fade away either by starving or leaving the area due to lack of food in the space the organisms fought over.
In business and technology
The AllBusiness.com Business Glossary defines a limiting (constraining) factor as an "item that restricts or limits production or sale of a given product." The examples provided include: "limited machine hours and labor-hours and shortage of materials and skilled labor. Other limiting factors may be cubic feet of display or warehouse space, or working capital." The term is also frequently used in technology literature.
- Abiotic component
- Bateman's principle
- Biotic component
- Competition (biology)
- Competitive exclusion principle
- Resource (biology)
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