List of Israeli inventions and discoveries
Israeli inventions and discoveries are inventions and discoveries by Israeli scientists and researchers, both locally and while working at overseas research institutes.
- 1 Science
- 2 Defense
- 3 Computing
- 4 Agriculture
- 5 Energy
- 6 Consumer goods and appliances
- 7 Games
- 8 Foods
- 9 Physical exercise
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
- Discovery of Quasicrystals by Dan Shechtman of the Technion. The discovery led him to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- Discovery of the role of protein Ubiquitin by Avram Hershko and Aaron Ciechanover of the Technion Institute (together with the American biologist Irwin Rose). The discovery led them to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- Development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems by Arieh Warshel of the Technion Institute (together with the Austrian-American chemist Martin Karplus and American-British-Israeli Michael Levitt). The discovery led them to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- Prediction of Quarks by Yuval Ne'eman of Tel Aviv University (together with the American physicist Murray Gell-Mann).
- Discovery of the Aharonov–Bohm effect by Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm.
- Formulation of Black holes Entropy by Jacob Bekenstein of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
- World's smallest video camera – a camera with a 0.99 mm (0.039 in) diameter, designed to fit in a tiny endoscope designed by Medigus.
- Development of the "Pillcam" by Given Imaging, the first Capsule endoscopy solution to record images of the digestive tract. The capsule is the size and shape of a pill and contains a tiny camera.
- Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation – a notation system for recording movement on paper that has been used in many fields, including dance, physical therapy, animal behavior and early diagnosis of autism.
- Development of the Copaxone immunomodulator drug for treating multiple sclerosis. It was developed in the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel by Michael Sela, Ruth Arnon and Deborah Teitelbaum.
- Development of the Interferon proteins by Michel Revel from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel.
- Development of taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso), a recombinant glucocerebrosidase enzyme produced from transgenic carrot cell cultures. Taliglucerase alfa won approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in May 2012 as an orphan drug for the treatment of Type 1 Gaucher's disease.
- Work of Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem explaining irrational human economic choices. The work led Daniel to receive the Nobel Prize in Economics.
- Developments in Game theory. Israel Aumann of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem received the Nobel Prize in Economics for his work in this field.
- The Rubinstein bargaining model, one of the most influential findings in game theory, refers to a class of bargaining games that feature alternating offers through an infinite time horizon. The proof is from Ariel Rubinstein 1982.
- Nanowire – a conductive wire made of a string of tiny particles of silver, a thousand times thinner than a human hair. developed by Uri Sivan, Erez Braun and Yoav Eichen from the Technion.
- World's smallest DNA computing machine system – "the smallest biological computing device" ever constructed, according to Guinness Book of Records, which is composed of enzymes and DNA molecules capable of performing simple mathematical calculations and which uses its input DNA molecule as its sole source of energy it was developed in 2003 in the Weizmann Institute of Science by professor Ehud Shapiro and his team.
Theoretical computer science
- Michael O. Rabin introduced the concept of nondeterministic finite automatons.
- Amir Pnueli introduced temporal logic into computing science.
- Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) compression algorithm.
- Adi Shamir with Ron Rivest, and Leonard Adleman introduced RSA public key encryption.
- Uzi Submachine gun – invented by Uzi Gal. The development was completed in 1955. The Uzi is heavily based on the slightly earlier Czechoslovakian Sa vz. 23 submachine gun. "The Sa 23 series was favored for its reliability, compact size, and full automatic fire capability. It is well known that the Sa 23 influenced Uziel Gal's design of the Uzi submachine gun."
- Gabriel – a sea-skimming anti-ship missile.
- Arrow – a family of operational anti-ballistic missiles. Jointly funded and produced by Israel and the United States.
- Merkava tank – a tank optimized for crew survival and rapid repair of battle damage.
- IAI Lavi – an ambitious Israeli production of a modern fighter aircraft. The IAI Lavi was largely based on the existing American F-16 fighter jet, and controversy led to the US pressuring Israel to discontinue production and later controversy of charges Israel provided China with blueprints leading to the Chinese Chengdu J-10 fighter known to also be based on the US F-16.
- Protector USV ia an unmanned surface vehicle, developed by the Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. It is the first of its kind to be used in combat.
- Python – a family of air-to-air missiles (AAMs) built by the Israeli weapons manufacturer Rafael Advanced Defense Systems.
- Unmanned aerial vehicles – an aircraft that flies without a human crew on board the aircraft. Their largest uses are in military applications. Developed by Israel Aircraft Industries.
- Nautilus laser system – a laser developed for military use. Jointly funded and produced by Israel and the United States.
- Iron Dome – a mobile air defense system in development by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems designed to intercept short-range rockets and artillery shells. On April 7, 2011, the system successfully intercepted a Grad rocket launched from Gaza, marking the first time in history a short-range rocket was ever intercepted. The Iron Dome was later utilized more fully in the Israeli-Gaza conflict of 2012, where it displayed a very high rate of efficiency (95%-99%) in intercepting enemy projectiles. Further production of the Iron Dome system will be financed and supported by the United States government.
- Barak 1 – a surface-to-air missile designed to be used as a point-defense missile system on warships, defending against aircraft, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs.
- MUSIC (Multi Spectral Infrared Countermeasure) – a system that counter surface-to-air heat-seeking missiles. It is manufactured by Elbit Systems.
- MagnoShocker – combines a metal detector and a taser to immediately neutralize a dangerous person, developed by the mathematician Amit Weissman and his colleagues Adir Kahn and Zvi Jordan.
- Reconnaissance satellite TecSAR – developed and built by Israel Aerospace Industries.
- Tavor TAR-21 assault rifle – a modern assault rifle designed with the aim to be used as the IDF's standard assault rifle. The rifle was the developed by "Magen", the small arms division of the Israel Military Industries (IMI). The development of Tavor was completed in 2001. In 2005 Magen was sold to the Israeli company Israel Weapon Industries (IWI), which continues to develop and produce the rifle. The MTAR-21 (Micro Tavor) was recently selected as the future assault rifle of the Israeli Defense Forces, and within the next few years it will become the standard Israeli infantry weapon.
- Technion Satellite – launched into space in July 1998, it is one of the smallest satellites in the world. The cube-shaped satellite has 45 centimeter sides and weighs 48 kilograms and has extremely low power consumption. The Technion satellite began as a student project of the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, supervised by Haim Eshed and initiated by Giora Shaviv, former head of the Asher Space Research Institute (ASRI) at the Technion.
- Wall radar – a unique radar utilizing Ultra Wide Band (UWB) to allows users to see through walls. Developed by the Israeli company Camro.
- Injured Personnel Carrier A unique evacuation method developed by Israeli company Agilite Gear, comprises a strap allowing you to carry the wounded person on your back.
Arrow anti-ballistic missile
The IMI Uzi submachine gun
The Merkava tank
The IAI Lavi
The Tavor TAR-21 assault rifle
- USB flash drive – a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB interface. The Israeli company M-Systems (in partnership with IBM) developed and manufactured the first USB flash drives available in North America. This claim is challenged by multiple companies in Singapore (Trek Technology, Malaysia and China (Netac Technology).
- Quicktionary Electronic dictionary – a pen-sized scanner able to scan words or phrases and immediately translate them into other languages, or keep them in memory in order to transfer them to the PC. Developed by the Israeli company Wizcom Technologies Ltd.
- Laser Keyboard – virtual keyboard is projected onto a wall or table top and allows to type handheld computers and cell phones. Developed simultaneously by the Israeli company Lumio and Silicon Valley startup company Canesta. The company subsequently licensed the technology to Celluon of Korea.
Computer and mobile software
- Adi Shamir, co-inventor of Differential cryptanalysis. Algorithms include Shamir's Secret Sharing.
- Lempel–Ziv–Welch algorithm, a universal lossless data compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv of the Technion institute, together with the American Information theorist, Terry Welch.
- Babylon, a single-click computer translation, dictionary and information source utility program, developed by Amnon Ovadia.
- ICQ, an Instant Messaging software developed initially in 1996 by the Israeli company Mirabilis and later procured by AOL.
- Viber, a proprietary cross-platform instant messaging voice-over-Internet Protocol application for smartphones. Developed by American-Israeli entrepreneur Talmon Marco, Viber reached 200 million users in May 2013.
- GetTaxi, an application that connects between customers and taxi drivers using the its proprietary GPS system, enabling users to order a cab either with their smartphone or through the company's website. It was founded by Israeli entrepreneurs Shahar Waiser and Roi More.
- Waze, a GPS-based geographical navigation application program for smartphones with GPS support and display screens, which provides turn-by-turn information and user-submitted travel times and route details, downloading location-dependent information over the mobile telephone network. Waze Ltd., which was founded in 2008 in Israel by Uri Levine, software engineer Ehud Shabtai and Amir Shinar, and is now available in over 100 countries, was acquired by Google for a reported $1.1 billion.
- Drip irrigation using a non-clogging plastic emitter developed in Israel. by Simcha Blass and his son Yeshayahu.
- A variant of the cherry tomato (Tomaccio), developed by Hishtil Nurseries of Israel.
- Hybrid cucumber seeds – In the 1950s, Prof. Esra Galun of the Weizmann Institute developed hybrid seed production of cucumbers and melons, disease-resistant cucumbers and cucumbers suitable for mechanical harvesting. Galun and his colleagues invented a technique for producing hybrid cucumber seeds without hand pollination.
- Grain cocoons - invented by international food technology consultant Professor Shlomo Navarro, the GrainPro Cocoons provide a simple and cheap way for African and Asian farmers to keep their grain market-fresh, as huge bags keep both water and air out, making sure the harvest is clean and protected even in extreme heat and humidity.
- Biological pest control - invented in Kibbutz Sde Eliyahu by a company called Bio-Bee, it breeds beneficial insects and mites for biological pest control and bumblebees for natural pollination in greenhouses and open fields. The company’s top seller worldwide and especially in the U.S. is a two-millimeter-long, pear-shaped orange spider that is a highly efficient enemy of the spider mite, a devastating agricultural pest.
- AKOL - a Kibbutz-based company which gives low-income farmers the ability to get top-level information from professional sources.
- Reusable plastic trays - a Tal-Ya Water Technologies invention used to collect dew from the air, reducing the need to water crops by up to 50 percent.
- "Zero-discharge" system - an invention of the Israeli GFA company which allows fish to be raised virtually anywhere by eliminating the environmental problems in conventional fish farming, without being dependent on electricity or proximity to a body of water.
- TraitUP - a new technology that enables the introduction of genetic materials into seeds without modifying their DNA, immediately and efficiently improving plants before they’re even sowed. It was developed by Hebrew University agricultural scientists Ilan Sela and Haim D. Rabinowitch.
- Super iron battery – A new class of a rechargeable electric battery based on a special kind of iron. More environment friendly because the super-iron eventually rusts, it was developed by Stuart Licht. of the University of Massachusetts.
- Energy tower – Purely theoretical alternative electricity generation and water desalination technology in low cost. The Energy towers spray water on hot air at the top of the tower, making the cooled air fall through the tower and drive a turbine at the tower's bottom. The brainchild of the American physicist Phillip Carlson, it was expanded by Professor Dan Zaslavsky and Rami Guetta from the Technion.
- A unique technology for producing hydrogen in vehicles as an alternative fuel source. It is produced by the Israeli company Engineuity and was invented by Amnon Yogev and Eli Gmaazaon.
- Improvement of previously existing flat plate solar water heaters – A home facility that converts solar energy to thermal energy. Following the energy crisis in the 1970s, The Israeli law requires the installation of solar water heaters in all new homes. It was developed by Zvi Tavor.
Consumer goods and appliances
- Epilator (originally "Epilady") – an electrical device used to remove hair by mechanically grasping multiple hairs simultaneously and pulling them out. It was developed and originally manufactured at Kibbutz HaGoshrim.
- Wonder Pot – a pot developed for baking on the stovetop rather than in an oven.
- Micronized coating instant hot water pipes developed by A.C.T.
- Artificial gills – a theoretical special diving system not yet in production, currently being developed by the Israeli company Like-A-Fish Technologies, it produces oxygen from water, making oxygen tanks unnecessary.
- Rummikub – a tile-based game for two to four players invented in Israel by Ephraim Hertzano.
- Hidato – a logic puzzle game invented by the Israeli mathematician Gyora Benedek.
- Taki – an Israeli card game invented by Haim Shafir.
- Mastermind – an Israeli board game invented by Mordecai Meirowitz.
- Bamba – peanut butter-flavored snack manufactured by the Osem corporation since 1966. Bamba is one of the leading snack foods produced and sold in Israel.
- Limonana – a type of lemonade made from freshly-squeezed lemon juice and mint, created in the early 1990s after an advertising agency promoted the then-fictitious product to prove the efficacy of advertising on public buses. The ad campaign generated so much consumer demand that the drink began to be produced for real by restauranteurs and manufacturers, becoming a summer staple in Israel and other Middle Eastern countries.
- Ptitim also called Israeli kuskus worldwide – wheat-based baked pasta. It was initially invented during the austerity period in Israel when Rice and Semolina was scarce.
- Shkedei marak – small yellow crisp crouton squares used as a soup accompaniment.
- Science and technology in Israel
- Venture capital in Israel
- Yossi Gross
- Start-up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle
- Krav Maga
- Quasicrystals clinch Wolf prize - physicsworld.com
- The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011
- Two Israelis win Nobel Prize in chemistry | health
- The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
- The Nobel Prize in Chemestry 2013
- Yuval Ne'eman - The Telegraph
- PI Distinguished Research Chair Yakir Aharonov Wins US National Medal of Science - Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
- Chronology of Black Hole Physics
- Physics Timeline 1961 – 1980
- World's Smallest Video Camera Record Broken Again
- Israel's 'camera in a capsule' approved for esophagus diagnosis
- Co-founder of movement notation system dies at 79
- Ruth Arnon Profile - Forbes.com
- Multiple Sclerosis « Global Health Vision
- Interferon Based Drug May Eliminate Breast Cancer
- Wang, Aiming (2011). Molecular Farming in Plants: Recent Advances and Future Prospects. Springer. p. 60. ISBN 94-007-2216-8.
- Yukhananov, Anna (1 May 2012). "U.S. FDA approves Pfizer/Protalix drug for Gaucher". Chicago Tribune. Reuters. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, "The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice." Science 1981;211:453-458.
- Robert J. Aumann - Prize Lecture
- Rubinstein, Ariel (1982). "Perfect Equilibrium in a Bargaining Model". Econometrica 50 (1): 97–109. doi:10.2307/1912531.
- DNA Used To Create Self Assembling Conducting Wire: Breakthrough Will Lead To Next Leap In Emerging Nanoelectronics
- Computer Made from DNA and Enzymes
- Tiny Computing Machine Fueled By DNA; Device Awarded In Guinness World Record For "Smallest Biological Computing Device"
- ACM Turing Award Citation
- RSA (algorithm)
- Israel Weapon Industries (IWI) Ltd, Uzi SMG
- Gabriel (Israel) - Jane's Air-Launched Weapons
- ARROW Weapon System
- Arrow Media Gallery
- The Merkava Mk3 Baz Main Battle Tank, Israel - Army Technology
- Merkava series
- "Protector". Defence Updates. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
- Python 4, Python 5 (Israel) - Jane's Air-Launched Weapons
- V24N3 - Battlefield Innovation
- My Way - News
- U.S. and Israel Shelved Laser as a Defense - The New York Times
- Anshel Pfeffer; Yanir Yagna (7 April 2011). "Iron Dome successfully intercepts Gaza rocket for first time". Haaretz. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
- MUSIC Soothes the Savage… Missile?
- כלכלה - טכנולוגיה nrg - המוח הישראלי ממציא לנו פטנטים
- Israel Launches Ofeq-9 Satellite - Defense News
- Israel Weapon Industries (IWI) Ltd, Tavor Family
- Technion satellite set to blast off - The Jerusalem Post | HighBeam Research
- TECHNION FOCUS MAGAZINE - Space - Israel Conquers Space
- Israeli company develops radar system that sees through walls
- DiskOnKey - All-TIME 100 Gadgets - TIME
- USB flash drive#Creator controversy
- Wizcom Technologies Ltd (WZM.DE) Company Profile | Reuters.com
- Marriott, Michel (September 19, 2002). "No Keys, Just Soft Light and You". The New York Times.
- Hesseldahl, Arik (September 18, 2002). "Typing on the table". Forbes.
- Shiels, Maggie (October 15, 2002). "The keyboard that isn't there". BBC News.
- Kanellos, Michael (September 19, 2006). "Honda investing in chips to help cars see". CNET News.
- HP Labs : About HP Labs : HP Fellows : Abraham Lempel
- Translation co Babylon sets new Guinness record for downloads
- About the ICQ - ICQ.com
- Brian Blum (March 24 2011). "Top 10 iPhone apps from Israel". Israel21c. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "Top 10 Israeli apps that are revolutionizing your journey". Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- ZOHAR FRIEDMAN (08/29/2012). "Appaholic: Top 5 ‘Made in Israel’ apps". Jpost. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Tomato 'Tomaccio'
- Weizmann Wonder Wander
- Abigail Klein Leichman (May 10 2012). "The top 12 ways Israel feeds the world". ISRAEL21c. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b400251b rechargeable Fe(III/VI) super-iron cathodes
- FactsOfIsrael.com: Hydrogen fuel-cell cars developed by Israeli researchers
- Going electric with the 'Energy Tower' | environment
- Dan Zaslavsky's Tower That Vacuums Up Greenhouse Gases | Green Prophet
- Israeli Company "Engineuity" Develops Car That Makes Its Own Fuel
- Interview with Zvi Tavor, Haaretz
- גאווה נשית: המצאות ישראליות שעושות לנו כבוד
- "Roast in the Wonder Pot", The Kosher For Pesach Cookbook (1978). Jerusalem:Yeshivat Aish HaTorah Women's Organization, p. 58.
- 3 מדליות זהב הוענקו להמצאות ישראליות ביריד המצאות בקוריאה (26.12)
- BBC NEWS | Science & Environment | Inventor develops 'artificial gills'
- Rummikub® Rules - Rules To Rummy Games
- Rummikub: Old Memories
- Universal Press Syndicate: Creator Bio
- Gone Gaming: Meet Haim Shafir
- Taki - Israeli Uno English and Hebrew Instructions - Judaism.com
- Israeli Snacks: Bamba - Slashfood
- Our Top 10 Israeli Foods — Bring Them Home This Yom Ha'atzmaut – Jew And The Carrot – Forward.com
- Martinelli, Katherine (11 July 2011). "Limonana: Sparkling Summer". Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Ice Limonana – Mint lemonade, the drink of the Israeli summer". Cafe Liz. 4 July 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Eye 2 Israel » Blog Archive » Shkedei Marak » Eye 2 Israel
- "Made in Israel – The top 64 innovations developed in Israel" – ISRAEL21c
- "NoCamels - Israeli Innovation News"