List of extinct flora of Australia

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This is a list of recently extinct flora of Australia, that is plants that are considered to have become extinct since the European colonisation of Australia in 1788. Within Australia there are mechanisms for registering an extinction at the federal, state and territory levels. Federal and state listings may vary due to regional extinctions or because of differing definitions of extinction in the various pieces of legislation.

Plants listed as extinct by the federal government[edit]

Plants and animals are listed as extinct and the federal level under the auspices of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The Act lists all plants considered to have become extinct since the commencement of European settlement of Australia in 1788. There are 52 plants currently listed as extinct under the Act.[1]

Of note, the species Pimelea spinescens subsp. pubiflora was presumed extinct after 1901, but a population was discovered in 2005.[2] The orchid Diuris bracteata was also considered extinct after its first collection in 1899, but it was rediscovered in 1998.[3] Neither have been removed from the EPBC list of extinct plants. The Spiny Everlasting (Acanthocladium dockeri) was reclassified as critically endangered in 2006 after it was rediscovered in 1999.[4] Bennett's Seaweed, declared extinct under the EPBC Act in 1999; was the first protist listed as extinct by the IUCN in 2004.[5]

Name Common name Location(s)
Acacia kingiana WA
Acacia prismifolia Diel's Wattle WA
Acianthus ledwardii QLD
Amperea xiphoclada var. pedicellata NSW
Amphibromus whitei QLD
Argyreia soutteri QLD
Caladenia brachyscapa Short Spider-orchid TAS
Caladenia pumila Dwarf Spider-orchid VIC
Calothamnus accedens WA
Coleanthera virgata Hidden Coleanthera WA
Deyeuxia lawrencei TAS
Didymoglossum exiguum QLD
Diplocaulobium masonii QLD
Euphrasia ruptura subshrub NSW
Frankenia conferta Silky Frankenia WA
Frankenia decurrens Decurrent-leaved Frankenia WA
Hemigenia clotteniana QLD
Huperzia serrata Water Tassel-fern QLD
Hutchinsia tasmanica TAS
Hymenophyllum lobbii QLD
Hymenophyllum whitei QLD
Hypsela sessiliflora NSW
Lemmaphyllum accedens QLD
Lepidium drummondii Drummond's Lepidium WA
Leucopogon cryptanthus Small-flowered Leucopogon WA
Lycopodium volubile QLD
Marsdenia araujacea QLD
Monogramma dareicarpa Grass Fern QLD
Musa fitzalanii QLD
Oberonia attenuata QLD
Olearia oliganthema NSW
Opercularia acolytantha WA
Ozothamnus selaginoides Clubmoss Everlasting, Table Mountain Daisy Bush TAS
Paspalum batianoffii QLD
Persoonia laxa NSW
Persoonia prostrata QLD
Philotheca falcata Sickle-leaved Waxflower WA
Pimelea spinescens subsp. pubiflora Spiny Rice-flower VIC
Prostanthera albo-hirta QLD
Prostanthera marifolia NSW
Pterostylis valida Robust Greenhood VIC
Ptilotus pyramidatus Pyramid Mulla-mulla WA
Pultenaea maidenii Maiden's Bush-pea VIC
Senecio georgianus Grey Groundsel NSW, SA, VIC
Tetratheca fasciculata Cronin's Tetratheca WA
Thomasia gardneri Mount Holland Thomasia WA
Tmesipteris lanceolata QLD
Trianthema cypseleoides NSW
Vanvoorstia bennettiana Bennett's Seaweed NSW

Plants listed as extinct by the states and territories[edit]

Banksia integrifolia is common along the east coast of the Australian mainland, but has recently been declared extinct in Tasmania.

Each state and territory of Australia has legislation to record the extinction of plants and animals; organisms listed as extinct at the state level may differ from those listed under the EPBC Act.

Australian Capital Territory[edit]

Threatened species are listed under the Nature Conservation Act 1980 in the Australian Capital Territory.

New South Wales[edit]

There are 35 taxa "presumed extinct" as specified in Part 4 of Schedule 1 of the New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.[6] Species presumed extinct in New South Wales, but not listed under the EPBC Act include:

Rhaphidospora bonneyana, Glinus orygioides, Ptilotus extenuatus, Acanthocladium dockeri (listed by EPBC as extinct in SA, but not NSW), Blumea lacera, Senecio behrianus, Stemmacantha australis, Lepidium foliosum, Stenopetalum velutinum, Atriplex acutiloba, Maireana lanosa, Osteocarpum pentapterum, Hypolepis elegans, Codonocarpus pyramidalis, Haloragis stricta, Myriophyllum implicatum, Caladenia rosella, Thelymitra epipactoides, Comesperma scoparium, Grevillea nematophylla, Persoonia laxa, Pomaderris oraria, Aphanes pentamera, Knoxia sumatrensis, Micromelum minutum, Philotheca angustifolia, Dodonaea stenophylla, Tetratheca pilosa subsp. pilosa.

Although listed as extinct under the EPBC Act Hypsela sessiliflora is listed as endangered in New South Wales,[7] as is the rediscovered species Diuris bracteata.

Northern Territory[edit]

Threatened species is the Northern Territory are listed under IUCN criteria by the Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts.[8] As of 2006 there are no recorded plant extinctions in the Northern Territory.[9]

South Australia[edit]

Threatened species are listed under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 in South Australia. 26 plant taxa are presumed extinct in South Australia, 2 of these are listed under the EPBC Act[10][11]

Queensland[edit]

Threatened species are listed under the Nature Conservation Act 1992 and the Nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation 2006 in Queensland, under this act some species are described as "presumed extinct". There are currently 27 species described as presumed extinct in Queensland,[12] those not listed under the EPBC Act include:

Acianthus ledwardii, Amphineuron immersum, Antrophyum austroqueenslandicum, Corchorus thozetii, Dimocarpus leichhardtii, Lindsaea pulchella var. blanda, Oldenlandia tenelliflora var. papuana, Rhaphidospora cavernarum, Tapeinosperma flueckigeri, Teucrium ajugaceum, Trichomanes exiguum, Wendlandia psychotrioides, Zieria sp. (Russell River S.Johnson in 1892).

It was reported[13] on 12 April 2008 that two of the plants, Rhaphidospora cavernarum and Teucrium ajugaceum have been rediscovered on Cape York between Cooktown and Lockhart River, and are now re-classified as "vulnerable".

Tasmania[edit]

There are 20 taxa classified as "presumed extinct" under schedule 3.2 of the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. Only three of these species are listed as extinct under the EPBC Act.[14] The additional species listed as extinct under Tasmanian legislation are:

Ballantinia antipoda, Banksia integrifolia subsp. integrifolia, Botrychium australe, Caladenia cardiochila, Chenopodium erosum, Coopernookia barbata, Hibbertia obtusifolia, Lepilaena australis, Levenhookia dubia, Myriophyllum glomeratum, Podotheca angustifolia, Prostanthera cuneata, Punctelia subflava, Senecio macrocarpus, Thesium australe, Thynninorchis huntiana and Veronica notabilis.

Victoria[edit]

Threatened species in Victoria are identified under the auspices of the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act (1988); the act does not specify species presumed extinct. The Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment maintain a list of species presumed extinct in Victoria;[15] they list 51 extinct taxa, those not listed under the EPBC Act include:

Acacia argyrophylla, Acacia havilandiorum, Acrotriche depressa, Actinotus bellidioides, Asplenium polyodon, Atriplex billardierei, Austrostipa tuckeri, Caladenia carnea var. subulata, Caladenia magnifica, Caladenia thysanochila, Calotis pubescens, Cardamine gunnii s.s., Centipeda pleiocephala, Cheiranthera alternifolia, Chionogentias gunniana, Convolvulus microsepalus, Cuscuta victoriana, Cyperus vaginatus, Digitaria diffusa, Dodonaea heteromorpha, Epilobium willisii, Euphrasia collina subsp. speciosa, Hibbertia incana s.s., Hypolepis elegans subsp. elegans, Leiocarpa tomentosa, Leionema microphyllum, Lemooria burkittii, Leptorhynchos scaber s.s., Phyllangium sulcatum, Picris barbarorum, Podolepis arachnoidea, Pomaderris obcordata, Prasophyllum colemaniae, Prasophyllum morganii, Prasophyllum sp. aff. odoratum, Prasophyllum suttonii s.s., Pterostylis sp. aff. biseta (Lara), Rutidosis helichrysoides, Senecio murrayanus, Senna form taxon 'artemisioides', Stemmacantha australis, Stenanthemum notiale subsp. notiale, Trema tomentosa var. viridis, Braithwaitea sulcata.

Western Australia[edit]

There are 14 taxa classified as "X: Declared Rare Flora - Presumed Extinct Taxa" under the Department of Environment and Conservation's Declared Rare and Priority Flora List, all of which have been gazetted as presumed extinct flora in Western Australia under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.[16][17] This list coincides with the federal EPBC Act list, except that it includes Leptomeria dielsiana, Ptilotus caespitulosus and Taraxacum cygnorum; and excludes Frankenia conferta (Silky Frankenia) and Calothamnus accedens.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "EPBC Act List of Threatened Flora". Department for Environment and Heritage. Retrieved 2007-01-17. 
  2. ^ "Spiny Rice-flower" (PDF). Department of Environment and Sustainability, Victoria. Retrieved 2007-01-17. 
  3. ^ Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW). 2005. Diuris bracteata (an orchid) - endangered species listing
  4. ^ Acanthocladium dockeri (Spiny Everlasting, Spiny Daisy) listing advice
  5. ^ IUCN. 2004. Extinctions in Recent Time
  6. ^ Government of New South Wales. Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 No 101
  7. ^ NSW Scientific Committee (2003) Hypsela sessiliflora - Endangered species determination - final. DEC (NSW), Sydney.
  8. ^ Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts. Threatened species - Overview of the new threatened species list and the classification and listing processes
  9. ^ Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts. Threatened Species List
  10. ^ Souh Australia Department for Environment and Heritage, Environment Reporting. No. of Extinct, Endangered and Vulnerable Species and Ecological Communities
  11. ^ South Australia Environment Protection Authority. 2003. South Australia State of the Environment Report 2003 - Biodiversity. ISBN 1-876562-61-7
  12. ^ NATURE CONSERVATION AND OTHER LEGISLATION AMENDMENT REGULATION (No. 1) 2000
  13. ^ 'Extinct' plants rediscovered - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
  14. ^ Department of Primary Industried and Water. Threatened Species List - Vascular Plants A-B, as of May 2010
  15. ^ Department of Sustainability and Environment (2005) Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria - 2005. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, East Melbourne, Victoria.
  16. ^ "Wildlife Conservation (Rare Flora) Notice 2006(2)" (PDF). Western Australian Government Gazette (Government of Western Australia). 1 December 2006. pp. 5311–5317. Retrieved 2007-01-17. 
  17. ^ "Western Australian Flora Conservation Taxa". Western Australian Herbarium. Retrieved 2007-01-17.