List of film formats

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This list of film formats catalogues formats developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures, ranging from the Chronophotographe format from 1888, to mid-20th century formats such as the 1953 CinemaScope format, to more recent formats such as the 1992 IMAX HD format. To be included in this list, the formats must all have been used in the field or for test shooting, and they must all use photochemical images that are formed or projected on a film base, a transparent substrate which supports the photosensitive emulsion.

As well, the formats must have been used to make more than just a few test frames. The camera must be fast enough (in frames per second) to create an illusion of motion consistent with the persistence of vision phenomenon. The format must be significantly unique from other listed formats in regard to its image capture or image projection. The format characteristics should be clearly definable in several listed parameters (e. g., film gauge, aspect ratio, etc.).

Legend[edit]

  • Format is the name of the process; some formats may have multiple names in common usage.
  • Creator is the individual or company most directly attributable as the developer of the system.
  • Year created usually refers to the earliest date that the system was used to completion (i.e. projection), but may refer to when it was developed if no known film was made.
  • First known film is the first film (not including tests) made with the format and intended for release.
  • Negative gauge is the film gauge (width) used for the original camera negative.
  • Negative aspect ratio is the image ratio determined by the ratio of the gate dimensions multiplied by the anamorphic power of the camera lenses (1x in the case of spherical lenses).[1]
  • Gate dimensions are the width and height of the camera gate aperture, and by extension the film negative frame.
  • Negative pulldown describes the film perforations per frame, the direction of film transport, and standard frame speed. Film transport is assumed to be vertical unless otherwise noted, and standard frame speed is assumed to be 24 frames per second unless the film is otherwise noted or has no standard. Silent film has no standard speed; many amateur formats have several common speeds, but no standard.
  • Negative lenses indicates whether spherical (normal) or anamorphic lenses are used on the original camera negative, and if anamorphic lenses, what anamorphic power is used.
  • Projection gauge is the film gauge (width) used for the release print.
  • Projection aspect ratio is the image ratio determined by the ratio of the projection dimensions multiplied by the anamorphic power of the projection lenses (1x in the case of spherical lenses). This is also known as the intended theatrical aspect ratio.[1]
  • Projection dimensions are the width and height of the projector aperture plate, and by extension the film frame area which is projected. The aperture plate always very slightly crops the frame.
  • Projection lenses indicates whether spherical (normal) or anamorphic lenses are used on the projector, and if anamorphic lenses, what anamorphic power is used.

Formats are listed in chronological order and by release date in the case of multiple formats within one year, if this can be determined. Undated formats are listed at the bottom in alphabetical order.

Film formats[edit]

The table does not cover 3D systems or color film systems, nor is it well-suited to emphasize the differences between those systems.
Format Creator Est. First known work Negative gauge Negative A/R[1] Gate dims Negative pulldown Negative lenses Projection gauge Projection A/R[1] Projection dims Projection lenses
Chronophotographe [2] Étienne-Jules Marey 1888 motion analysis studies 90 mm 1.00 3.543" x 3.543" unperforated spherical


Paperfilm[3] Louis Le Prince 1888 Roundhay Garden Scene 54 mm or 63.5 mm 1.00 perforated spherical 54 mm or 63.5 mm 1.00 spherical


Chronophotographic Wm. Friese-Greene 1889 54 mm irregular perfs spherical


Kinesigraph Wordsworth Donisthorpe 1889 view of Trafalgar Square 68 mm 1.00? unperforated spherical


Kinetoscope cylinder Wm. Dickson & T. Edison 1889 or 1890 Monkeyshines, No. 1 strip rolled around a cylinder unperforated spherical strip rolled around a cylinder spherical


Kinetoscope horizontal Wm. Dickson & William Heise 1891 Dickson Greeting 19 mm 1 perf, 1 side, horizontal spherical 19 mm, horizontal spherical


Silent film standard Wm. Dickson & T. Edison 1892 Blacksmith Scene 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1.33 0.931" x 0.698" spherical


Bioskop Max Skladanowsky 1892 footage of Emil Skladanowsky 54 mm unperforated (camera); 4 perf, 2 sides (projection) spherical 54 mm (two strips interleaved) spherical


Acres 70[4] Birt Acres 1894 The Henley Royal Regatta of 1894 70 mm 1.38 2.750" x 2.000" spherical 70 mm spherical


Eidoloscope[5] Woodville Latham 1895 Griffo-Barnett Prize Fight 51 mm 1.85 1.457" x 0.787" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 51 mm 1.85 spherical


Cinematographe Lumière Brothers 1895 La Sortie des Usines Lumiere 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 1 perf, 2 sides (rounded) spherical 35 mm 1.33 spherical


Biograph Herman Casler 1895 Sparring Contest at Canastota 68 mm 1.35 2.625" x 1.938" 1 perf, 2 sides (punched in-camera) spherical 68 mm spherical


Joly-Normandin Henri Joly 1895 60 mm 5 perf, 2 sides spherical 60 mm spherical


Biographe Demeny-Gaumont 1896 60 mm 1.40 1.750" x. 1.250" unperforated spherical 60 mm 1.40 spherical


Chronophotographe Demeny-Gaumont 1896 60 mm 1.40 1.750" x. 1.250" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 60 mm 1.40 spherical


Sivan-Dalphin Casimir Sivan and E. Dalphin 1896 38 mm 2 perf, 2 sides spherical 38 mm spherical


Veriscope Enoch Rector 1897 Corbett-Fitzsimmons fight 63 mm 1.66 1.875" x 1.125" 5 perf, 2 sides spherical 63 mm spherical


Viventoscope Thomas Henry Blair 1897 48 mm 1.50 1.500" x 1.000" 1 perf? spherical 48 mm spherical


Birtac Birt Acres 1898 unknown (amateur format) 17.5 mm 2 perf, 1 side spherical 17.5 mm spherical


Biokam T. C. Hepworth 1899 unknown (amateur format) 17.5 mm 1.60 0.630" x 0.394" 1 perf, center spherical 17.5 mm spherical


Prestwich 13 mm John Alfred Prestwich 1899 unknown (amateur format) 13 mm spherical 13 mm spherical


Mirograph Reulos, Goudeau & Co 1900 unknown (amateur format) 21 mm 1 notch, 2 sides spherical 21 mm spherical


Lumiere Wide Lumière Brothers 1900 75 mm 1.33 2.362" x 1.772" 8 perf, 2 sides spherical 75 mm 1.33 spherical


Cinéorama R. Grimoin-Sanson 1900 Cinéorama 70 mm x 10 cameras (360°) 4 perf? spherical 70 mm x 10 projectors (360°) spherical


La Petite (Hughes) W.C. Hughes 1900 unknown (amateur format) 17.5 mm 1.60 0.630" x 0.394" 1 perf, center (smaller and less rectangular than Biokam) spherical 17.5 mm spherical


Pocket Chrono Gaumont Demeny 1900 unknown (amateur format) 15 mm 1 perf, center spherical 15 mm spherical


Vitak William Wardell 1902 unknown (amateur format) no standard no standard no standard 1 perf, center spherical 11 mm spherical


Home Kinetoscope Edison 1912 unknown (amateur format) no standard no standard no standard no standard spherical 22 mm, 2 perf (on frameline between frame rows) 1.5 0.236" x 0.157" (three frames across width) spherical


Pathe Kok Pathé 1912 unknown (amateur format) 28 mm 1.36 0.748" x 0.551" 3 perf on one side, 1 perf on the other spherical 28 mm spherical


Duoscope Alexander F. Victor 1912 unknown (amateur format) 17.5 mm 2 perfs, center spherical 17.5 mm spherical


Panoramico[4] Filoteo Alberini 1914 Il sacco di Roma 70 mm 2.52 5 perf, 2 sides spherical 70 mm spherical


Split Duplex Duplex Corporation 1915 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides (shooting) spherical 35 mm 1.87 0.735" x 0.394" spherical (split image 90° rotated)


11 mm (American) 1916 unknown (amateur format) 11 mm 1 perf, center spherical 11 mm spherical


Movette Movette Camera Company 1917 unknown (amateur format) 17.5 mm 2 perfs, 2 sides (rounded) spherical 17.5 mm spherical


28 mm safety standard Alexander Victor 1918 unknown (amateur format) 28 mm 1.36 0.748" x 0.551" 3 perf, 2 sides spherical 28 mm spherical


Clou (Austrian) 1920 unknown (amateur format) 17.5 mm 2 perf, 2 sides spherical 17.5 mm spherical


26 mm (French) 1920 unknown (amateur format) 26 mm 1 perf, 1 side spherical 26 mm spherical


9.5 mm Pathé 1922 unknown (amateur format) 9.5 mm 1.31 0.335" x 0.256" 1 perf, center spherical 9.5 mm 1.31 0.315" x 0.242" spherical


Phonofilm Lee De Forest 1922 Barking Dog and Flying Jenny Airplane 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1.17 0.826" x 0.708" spherical


Widescope[6] John D. Elms & George W. Bingham 1922 35 mm x 2 (both in same camera) 0.980" x 0.735" 1.33 x 2 negatives 4 perf, 2 sides spherical (one lens per strip) 35 mm x 2 projectors 2.66 0.931" x 0.698" spherical


Cinebloc Ozaphan 1922 unknown (amateur format) 22 mm 2 perf, 2 sides spherical 22 mm spherical


Tri-Ergon soundfilm[6] Tri-Ergon 1922 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 42 mm 1.33 0.931" x 0.698" spherical


16 mm[7] Eastman Kodak 1923 unknown (amateur format) 16 mm 1.37 0.404" x 0.295" 1 perf, 1 or 2 sides spherical 16 mm 1.37 0.378" x 0.276" spherical


Duplex G.J. Bradley 1923 unknown (amateur format) 11 mm 2 perf, 2 sides (rounded) spherical 11.5 mm spherical


Alberini-Hill Corrado Cerqua 1924 35 mm 1.66 1.575" x 0.945" (curved) 10 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical, on 65° revolving drum 35 mm spherical


Cinelux Ozaphan 1924 unknown (amateur format) 24 mm spherical 24 mm spherical


48 mm J.H. Powrie 1924 48 mm 1.32 1.969" x 1.496" horizontal spherical 35 mm 1.33 0.931" x 0.698" spherical


Natural Vision[8] George K. Spoor & P. John Berggren 1925 Niagara Falls and Rollercoaster Ride 63.5 mm 1.84 2.060" x 1.120" 6 perf, 2 sides, 20 frame/s spherical 63.5 mm 2.00 spherical


13 mm (French) 1925 unknown (amateur format) 13 mm 4 perf, center spherical 13 mm spherical


18 mm (Russian) 1925 unknown (amateur format) 18 mm 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 18 mm spherical


Pathe Rural Pathé 1926 unknown (amateur format) 17.5 mm 1.35 (silent); 1.30 (sound) 0.516" x 0.382" (silent); 0.445" x 0.343" (sound) 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 17.5 mm 1.33 (silent); 1.26 (sound) 0.472" x 0.354" (silent); 0.445" x 0.343" (sound) spherical


Widevision[6] John D. Elms & George W. Bingham 1926 Natural Vision Pictures 57 mm 5 perf, 2 sides spherical 57 mm spherical


Magnascope[4] Lorenzo del Riccio 1926 Old Ironsides 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1.33 0.931" x 0.698" spherical (selected scenes projected using a wider lens for larger picture)


Fox Movietone F. H. Owens, T. Case, Tri-Ergon 1927 Sunrise 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1.17 0.826" x 0.708" spherical


Polyvision[9] Abel Gance 1927 Napoléon 35 mm x 3 cameras 1.33 x 3 negatives 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 3 projectors 4.00 0.931" x 0.698" spherical


Hypergonar Henri Chrétien 1927 Pour construire un feu 35 mm 2.66 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 35 mm 2.66 0.931" x 0.698" 2x anamorphic


Magnafilm[10] Lorenzo del Riccio 1929 You're in the Army Now 56 mm 2.19 1.620" x 0.740" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 56 mm 2.00 spherical


Fox Grandeur[10] Fox Film Corporation 1929 Fox Grandeur News and Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 70 mm 2.07 1.890" x 0.913" 4 perf, 2 sides, 20 frame/s (before 1930) spherical 70 mm 2.00 1.768" x 0.885" spherical


Fearless Super Pictures[11] Ralph G. Fear 1929 35 mm 2.27 1.813" x 0.800" 10 perfs, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 35 mm, horizontal spherical


Fearless Super-Film / Magnifilm / Fox Vitascope[12] Ralph G. Fear 1930 Kismet 65 mm 2.00 1.811" x 0.906" 5 perf, 2 sides spherical 65 mm 2.05 1.772" x 0.866" spherical


Realife[11] MGM 1930 Billy the Kid 70 mm 2.07 1.890" x 0.913" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1.75 0.904" x 0.517" spherical


50 mm[13] Fox Film Corporation & SMPE 1930 50 mm 1.80 1.325" x 0.735" spherical 50 mm 1.80 1.305" x 0.725" spherical


17 mm sound (French) 1930 unknown (amateur format) 17 mm 1 perf, 1 side spherical 17 mm spherical


Giant Expanding Pictures George Palmer 1930 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1.17 0.826" x 0.708" spherical (with a special projection zoom lens zooming wider and opening masking for key sequences)


Kodel Kemco Homovie Clarence Ogden 1931 unknown (amateur format) 16 mm 4 sequential images per frame 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 16 mm spherical


Academy format[14] AMPAS 1932 35 mm 1.37 0.866" x 0.630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1.37 0.825" x 0.602" spherical


8 mm Eastman Kodak 1932 unknown (amateur format) 16 mm 1.32 0.192" x 0.145" 1 perf, 1 side (using 16 mm film with twice as many perfs) spherical 8 mm 1.33 0.172" x 0.129" spherical


Straight 8 Bell & Howell 1935 unknown (amateur format) 8 mm 1.32 0.192" x 0.145" 1 perf, 1 side spherical 8 mm 1.33 0.172" x 0.129" spherical


Vitarama Fred Waller 1939 16 mm x 11 cameras 1.37 x 11 negatives 0.404" x 0.295" 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 16 mm x 11 projectors hemispherical view 0.378" x 0.276" spherical


Waller Flexible Gunnery Trainer Fred Waller 1943 US Air Force interactive training exercise 35 mm x 5 cameras 1.37 x 5 negatives 0.866" x 0.630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 5 projectors hemispherical view 0.825" x 0.602" spherical


Cinerama[15] Fred Waller 1952 This is Cinerama 35 mm x 3 cameras 2.59 (3 x negatives) 0.996" x 1.116" 6 perf, 2 sides at 26 frame/s spherical 35 mm x 3 projectors, with 6 perf pulldown 2.59, with 146° curved screen 0.985" x 1.088" spherical


Matted 1.66[14] Paramount 1953 Shane 35 mm 1.37 0.866" x 0.630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1.66 0.825" x 0.497" spherical


Matted 1.85[14] Universal 1953 Thunder Bay 35 mm 1.37 0.866" x 0.630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1.85 0.825" x 0.446" spherical


Matted 1.75 MGM 1953 Arena 35 mm 1.37 0.866" x 0.630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1.75 0.825" x 0.471" spherical


Cinemascope[16] 20th Century Fox 1953 The Robe 35 mm 2.55 (1953–57); 2.35 (1957–67) 0.937" x 0.735" (1953–57); 0.868" x 0.735" (1957–67) 4 perf, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 35 mm 2.55 (1953–57); 2.35 (1957–67) 0.912" x 0.715" (1953–57); 0.839" x 0.715" (1957–67) 2x anamorphic


Arnoldscope[17] John Arnold 1953 35 mm 10 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical


VistaVision[18] Paramount 1954 White Christmas 35 mm 1.51 1.495" x 0.991" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 35 mm, 4 perf, vertical 1.85 0.825" x 0.446" spherical


VistaVision Large Area[18][19] Paramount 1954 White Christmas 35 mm 1.51 1.495" x 0.991" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 35 mm, 8 perf, horizontal 1.96 1.418" x 0.723" spherical


Superscope[20] Tushinsky Brothers 1954 Vera Cruz 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 2.00 0.715" x 0.715" 2x anamorphic


Circarama[21] Disney 1955 A Tour of the West 16 mm x 11 cameras 1.37 x 11 negatives 0.404" x 0.295" 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 16 mm x 11 projectors 360° 0.378" x 0.276" spherical


Todd-AO[22][23] Michael Todd 1955 Oklahoma 65 mm 2.29 2.072" x 0.906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, at 30 frame/s spherical 70 mm 2.21, with 120° curved screen 1.912" x 0.870" spherical


CinemaScope 55[24] 20th Century Fox 1955 Carousel 55 mm 2.55 1.824" x 1.430" 8 perfs, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 35 mm 2.55 0.912" x 0.715" 2x anamorphic


9.5 Duplex[25] Pathé Fréres 1955  ? 9.5 mm 1.51 4.1 mm x 6.2 mm 2 central perforations in a 9.5mm film spherical 4.75 mm spherical, rotated 90°


8 mm Panoramic[26] Dimaphot, Paris 1955  ? 16 mm 1.5 5 mm x 7.5 mm 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 8 mm spherical, rotated 90°


Emel Panoscope[27] Emel, Paris 1955  ? 16 mm 2.7 3.5 mm x 9.6 mm 2 perf, 2 sides spherical 16 mm spherical


Technirama[28] Technicolor 1956 The Monte Carlo Story 35 mm 2.26 1.496" x 0.992" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally 1.5x anamorphic 35 mm, 4 perf vertical 2.35 0.839" x 0.715" 2x anamorphic


Technirama Large Area[28] Technicolor 1956 The Monte Carlo Story 35 mm 2.26 1.496" x 0.992" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally 1.5x anamorphic 35 mm, 8 perf horizontal 1.421" x 0.881" 2.42 1.5x anamorphic


Dynamic Frame[29] Glenn Alvey 1956 The Door in the Wall 35 mm 1.3, 1.6, and 2.5 variable aperture plates 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally spherical 35 mm, 4 perf, vertical 1.3, 1.5, and 2.5 spherical


Superscope 235[20] Superscope Inc. 1956 Run for the Sun 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 2.35 0.839" x 0.715" 2x anamorphic


Thrillarama[30] Albert H. Reynolds 1956 Thrillarama Adventure 35 mm x 2 cameras 1.78 x 2 negatives 3 perf, 2 sides? spherical 35 mm x 2 projectors 3.55, with a curved screen spherical


Magirama[9] Abel Gance 1956 Magirama 35 mm x 3 cameras (sides bounced off mirrors) 1.33 x 3 negatives 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 3 projectors (sides bounced off mirrors) 4.00 0.931" x 0.698" spherical


MGM Camera 65 Panavision 1957 Raintree County 65 mm 2.76 2.072" x 0.906" 5 perf, 2 sides 1.25x anamorphic 70 mm 2.76 1.912" x 0.870" 1.25x anamorphic


Ultra Panavision[31] Panavision 1962 Mutiny on the Bounty 65 mm 2.76 2.072" x 0.906" 5 perf, 2 sides 1.25x anamorphic 70 mm 2.76 1.912" x 0.870" 1.25x anamorphic


Cinestage[32] Mike Todd 1957 Around the World in 80 Days 65 mm 2.29 2.072" x 0.906" 5 perfs, 2 sides spherical 35 mm (1 mm shaved off for UK prints) 2.12 0.912" x 0.675" 1.567x anamorphic


Rank VistaVision J. Arthur Rank Organization 1957 35 mm 1.51 1.495" x 0.991" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally spherical 35 mm, 4 perf, vertical 1.82 0.825" x 0.602" 1.33x anamorphic


Modern anamorphic[33] Panavision 1958 The Female Animal 35 mm 2.37 0.866" x 0.732" 4 perf, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 35 mm 2.35 (1957–70); 2.39 (1970–present) 0.839" x 0.715" (1957–70); 0.838" x 0.7" (1970–93); 0.825" x 0.690" (1993–present) 2x anamorphic


Kinopanorama[34] NIKFI 1958 Great Is My Country 35 mm x 3 cameras 0.91 x 3 negatives 1.014" x 1.116" 6 perf, 2 sides, at 25 frame/s spherical 35 mm x 3 projectors 2.72 0.985" x 1.088" spherical


70 mm[22][35] American Optical Company 1958 South Pacific 65 mm 2.28 2.066" x 0.906" 5 perfs, 2 sides spherical 70 mm 2.21 1.912" x 0.87" spherical


Cinemiracle[36] National Theatres 1958 Windjammer 35 mm x 3 cameras (sides bounced off mirrors) 0.89 x 3 negatives 0.996" x 1.116" 6 perf, 2 sides at 26 frame/s spherical 35 mm x 3 projectors (sides bounced off mirrors), with 6 perf pulldown 2.59, with 120° curved screen 0.985" x 1.088" spherical


Super Technirama[28] Technicolor 1959 Sleeping Beauty 35 mm 2.26 1.496" x 0.992" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally 1.5x anamorphic 70 mm 2.21 1.912" x 0.816" spherical


Smith-Carney System[37] Rowe E. Carney Jr. and Tom F. Smith 1959 Missouri travelogue 35 mm 4.69 0.839" x 0.370" (bottom half) and 0.449" x 0.370" (top quarters) 4 perf, 2 sides spherical x 3 35 mm 4.69 three sub-frames projected to one 180° image spherical x 3


Circular Kinopanorama / Circlorama[38] E. Goldovsky 1959 The Path of Spring 35 mm x 11 cameras 1.37 x 11 negatives 0.866" x 0.630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 11 projectors 360° 0.825" x 0.602" spherical


Varioscope[39] Jan Jacobsen 1959 Flying Clipper 65 mm 2.28 2.066" x 0.906" 5 perfs, 2 sides spherical 70 mm variable framing run through control signal 1.912" x 0.87" spherical


Quadravision[40] Ford Motor Company 1959 Design for Suburban Living showtent  ? mm x 4 cameras  ? x 4 negatives spherical  ? mm x 4 projectors  ? (4 images in 2x2 configuration) spherical


Techniscope[41] Technicolor 1960 The Pharaoh's Woman 35 mm 2.33 0.868" x 0.373" 2 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 2.39 0.838" x 0.7" 2x anamorphic


Wonderama (Arc 120)[42] Leon W. Wells 1960 Honeymoon no standard no standard no standard no standard no standard 35 mm 2.50 with a 120° curved screen 0.931" x 0.698", with two half-images turned 90° and placed side-by-side spherical x 2


Cine System 3[43][44] Eric Berndt 1960 USAF and NASA usage 3 mm 1 perf, centered spherical


Grandeur 70[45] 20th Century Fox 1961 The King and I (re-release) 55 mm 2.55 1.824" x 1.430" 8 perfs, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 70 mm 2.21 1.912" x 0.87" spherical


Cinerama 360[42] Cinerama Corporation 1962 Journey to the Stars 65 mm 1.00 (circle) 2.25" diameter circular image 10 perf, 2 sides fisheye 70 mm 1.00 (circle) 2.25" diameter circular image spherical


Super 8 Eastman Kodak 1965 unknown (amateur format) 8 mm 1.48 0.245" x 0.166" 1 perf, 1 side spherical 8 mm 1.36 0.215" x 0.158" spherical


Real Sound[46] Kenner 1965 no standard no standard no standard 1 perf, 1 side spherical 11.5 mm 1.33 0.172" x 0.129" spherical


Double Super 8[47] Eastman Kodak 1965 unknown (amateur format) 16 mm 1.48 0.245" x 0.166" 1 perf, 1 side (using 16 mm film with twice as many perfs) spherical 8 mm 1.36 0.215" x 0.158" spherical


Single-8[48] Fujifilm 1966 unknown (amateur format) 8 mm 1.36 0.224" x 0.164" 1 perf, 1 side spherical 8 mm 1.35 0.213" x 0.157" spherical


Dimension 150[49] American Optical Company 1966 The Bible: In the Beginning 65 mm 2.28 2.066" x 0.906" 5 perfs, 2 sides spherical 70 mm 2.21, with 150° curved screen 1.912" x 0.87", optically curved to compensate for the screen spherical


Circle Vision 360[38] Disney 1967 America the Beautiful 35 mm x 9 cameras 1.37 x 9 negatives 0.866" x 0.630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 9 projectors 360° 0.825" x 0.602" spherical


8.75 mm[50] Shanghai Film Projection Equipment Factory 1968 unknown (amateur format) 1 perf spherical 8.75 mm spherical


Astrovision[51] Goto Optical 1969 65 mm 10 perf, 2 sides spherical or fish-eye 70 mm fish-eye (dome projection)


IMAX[52] IMAX Corporation 1970 Tiger Child 70 mm 1.34 2.772" x 2.072" 15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally spherical 70 mm, horizontal 1.31 2.692" x 2.056" spherical


Super 16 mm film[7] Rune Ericson 1970 Blushing Charlie 16 mm 1.66 0.493" x 0.292" 1 perf, 1 side spherical no standard, but often blown up to 35 mm no standard 0.463" x 0.279" (full frame); 0.463" x 0.251" (framed for 1.85) spherical


Pik-a-Movie[53] Leon W. Wells 1972 no standard no standard no standard no standard no standard 70 mm, horizontal, 1 perf, 2 sides 1.48 0.245" x 0.166", 12 rows high, underneath 12 rows of optical sound spherical


OMNIMAX[54] IMAX Corporation 1973 Garden Isle 70 mm 1.34 2.772" x 2.072" 15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally special fish-eye lenses optically centered 0.37" above film horizontal center line 70 mm, horizontal 1.31 2.692" x 2.056" spherical, projected elliptically on a dome screen, 20 degrees below and 110 degrees above perfectly centered viewers


8/70 (Dynavision, Iwerks 870)[55] Dynavision 1973? 65 mm 1.37 2.031" x 1.484" 8 perf, 2 sides, 24 or 30 frame/s spherical 70 mm 1.34 1.913" x 1.431" spherical


Showscan[56] Douglas Trumbull 1978 Night of Dreams 65 mm 2.28 2.066" x 0.906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, at 60 frame/s spherical 70 mm, at 60 frame/s 2.21 1.912" x 0.87" spherical


Polavision[57] Polaroid Corporation 1978 unknown (amateur format) 8 mm 1.48 0.245" x 0.166" 1 perf, 1 side spherical 8 mm 1.36 0.215" x 0.158" spherical


Cinema 180[58] Omni Films 1979 Crazy Wheels 65 mm 2.28 2.066" x 0.906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, 30 frame/s fisheye 70 mm 180°, on a dome 1.912" x 0.87" fisheye


Super 35[59] Joe Dunton 1982 Dance Craze 35 mm 1.33 0.980" x 0.735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm no standard no standard no standard


Circle Vision 200[60] Disney 1982 Impressions de France 35 mm x 5 cameras 1.37 x 5 negatives 0.866" x 0.630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 5 projectors 6.85, on a 200° screen 0.825" x 0.602" spherical


Swissorama 360 / Imagine 360[61] Ernst A. Heiniger 1984 Impressions of Switzerland 65 mm 360° 1.91" (outer edge), 1.20" (inner edge) 10 perf, 2 sides 360° x 35° extreme fisheye 70 mm 360° 360° x 35° extreme fisheye


Super Duper 8 / Max 8 / Super 8B[62][63] Mitch Perkins & Greg Miller mid- 1980s Sleep Always (2002) 8 mm 1.51 0.250" x 0.166" 1 perf, 1 side spherical 8 mm no standard no standard spherical


3-perf[64] Rune Ericson 1987 Pirates of the Lake 35 mm 1.79 0.980" x 0.546" 3 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm no standard no standard no standard


Super VistaVision[65] Paramount 1989 The Ten Commandments (re-release) 35 mm 1.51 1.495" x 0.991" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 70 mm 2.21 1.912" x 0.87" spherical


Kinoton HDFS[66] Kinoton 1990 no standard no standard no standard no standard no standard 35 mm 2.00 0.931" x 0.698" 1.5x anamorphic


IMAX Magic Carpet[67] IMAX Corporation 1990 Flowers in the Sky 70 mm x 2 cameras 1.34 2.772" x 2.072" 15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally spherical 70 mm, horizontal x 2 projectors 1.31 x 2 screens (one in front, one below) 2.692" x 2.056" spherical


Iwerksphere[68] Iwerks 1991 65 mm 1.37 2.031" x 1.484" 8 perf, 2 sides, 24 or 30 frame/s fisheye 70 mm 1.34 1.913" x 1.431" fisheye


IMAX HD[69] IMAX Corporation 1992 Asteroid Adventure 70 mm 1.34 2.772" x 2.072" 15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally, 48 frame/s spherical 70 mm, horizontal 1.31 2.692" x 2.056" spherical


Hexiplex [70] (Australian) 1992 Expo '92 demo 35 mm x 6 cameras 1.37 x 6 negatives 0.866" x 0.630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 6 projectors 360°, with rotating screens and projectors 0.825" x 0.602" spherical


Ultra Toruscope[71] Mac McCarney 1992 35 mm x 3 cameras 1.37 x 3 negatives 0.866" x 0.630" 4 perf, 2 sides, at 30 frame/s spherical 70 mm x 3 projectors, at 30 frame/s 360° 1.912" x 0.87" spherical


Imagination FX 7012[13] Geo-Odyssey 1992? 35 mm 2.08 2.040" x 0.980" 12 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 70 mm 2.21 1.912" x 0.87" spherical


Univisium[72] Vittorio Storaro 1998 Tango 35 mm 2.00 0.945" x 0.472" 3 perf, 2 sides at 25 frame/s spherical 35 mm 2.00 spherical


Maxivision[73] Dean Goodhill 1999 35 mm 1.79 0.980" x 0.546" 3 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm, 3 perf 1.85 spherical


Maxivision 48[73] Dean Goodhill 1999 35 mm 1.79 0.980" x 0.546" 3 perf, 2 sides, 48 frame/s spherical 35 mm, 3 perf, 48 frame/s 1.85 spherical


Super Dimension 70[74] Robert Weisgerber 1999 65 mm 2.28 2.066" x 0.906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, at 48 frame/s spherical 70 mm, at 48 frame/s 2.21 1.912" x 0.87" spherical


FuturVision 360[51] 65 mm 1.52 2.066" x 0.906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, 30 frame/s 1.5x vertical anamorphic 70 mm 1.47 1.912" x 0.87" 1.5x vertical anamorphic


Mini-Max[75] Vistascope 35 mm 2.66 2 perf, 2 sides, 30 frame/s spherical 35 mm 2.66 spherical


MotionMaster[76] Omni Films 65 mm 2.28 2.066" x 0.906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, 30 frame/s spherical 70 mm 2.21, on a curved screen 1.912" x 0.87" spherical


Row-film[77] R. Thun 35 mm 20 rows of images wide spherical spherical


Septorama[51]  ? mm x 7 cameras 1.33 x 7 negatives spherical  ? mm x 7 projectors hemispherical view spherical


Single Cinerama[78] Fred Waller 35 mm curved gate 16 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 35 mm, horizontal curved screen spherical


Soviet 10[79] 65 mm 10 perf, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 70 mm 2.09 1.890" x 1.811" 2x anamorphic


Vario-35[79] 35 mm spherical 35 mm variable framing run through control signal 0.835" x 0.713" (full); 0.835" x 0.453" (1.84); 0.709" x 0.524" (1.35); 0.614" x 0.614" (1.00); 0.535" x 0.713" (0.75) spherical


Vario-35A[79] 35 mm 35 mm variable framing run through control signal 0.835" x 0.713" variable anamorphic (2x for 2.35; 1.57x for 1.85; 1.17x for 1.37; 0.85x for 1.00; 0.64x for 0.75; 0.5x for 0.59)


Vario-70[79] 65 mm 10 perfs, 2 sides spherical 70 mm variable framing run through control signal 1.890" x 1.811" (full); 1.890" x 0.803" (2.35); 1.673" x 0.906" (1.85); 1.441" x 1.051" (1.37); 1.232" x 1.232" (1.00); 1.063" x 1.429" (0.74); 0.945" x 1.604" (0.59); 0.839" x 1.811" (0.46) spherical


Format Creator Est. First known work Negative gauge Negative A/R[1] Gate dims Negative pulldown Negative lenses Projection gauge Proj. A/R[1] Projection dims Projection lenses

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Strictly speaking, aspect ratios for film are always expressed as the ratio of 1 and are formatted as x:y, e.g. 1.85:1. However, in the interest of formatting, the aspect ratios listed will assume the ratio of 1 and omit the :1 suffix.
  2. ^ Burns, R.W., Television: An International History of the Formative Years, p. 71, Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1991.
  3. ^ Scott, E. Kilburn, "The Career of L. A .A. Le Prince", Adventures in Cybersound. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
  4. ^ a b c Sherlock, p. 3.
  5. ^ Hiller, John. "Film History for the Public: The First National Movie Machine Collection", Film History, v. 11, n. 3, p. 373. Indiana University Press, 1999.
  6. ^ a b c Sherlock, p. 40.
  7. ^ a b Hummel, p. 16.
  8. ^ Sherlock, p. 5-6.
  9. ^ a b Sherlock, p. 4.
  10. ^ a b Sherlock, p. 5.
  11. ^ a b Sherlock, p. 6.
  12. ^ Sherlock, p. 6-7.
  13. ^ a b Sherlock, p. 59.
  14. ^ a b c Hummel, p. 10.
  15. ^ Hart, Cinerama Specs.
  16. ^ Hart, CinemaScope Specs and Of Apertures and Aspect Ratios.
  17. ^ Hart, Ultra Panavision, p. 1.
  18. ^ a b Hart, VistaVision Specs.
  19. ^ Sherlock, p. 27.
  20. ^ a b Hart, SuperScope Specs.
  21. ^ Sherlock, p. 19-20.
  22. ^ a b Even after slowing down the frame rate from 30 to 24 frame/s, Todd AO productions retained the use of the same trade name on the 24 frame/s films. There is no difference between 24 frame/s Todd AO, Super Panavision, and what is otherwise referred to as standard 65/70 mm.
  23. ^ Hart, Todd A.O. Specs.
  24. ^ Hart, CinemaScope Specs.
  25. ^ Patrice-Hervé Pont, Jean Loup Princelle: 50 Ans de Caméras Françaises, Le Reve Édition, Ondrevill sur Essone, France, 2007, ISBN 2-9522521-3-0, --> page num 107
  26. ^ Patrice-Hervé Pont, Jean Loup Princelle: 50 Ans de Caméras Françaises, Le Reve Édition, Ondrevill sur Essone, France, 2007, ISBN 2-9522521-3-0, --> page num 51
  27. ^ Patrice-Hervé Pont, Jean Loup Princelle: 50 Ans de Caméras Françaises, Le Reve Édition, Ondrevill sur Essone, France, 2007, ISBN 2-9522521-3-0, --> page num 59
  28. ^ a b c Hart, Technirama Specs.
  29. ^ Sherlock, p. 58.
  30. ^ Hart, Thrillarama
  31. ^ Hart, Ultra Panavision Specs.
  32. ^ Sherlock, p. 31.
  33. ^ Hummel, p. 13.
  34. ^ Sherlock, p. 11-12.
  35. ^ Hummel, p. 17.
  36. ^ Hart, Cinemiracle Specs.
  37. ^ Hart, The Smith-Carney System.
  38. ^ a b Sherlock, p. 19.
  39. ^ Fromm, Gerhard. "The Work of Jan Jacobsen", ..in 70mm: The 70mm Newsletter, Issue 57 (June 1999). Retrieved 2008-12-01.
  40. ^ Nilsen, Sarah Dawn. Projecting America: Films at the Brussels World's Fair of 1958, p. 96. University of Southern California Press, 2000.
  41. ^ Hart, Techniscope Specs.
  42. ^ a b Sherlock, p. 18.
  43. ^ Nystrom
  44. ^ National Film and Sound Archive, Technical Glossary of Common Audiovisual Terms, "Film Gauges". Retrieved 2008-12-01.
  45. ^ Hart, CinemaScope, p. 6.
  46. ^ Rogge, "From 3 to 75mm"
  47. ^ Rogge, "Super/single 8 and super 16"; Baumgarten, Martin W. "A Short History of Small Gauge Movie Films", 2000. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
  48. ^ "Viewpoint Japan", The British Journal of Photography, December 3, 1965, p. 1050.
  49. ^ Sherlock, p. 17-18.
  50. ^ Clark, Paul. The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History, p. 146. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  51. ^ a b c Sherlock, p. 37.
  52. ^ Hummel, p. 18.
  53. ^ "Pik-A-Movie", British Kinematography Sound and Television, August 1973. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
  54. ^ Hummel, p. 18-19.
  55. ^ Hummel, p. 19.
  56. ^ Sherlock, p. 39
  57. ^ Giambarba, Paul. The Branding of Polaroid 1957-1977, Chapter 18, 2004-09-01. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
  58. ^ Aridi, Sal. "Large Format Cinematography", Operating Cameraman, July/December 2000. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
  59. ^ Hummel, p. 11.
  60. ^ Sherlock, p. 20
  61. ^ Piccolin, Lukas. "All-Around Cinema", in70mm.com, 2004-10-01. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
  62. ^ Vigeant, Phil. Technical schematic drawings of Max8 format, Pro8mm, 2005-11-09.
  63. ^ http://www.friendlyfirefilms.com/liftarticle.html
  64. ^ Hummel, p. 20.
  65. ^ "Upcoming Re-release of Vertigo", Los Angeles Times, 1996-06-16. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
  66. ^ Lobban, Grant. "Widescreen and 3D Formats Wallchart", BKSTS. [year unknown]
  67. ^ Schwartzberg, Schlomo. "IMAX: Oscar nominated Canadian company on the leading edge of technology", Performing Arts and Entertainment in Canada, Spring 1993. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
  68. ^ Katz, Stephen Douglas. Film Directing Shot by Shot: Visualizing from Concept to Screen, p. 330. Michael Wiese Productions, 1991.
  69. ^ Naimark, "Giant Rectangular Screens".
  70. ^ Naimark, "Cylindrical Screens".
  71. ^ Aridi, Sal. Large Format Cinematography, Camera Operator, July/December 2000. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
  72. ^ Storaro, Vittorio. Storaro's notes on Univision, date unknown. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  73. ^ a b Hindes, Andrew. Sticking with 35mm, Variety, 1999-04-19. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
  74. ^ Weisgerber, Robert. Super Dimension 70: New 70mm Process Demonstrated, in70mm.com, Issue 63 (March 2001). Retrieved 2008-05-17.
  75. ^ Lobban, Grant. "Film Gauges and Soundtracks Wallchart", BKSTS. [year unknown]
  76. ^ Motion Master, Screen Digest, October 1, 1995. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
  77. ^ Nystrom, sidebar.
  78. ^ Kimble, Greg. "This Is Cinerama!": Cinerama's 50th Anniversary, part 4, in70mm.com, 2002-06-10. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
  79. ^ a b c d Sherlock, p. 58

References[edit]

  • Hart, Martin. American Widescreen Museum, 1996-2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-16.
  • Herbert, Stephen and Luke McKernan, eds. Who's Who of Victorian Cinema, 1996-2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  • Hummel, Rob (editor). American Cinematographer Manual, 8th edition. Hollywood: ASC Press, 2001.
  • Naimark, Michael. Expo '92 Seville, Presence, Vol. 1, No. 3. MIT Press, Summer 1992. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  • Nystrom, J.E. History of sub-35mm Film Formats and Cameras, 1998-2001. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  • Rogge, Michael. (xs4all.nl/~wichm/filmsize.html) "One hundred years of film sizes", Fotografica Society, Amsterdam, 1996. Revisions 1996-2008. Retrieved 2008-12-01.
  • Sherlock, Daniel J. "Wide Screen Movies" Corrections, 1994-2004. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.

Additional reading[edit]