|Industry||post-production, broadcast media|
Todd-AO is a post-production company founded in 1953, providing sound-related services to the motion picture and television industries. The company operates three facilities in the Los Angeles area. Todd-AO is also the name of the widescreen film format that the company was originally founded to create and distribute.
Todd-AO began as a high resolution widescreen film format. It was co-developed in the early 1950s by Mike Todd, a Broadway producer, in partnership with the American Optical Company in Buffalo, New York. It was developed to provide a high definition single camera widescreen process to compete with Cinerama. Or as characterized by its creator, "Cinerama outa one hole". Where Cinerama used a complicated setup of three separate strips of film simultaneously, Todd-AO required only a single camera and lens.
The company's focus began to shift after Mike Todd's sudden death in an airplane accident in 1958. The 70mm Todd-AO process was adopted by Panavision, Cinerama and others. As the production and exhibition markets became saturated with Todd-AO System hardware, the focus of the company gradually began to narrow down to the audio post-production side of the business, and Todd-AO became an independent sound mixing facility for commercial motion picture films and television after acquiring Glen Glenn Sound in 1986.
While the 70 mm film width had been used before, most notably in the Fox Grandeur process in 1929–1930, earlier processes are not compatible with Todd-AO due to differences in frame dimensions, perforations and type of soundtrack. Todd-AO actually combined the idea of 65 mm photography with frames five sprocket holes tall (also a process with a history extending back to the silent era) with 70 mm wide prints and the magnetic sound that first appeared with CinemaScope, although improved with six channels and much better fidelity. The 70 mm print adds 2.5 mm extra down each edge to accommodate some of the soundtracks. Thus the print actually carried 65 mm perforations and the 65 mm negative was contact printed directly to the 70 mm print stock, as the sprocket holes aligned.
Four lens options covered a 128, 64, 48 or 37 degree field of view. Films were shot on 65 mm negative and the images printed onto 70 mm print stock (5 mm larger to accommodate soundtracks) for projection. The aspect ratio of this format was 2.20:1.
65 mm photography and 70 mm printing became a standard adopted by others. Super Panavision 70 (essentially the Panavision company's version of Todd-AO) and Ultra Panavision 70 (the same mechanically, but with a slight 1.25:1 anamorphic squeeze to accommodate extremely wide aspect ratio images) are both 65/70 processes. Other processes creating 70 mm prints conform to the Todd-AO print format.
The Soviet film industry also copied Todd-AO with their own Sovscope 70 process, identical, except that both the camera and print stock were 70 mm wide.
The original version of the Todd-AO process used a frame rate of 30 frames per second, faster than the 24 frames per second that was (and is) the standard. The difference does not seem great, but the sensitivity of the human eye to flickering declines steeply with frame rate and the small adjustment gave the film noticeably less flicker, and made it steadier and smoother than standard processes. The original system generated an image that was "almost twice as intense as any ever seen onscreen before, and so hot that the film has to be cooled as it passes through the Todd-AO projector."
Only the first two Todd-AO films, Oklahoma! and Around the World in Eighty Days employed 30 frames per second photography. Because of the need for conventional versions at 24 frames per second, every scene of the former film was shot twice in succession: once in Todd-AO and once in 35 mm CinemaScope. The later film was shot with two 65mm TODD-AO cameras simultaneously, the speed of the second camera was 24 frames per second for wide release as optical reduction prints. . All subsequent Todd-AO films were shot at 24 frames per second on a 65 mm negative and optically printed to 35 mm film as needed for standard distribution. In all, around 16 feature films were shot in Todd-AO.
Todd-AO was developed and tested in Buffalo, New York at the Regent Theatre. Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II went there to see Todd-AO test footage, which led them to approve its use for Oklahoma!. Ampex Corporation engineers were in charge of developing the Todd-AO sound system. Ampex would later go on to manufacture the sound system, including selectable 4-track composite (CinemaScope) or six-track composite (Todd-AO) or four-track interlocked or six-track interlocked or optical sound sources.
The Todd-AO Company also offered a 35 mm anamorphic process technically similar to 35 mm Panavision or CinemaScope. This may cause some confusion if a Todd-AO credit (not necessarily the more specific Todd-AO 35 credit) appears in some widescreen films made in the 1970s and 1980s. It becomes even more confusing as 70 mm prints were made for films which, unlike earlier pictures made in the process, were shown in multiplexes, like Dune and Logan's Run.
During the late 1970s through the early 1990s 65 mm photography such as that used in processes like Todd-AO or Super Panavision became rare. However, some major films had 70 mm prints made by blowup from 35 mm negatives mostly for the benefit of six-track sound. These prints would typically play only in a few theatres in a few large cities while everyone else viewed the film in 35 mm. The advent of multichannel digital sound in the 1990s obviated these very expensive prints. "Blow-up" 70 mm prints also followed the Todd-AO layout, although in the case of films made with a 1.85:1 aspect ratio, it was retained in the 70 mm version, with the sides of the 70 mm frame left black.
Curved screen vs. flat
While Todd-AO was intended to be "Cinerama out of one hole", the extreme wide angle photography and projection onto a very deeply curved screen (which is what that would imply) saw little use. Most Todd-AO theatre installations had only moderately curved screens and the extreme wide angle camera lenses were used only on a few shots here and there. Todd-AO films made after 1958 used a conventional flat widescreen, and resembled ordinary films, except for their greater clarity and six-track stereo sound. A variation on Todd-AO called Dimension 150 did, however, make use of Cinerama-like deeply curved screens. Only two films were made in Dimension 150 – The Bible: In the Beginning, directed by John Huston, and Patton, starring George C. Scott. In some venues, however, Todd-AO and Dimension 150 films received their first run in Cinerama theatres in order that they be shown on a deeply curved screen – such as the first Atlanta, Georgia showings of The Sound of Music.
Todd-AO and roadshows
Todd-AO films were closely associated with what was called roadshow exhibition. At the time, before multiplex theatres became common, most films opened at a large single screen theatre in the downtown area of each large city before eventually moving on to neighborhood theatres. With the roadshow concept, a film would play, often in 70 mm at a movie palace downtown theatre exclusively, sometimes for a year or more. Often a "hard ticket" policy was in effect, with tickets sold for specific numbered seats, and limited showings per day. Most Todd-AO films through the late 1960s, including Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines and The Sound of Music, were initially shown on a roadshow basis.
In some US cities, individual theaters were converted for use in the 1950s as dedicated Todd-AO "Cinestage" showplaces. These theaters showed exclusive roadshow engagements of Todd-AO and other 70mm films on large, deeply curved screens. They included the Rivoli Theatre in New York City, the Cinestage Theatre in Chicago, and Hunt's Cinestage Theatre in Columbus, Ohio.
The roadshow era ended in the early 1970s, although a very few films (among them Gandhi) were shown in roadshow format after that.
Todd-AO attempts 35 mm widescreen
In the 1970s, under the leadership of Dr. Richard Vetter, Todd-AO made an attempt to compete with Panavision in the 35mm motion picture camera rental market. The company built a series of anamorphic lenses in the 2.35:1 scope format, and owned a handful of camera bodies, Mitchell and Arriflex, that they would rent out with the lens package. Of the five original Planet of the Apes films, Conquest of the Planet of the Apes is the only entry filmed in Todd-AO 35 using Arriflex ARRI 35IIC cameras with lenses provided by The Carl Zeiss Group, (the other Apes pictures were filmed in Panavision).
By the 1980s, the venture was not growing and was abandoned. Eventually all of the Todd-AO cameras and lenses, both 35mm and 65mm (70mm), were sold to Cinema Products in Los Angeles. Cinema Products is now out of business.
- 1953: Todd-AO formed as a joint venture of Mike Todd and the American Optical Company for the purpose of developing and distributing a large film format presentation system incorporating a wide, curved screen with multi-channel sound.
- 1986: Acquired Glen Glenn Sound.
- 1994: Acquired Film-Video Masters, Inc.
- 1999: Todd-AO was acquired by Liberty Media Group and became part of its Liberty Livewire entity.
- 2002: Liberty Livewire was renamed Ascent Media Group.
- 2005: Ascent Media Group was spun off from owner, Liberty Media, into Discovery Holding Company.
- 2007: Discovery Holding Company announced a restructuring plan where it intended to spin off its interest in Ascent Media and combine Discovery Communications with Advance/Newhouse Communications into a new holding company. The reorganization was completed on September 17, 2008.
- 2007: The Todd-AO Scoring Stage closed.
- 2008: What had previously existed as the "Creative Sound Services" division of Ascent Media Group was spun off from Discovery Holding Company to create CSS Studios, LLC, which became a wholly owned subsidiary of Discovery Communications. This transaction included the assets of Todd-AO, Soundelux, Sound One, POP Sound, Modern Music, Soundelux Design Music Group and The Hollywood Edge.
- 2012: CSS Studios, LLC was acquired by Empire Investment Holdings
Films produced in 70 mm Todd-AO
The following films were produced in the 70 mm Todd-AO format. (This list does not include films photographed in Todd-AO 35 (see above)).
- Oklahoma! (1955) – 30 frame/s (also photographed in CinemaScope for conventional distribution)
- Around the World in Eighty Days (1956) – 30 frame/s (also photographed in Todd-AO 24 frames/s and reduction-printed for conventional CinemaScope distribution)
- The Miracle of Todd-AO (1956) – 30 frame/s; short subject
- South Pacific (1958) – this and all subsequent were 24 frame/s
- The March of Todd-AO (1958) – short subject
- Porgy and Bess (1959)
- Can-Can (1960)
- The Alamo (1960)
- Cleopatra (1963)
- Man in the 5th Dimension (1964) – NYC World's Fair short subject
- The Sound of Music (1965)
- Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines (1965)
- The Agony and the Ecstasy (1965)
- The Bible: In the Beginning (1966) – Dimension 150 variant
- Doctor Dolittle (1967)
- Star! (1968)
- Hello, Dolly! (1969)
- Krakatoa, East of Java (1969) – selected scenes (see Super Panavision 70) – presented in 70 mm Cinerama
- Airport (1970)
- Patton (1970) – Dimension 150 variant
- The Last Valley (1971)
- Baraka (1992)
|2013||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing - Comedy Or Drama Series||Nominated||Game Of Thrones: And Now His Watch Is Ended||Mathew Waters, Onnalee Blank, Ronan Hill|
|2013||Emmy Award||Sound Editing - Series||Nominated||Game Of Thrones: And Now His Watch Is Ended||Tim Kimmel, Paula Fairfield, Jed M. Dodge, Bradley C. Katona, David Klotz, Brett Voss, Jeffrey Wilhoit, James Moriana|
|2013||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing - Comedy Or Drama Series||Nominated||Mad Men: The Flood||Ken Teaney, Alec St. John, Peter Bentley|
|2013||Emmy Award||Sound Editing - Series||Nominated||Nikita: Aftermath||George Haddad, Ruth Adelman, Chad J. Hughes,
Steve Papagiannis, Dale Chaloukian, Ashley Revell,
James M. Bailey
|2013||CAS Award||Sound Mixing - Television Series||Nominated||'Game Of Thrones: Blackwater'||Onnalee Blank, Mathew Waters, Ronan Hill and Brett Voss|
|2013||CAS Award||Sound Mixing - Television Series||Nominated||Mad Men: Commissions and Fees||Ken Teaney, Alec St. John, Peter Bentley|
|2012||Emmy Award||Sound Editing - Series||Nominated||CSI: Miami: Blown Away||Timothy I. Kimmel, Brad Katona, Ruth Adelman, Todd Niesen, Skye Lewin, Joseph Sabella and James Bailey|
|2012||Emmy Award||Sound Editing - Series||Won||'Game Of Thrones: Blackwater'||Peter Brown, Kira Roessler, Tim Hands,
Paul Aulicino, Stephen P. Robinson, Vanessa Lapato,
Brett Voss, James Moriana, Jeffrey Wilhoit,
|2012||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing - Comedy Or Drama Series||Won||'Game Of Thrones: Blackwater'||Mathew Waters, Onnalee Blank, Ronan Hill, Mervyn Moore|
|2012||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing - Comedy Or Drama Series||Nominated||Entourage: The End||Tom Stasinis, Dennis Kirk, Todd Orr|
|2011||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing – Comedy or Drama||Won||'Family Guy: Road to the North Pole'||James F. Fitzpatrick, Patrick Clark|
|2011||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing – Comedy or Drama||Nominated||Mad Men: The Suitcase||Ken Teaney, Todd Orr, Peter Bentley|
|2011||Emmy Award||Sound Editing – Series||Nominated||Nikita: Pandora||George Haddad, Dale Chaloukian, Ruth Adelman,
Chad J. Hughes, Ashley Revell,
James Bailey, Joseph T. Sabella
|2011||Emmy Award||Sound Editing – Series||Nominated||CSI: NY: Life Sentence'||Mark Relyea, Edmund Lachmann, David Barbee,
Ruth Adelman, Kevin McCullough, Joshua Winget,
Joseph T. Sabella, James M. Bailey
|2010||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing – Miniseries or Movie||Won||The Pacific: Part Two||Michael Minkler, Daniel Leahy, Andrew Ramage|
|2010||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing – Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||The Pacific: Part Five||Michael Minkler, Daniel Leahy, Craig Mann, Andrew Ramage|
|2010||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing – Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||'The Pacific: Part Eight||Michael Minkler, Daniel Leahy, Marc Fishman, Gary Wilkins|
|2010||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing – Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||The Pacific: Part Nine'||Michael Minkler, Daniel Leahy, and Gary Wilkins|
|2010||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing – Comedy or Drama Series||Won||Entourage: One Car, Two Car, Red Car, Blue Car'||Tom Stasinis CAS, Dennis Kirk, Alec St. John
|2010||CAS Award||Sound Mixing - Television Series||Won||Mad Men: Guy Walks Into an Advertising Agency||Ken Teaney, Todd Orr, Peter Bentley|
|2009||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing – Comedy or Drama||Won||Entourage: Pie||Tom Stasinis CAS, Dennis Kirk and Bill Jackson|
|2009||Emmy Award||Sound Editing – Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Mascara||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke, Joseph Sabella and James Bailey|
|2008||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing, Miniseries or Movie||Won||John Adams: Don't Tread On Me||Marc Fishman and Tony Lamberti|
|2008||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing, Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||'John Adams: Join Or Die'||Michael Minkler and Bob Beemer|
|2008||Emmy Award||Sound Editing – Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Fight Night||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke, Chad Hughes, Joseph Sabella, Zane Bruce|
|2008||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing – Comedy or Drama||Nominated||Entourage: Adios Amigo||Dennis Kirk and Bill Jackson|
|2007||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing – Comedy or Drama (half-hour)||Won||Entourage: One Day In The Valley||Dennis Kirk and Mark Fleming|
|2007||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing Comedy or Drama (one-hour)||Won||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Living Doll||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith|
|2007||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing Comedy or Drama (one-hour)||Nominated||The Sopranos: Stage 5||Kevin Burns and Todd Orr|
|2007||Emmy Award||Sound Editing – Series||Nominated||CSI: Miami: No Man's Land||Tim Kimmel, Ruth Adelman, Todd Niesen,
Bradley C. Katona, Skye Lewin,
Zane Bruce, Joseph Sabella
|2006||Emmy Award||Single-camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: A Bullet Runs Through It||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith|
|2006||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: A Bullet Runs Through It: Part 1||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Mark Allen, Zane Bruce, Troy Hardy, Joseph Sabella, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Won||The Life and Death of Peter Sellers||Anna MacKenzie, Victoria Brazier, Felicity Cottrell, Zack Davis, Richard Ford, Tim Hands, Laura Lovejoy, James Mather, Geoff Rubay, Ruth Sullivan|
|2005||Emmy Award||Sound Editing - Series||Nominated||CSI: Miami: Lost Son||Ruth Adelman, Zane Bruce, Ann Hadsell, Bradley C. Katona, Skye Lewin, Todd Nieson, Joseph Sabella|
|2005||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Down the Drain||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Zane Bruce, Christine Luethje, Todd Nieson, Joseph Sabella, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke|
|2005||Emmy Award||Single-camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Down the Drain||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Won||Warm Springs||Adam Jenkins and Rick Ash|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||The Life and Death of Peter Sellers||Adam Jenkins and Rick Ash|
|2005||Emmy Award||Outstanding Single-Camera Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||Lackawanna Blues||Adam Jenkins and Rick Ash|
|2004||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Nominated||And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself||Tony Lamberti, Zack Davis, Lou Kleinman, Michael Lyle, Carey Milbradt, Allan K. Rosen, Geoffrey G. Rubay, Bruce Tanis, Karen Vassar, Nicholas Viterelli, Dave Williams, Joshua Winget|
|2004||Emmy Award||Single-camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Grissom vs. The Volcano||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith|
|2004||Emmy Award||Single-camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: Irregular Around The Margins||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|2004||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||Traffic: Part 1||Marc Fishman, Tony Lamberti, Kevin Burns]]|
|2004||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||Something the Lord Made||Adam Jenkins and Rick Ash|
|2003||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Series||Won||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Fight Night||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Zane Bruce, Sheri Ozeki, Joseph Sabella, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke|
|2003||Emmy Award||Single-camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||"CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Revenge Is Best Served Cold"||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith]]|
|2003||Emmy Award||Single-camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: Whoever Did This||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|2003||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for Miniseries or Movie||Won||Live From Baghdad||Adam Jenkins, Rick Ash, Drew Webster|
|2003||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||The Music Man||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|2003||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||A Painted House||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|2002||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Chasing the Bus||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Zane Bruce, Sheri Ozeki, Joe Sabella, Jivan Tahmizian, David Van Slyke|
|2002||Emmy Award||Single-camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: Another Toothpick||Yuri Reese and Bill Smith|
|2002||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||Band of Brothers: Carentan||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|2001||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Series||Nominated||CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: 35K OBO||Mace Matiosian, Ruth Adelman, Zane Bruce,
Stan Jones, Joe Sabella, Jivan Tahmizian,
David Van Slyke
|2001||Emmy Award||Single-camera Sound Mixing for a Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: D-Girl||Todd Orr, Kevin Burns, Fred Tator|
|2001||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||South Pacific||Rick Ash, Joe Earle, Joel Moss|
|2001||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||Dirty Pictures||Todd Orr, Kevin Burns, Tom Perry|
|2000||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Series||Nominated||The Others: Eyes||Mace Matiosian, Harry Cohen, Ruth Adelman,
Mike Broomberg, Zane Bruce, Diane Griffen,
Jivan Tahmizian, Guy Tsujimoto
|2000||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for a Drama Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: D-Girl||Todd Orr, Kevin Burns, Tom Perry|
|1999||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Series||Nominated||Buffy The Vampire Slayer: Lover's Walk||Anna MacKenzie, Mike Marchain, William Angarola,Fernand Bos, Zane Bruce, Mark Cleary, Robert Guastini Rick Hinson, Cindy Rabideau, Joe Sabella, Ray Spiess, Jr.|
|1999||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: I Dream Of Jeannie Cusamano||Anna MacKenzie, Mike Marchain, William Angarola,
Benjamin Beardwood, Zane Bruce, Mark, Kathryn Dayak,
Robert Guastini, Rick Hinson, Cindy Rabideau,
Joe Sabella, Ray Spiess, Jr., Bruce Swanson]]
|1999||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for a Drama Series||Nominated||The Sopranos: A Hit Is A Hit||Todd Orr, Ron Evans, Adam Sawelson|
|1999||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||A Soldier's Sweetheart||Anna MacKenzie, Mike Marchain, William Angarola, Ron Finn, Robert Guastini, Rick Hinson, Jason Lezama, Chris Moriana, Cindy Rabideau, Catherine Rose, Raymond Spiess III, Ray Spiess Jr.|
|1999||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||Houdini||Anna MacKenzie, Mike Marchain, Skip Adams,
William Angarola, Zane Bruce, Robert Guastini,
Rick Hinson, Cindy Rabideau, Joe Sabella, vRay Spiess, Jr., Jeanette Surga
|1998||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Series||Nominated||The Visitor: Pilot||Anna MacKenzie, William Angarola, Michael Broomberg, Mark J. Cleary, Robert Guastini, Rick Hinson, Jimmy Moriana, Cindy Rabideau, Jay Richardson, Raymond Spiess III, Ray Spiess Jr.|
|1998||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for a MiniSeries||Nominated||A Lesson Before Dying||Rich Ash and Gary Alexander|
|1998||Emmy Award||Sound Editing Miniseries or Movie||Nominated||Creature||Anna MacKenzie, Mike Marchain, William Angarola, Steve Bissinger, Mark J. Cleary, Robert Guastini, Ellen Heuer, Rick Hinson, Jason Lezama, Aaron Martin, Craig Ng, Cindy Rabideau, Raymond Spiess III, Ray Spiess Jr.|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Movie||Won||12 Angry Men||Adam Jenkins and David E. Fluhr|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||From The Earth To The Moon: Le Voyage Dans La Lune||Todd Orr and Kevin Burns|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||From The Earth To The Moon: 1968||Scott Millan and Brad Sherman|
|1998||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Movie||Nominated||From The Earth To The Moon: That's All There Is||Rich Ash and Adam Sawelson|
|1997||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama Miniseries or a Special||Won||Titanic||Adam Jenkins, Don Digirolamo, Davide E. Fluhr|
|1997||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for a Drama MiniSeries||Nominated||Apollo 11||Todd Orr, Kevin Burns, Jon Taylor|
|1997||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing||Won||Flipper||Jon Taylor, Kevin Burns and Todd Orr|
|1996||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Mixing||Won||Flipper||Kevin Burns, Jon Taylor and Chris Minkler|
|1993||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for a Comedy Series or a Special||Won||Doogie Howser, M.D.: Doogie Got a Gun|
|1992||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for a Comedy Series or a Special||Won||Doogie Howser, M.D.: Lonesome Doog|
|1992||Emmy Award||Sound Editing for a Series||Won||Law & Order: Heaven|
|1991||Emmy Award||Sound Mixing for a Comedy Series or a Special||Won||Doogie Howser, M.D.: Doogenstein|
|1987||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries or a Special||Won||Unnatural Causes|
|1987||Emmy Award||Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series||Won||Max Headroom: Blipverts|
|1985||Emmy Award||Outstanding Live And Tape Sound Mixing And Sound Effects For A Series||Won||Cheers: The Executive's Executioner|
|1985||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing For A Limited Series Or A Special||Won||Space: Part 5|
|1985||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing For A Series||Won||Cagney & Lacey: Heat|
|1984||Emmy Award||Outstanding Live and Tape Sound Mixin and Sound Effects for a Series||Won||Real People: Hawaii Show - Sarah's Wedding|
|1984||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing for a Limited Series or a Special||Won||A Streetcar Named Desire|
|1983||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing for a Limited Series or a Special||Won||The Scarlet and the Black|
|1983||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Editing for a Series||Won||Hill Street Blues: Stan the Man|
|1982||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing||Won||Hill Street Blues: Personal Foul|
|1980||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing||Won||The Ordeal of Dr. Mudd|
|1979||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Editing||Won||Friendly Fire|
|1970||Emmy Award||Outstanding Film Sound Mixing||Won||Mission: Impossible|
- 70 mm film
- Glen Glenn Sound
- List of 70 mm films
- List of film formats
- Super Panavision 70
- Super Technirama 70
- Ultra Panavision 70
- "Cinema: The New Pictures". Time. October 29, 1956. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- Kurtti, Jeff (1996). The great movie musical trivia book (1. print. ed.). New York: Applause. p. 163. ISBN 9781557832221. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Cinema Treasures | Atlanta Theatre
- "Rivoli Theatre". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
- "Cinestage Theatre". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
- "Hunt's Cinestage Theatre". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
- http://money.cnn.com/news/newsfeeds/articles/newstex/AFX-0013-21647779.htm. Missing or empty
- Burlingame, Jon (2007-08-22). "Todd-AO's fate could impact scoring". Variety.
- "Empire Investment Holdings Acquires CSS Studios" (Press release). CreativeCOW.net. September 25, 2012. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
- Todd-AO official site
- Internet Movie Database listing of films shot in Todd-AO
- Todd-AO information from in70 mm.com
- WideScreen Museum history of Todd-AO
- Todd: "Cinerama outa one hole"
- Journal of Film Preservation N° 56 on page 19:
- The history of the Todd-AO projector, known as the DP70