List of mammals of Poland

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This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Poland. There are 112 mammal species in Poland recorded in historic times, of which 0 are critically endangered, 5 are endangered, 11 are vulnerable, and 4 are near-threatened. 3 of the species listed for Poland can no longer be found in the wild or is extinct completely.[1]

The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the IUCN:

EX Extinct No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.
EW Extinct in the wild Known only to survive in captivity or as a naturalized populations well outside its previous range.
CR Critically Endangered The species is in imminent risk of extinction in the wild.
EN Endangered The species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
VU Vulnerable The species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
NT Near Threatened The species does not meet any of the criteria that would categorise it as risking extinction but it is likely to do so in the future.
LC Least Concern There are no current identifiable risks to the species.
DD Data Deficient There is inadequate information to make an assessment of the risks to this species.

Some species were assessed using an earlier set of criteria. Species assessed using this system have the following instead of Near Threatened and Least Concern categories:

LR/cd Lower Risk/conservation dependent Species which were the focus of conservation programmes and may have moved into a higher risk category if that programme was discontinued.
LR/nt Lower Risk/near threatened Species which are close to being classified as Vulnerable but are not the subject of conservation programmes.
LR/lc Lower Risk/least concern Species for which there are no identifiable risks.

† species extinct in Poland and not reintroduced ♠ sporadic vagrant, no records of breeding in the Polish territory ♣ alien species, introduced in Europe from the other part of the world, or introduced in Poland from the other country

Subclass: Theria[edit]

Infraclass: Eutheria[edit]

Order: Rodentia (rodents)[edit]


Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be keep short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).

Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)[edit]


The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early twentieth century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

Order: Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures)[edit]


The order Erinaceomorpha contains a single family, Erinaceidae, which comprise the hedgehogs and gymnures. The hedgehogs are easily recognised by their spines while gymnures look more like large rats.

Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and soledons)[edit]


The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mmmals. The shrews and soledons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout bodied burrowers.

Order: Chiroptera (bats)[edit]


The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

Order: Cetacea (whales)[edit]


The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

Order: Carnivora (carnivorans)[edit]


There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which feed primarily on meat. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

Order: Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates)[edit]


The odd-toed ungulates are browsing and grazing mammals. They are usually large to very large, and have relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe.

Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)[edit]


The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This list is derived from the IUCN Red List which lists species of mammals and includes those mammals that have recently been classified as extinct (since 1500 AD); however the list was supported by respective Polish and international publications, focusing on mammalogy. The taxonomy and naming of the individual species is based on those used in existing Wikipedia articles as of 21 May 2007 and supplemented by the common names and taxonomy from the IUCN, Smithsonian Institute, or University of Michigan where no Wikipedia article was available.

References[edit]

  • "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Mammals of Poland". IUCN. 2001. Retrieved 22 May 2007. [dead link]
  • "Mammal Species of the World". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2007. 
  • "Animal Diversity Web". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. 1995–2006. Retrieved 22 May 2007. 
  • Baraniak E., Kubasik W., Pałka K. 1998. Smużka stepowa Sicista subtilis (Pallas, 1773) (Rodentia: Zapodidae) – nowy gatunek ssaka w faunie Polski. Przegląd Zoologiczny 42 (2): 241-243.
  • Bogdanowicz W., Ruprecht A. L. 1987 Przypadki stwierdzeń szopa pracza Procoyon lotor (Linnaeus, 1758) w Polsce. Przegląd Zoologiczny 31 (3): 375-383
  • Carleton M., Musser G., Pavlinov I. 2003. Myodes Pallas, 1811, is the valid name for the genus of red-backed voles. W: A. O. Averianov, N. I. Abramson (red.) Systematics, Phylogeny and Paleontology of Small Mammals. An International Conference Devoted to the 90th Anniversary of Prof. I. M. Gromov. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute, Saint Petersburg: 96-98.
  • Mitchell-Jones A. J., Amori G., Bogdanowicz W., Kryštufek B., Reinjders P. J. H., Spitzenberger F., Stubbe M., Thissen J. B. M., Vohralik V., Zima J. 1999. The Atlas of European Mammals. Academic Press, London.
  • Niermann I., Biedermann M., Bogdanowicz W., Brinkmann R., Le Bris Y., Ciechanowski M., Dietz C., Dietz I., Estók P., Helversen O. v., Le Houédec A., Paksuz S., Petrov B. P., Özkan B., Piksa K., Rachwald A., Roué S. Y., Sachanowicz K., Schorcht W., Tereba A., Mayer F. 2007. Biogeography of the recently described Myotis alcathoe von Helversen and Heller, 2001. Acta Chiropterologica 9: 361-378.
  • Pucek Z. 1981. Key to vertebrates of Poland. Mammals. Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa.
  • Sachanowicz, K., Ciechanowski M., Piksa K. 2006. Distribution patterns, species richness and status of bats in Poland. Vespertilio 9-10: 151-173. http://www.ceson.org/vespertilio/9_10/Sachanowicz.pdf

See also[edit]